Bihar is state in eastern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2; the third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh and Bhojpur. On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state. In ancient and classical India, the area, now Bihar was considered a centre of power and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.
Another region of Bihar is Mithila, an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company; the state government has, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, a reduction in crime and corruption; the name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word vihāra, meaning "abode". The region encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods.
Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya. Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age. Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India. Mithila gained prominence after establishment of the Videha Kingdom in Āryāvarta. During the late Vedic period, Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla; the kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, written by Valmiki; the Videha Kingdom became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.
The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha; the two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which became the capital of Magadha, he conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty; the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab. The Nanda dynasty was replaced by India's first empire; the Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, born in Magadha, it had its capital at Pataliputra. The Mauryan emperor, born in Pataliputra is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world; the Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, astronomy, commerce and Indian philosophy.
Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed, it was claimed. D. N. Jha suggests, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After fall of Pala Empire, Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from 12th century to 16th century till Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital. From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties; the first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shi
A panchānga is a Hindu calendar and almanac, which follows traditional units of Hindu timekeeping, presents important dates and their calculations in a tabulated form. It is sometimes spelled Pancanga, Panchaanga, or Panchānga, is pronounced Panchānga. Pachangas are used in Jyotisha. In Eastern India, including Assam, Odisha the Panchangam is referred to as Panjika. Panchāngams are published in India by many authors, societies and universities. Different publications differ only at least for a casual or not yet trained reader, they forecast celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, forecasting weather as well as more mundane occurrences. The study of Panchāngams involves understanding Rasi phala, the impact of the signs of the zodiac on the individual. Astrologers consult the Panchāngam to set auspicious dates for weddings, corporate mergers, other activities as per their religion; the casting of a Panchāngam involves elaborate mathematical work involving high level of spherical geometry and sound understanding of astronomical phenomena, such as sidereal movements of heavenly bodies.
However, in practice the tabulation is done on the basis of short-cut formulations as propounded by ancient Vedic sages and scholars. William James, American Author "From the Vedas, we learn a practical art of surgery, music, house building under which mechanized art is included, they are encyclopedia of every aspect of life, religion, ethics, law and meteorology. Emmelin Plunret in'Calendars and Constellations' "They were advanced Hindu astronomers in BC. Vedas contain an account of the dimension of Earth, Moon and Galaxies." Will Durant "It is true that across the Himalayan barrier India has sent to the west, such gifts as grammar and logic and fables, hypnotism and chess, above all numerals and the decimal system." A typical Panchāngam may state tabulations of positions of Sun and other planets for every day of the year on a fixed place and time of day. The users calculate the remaining data using their relative difference from this fixed place and time. There are several panchāngas. There is one Vishvavijaya Panchāngam.
The theories propounded in the two scriptures, Surya Siddhanta and Grahalaghava formed the basis for the myriad calendars or Panchāngas in the past in different regions of India. The Grahalaghava was compiled about 600 years ago and Surya Siddhanta was available long before that; these had become outdated and did not tally with actual astronomical events and did not tally with each other. Hence, a committee was appointed by the Government of India with experts in the field drawn from various parts of the country who were involved with preparation of Panchāngam in local languages to draw up a reliable Panchāngam in which the mathematical calculations provides the positions of grahas and nakshatras in the sky as they are observed. Thus, the Government of India has prepared the National Panchānga or the Indian national calendar in 1957, used in predictive astrology; the Lahiris Ephemeris published annually is the most used English almanac in Vedic astrology apart from the many Panchāngas published in local languages, which are based on the National Panchānga.
Accuracy of attributes depending upon the Moon's motions were considered most crucial for the reliability of a panchāngam, because the Moon is the fastest among all heavenly entities shown in traditional panchāngas. Tithi, Nakshatra, Rāśi, Karana depend upon Moon's motions, which are five in number. Panchānga is a Sanskrit word meaning "having five limbs". If these five limbs, for example, the five attributes depending upon Moon, are accurate, an almanac is held to be reliable, because other elements are not so difficult to compute due to their slow rates of change. There are three popular meanings of panchāngam: 1. In Vedic astrology, meaning "five attributes" of the day, they are: Tithi - Ending Moment of elongation of the Moon, the lunar day, the angular relationship between Sun and Moon. One Tithi equals 12 degree difference between Sun. Nakshatra - EM of astarism of the day, that is, the stellar mansion in which Moon is located for an observer at the center of the Earth. One Nakshatra equals 13 degrees:20 minutes.
There are 27 Nakshatra in 360 degrees. Yoga - EM of the angular relationship between Sun and Moon. One Yoga equals 13 degrees:20 minutes. There are 27 Yogas in 360 degrees. Karana - EM of half of a Tithi. One Karaṇa equals 6 degree difference between Sun. Var weekday the seven weekdays. Monier-Williams gives "solar day" instead of Rāśi as the fifth limb; some people enumerate Vār instead. Vār or solar days do not involve intricate computations, unlike EM of Rāśi. 2. An almanac that contains the astronomical / astrological daily details came to be called a panchāngam because of the importance of five attributes. 3. Panchānga-pūjan, a part of Ganesh-Ambika-pūjan. In Vedic Astrology, the basic tenet of astrology was integrated with celestial events and thus was born various branches of Vedic Astrology and the Panchānga. In simple terms, “ Panchānga” means the Day, Thithi and Karana every day, it is
Goa is a state on the south-western coast of India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, separated from the Deccan highlands of the state of Karnataka by the Western Ghats. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast, it is the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country, it was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators. Panaji is the state's capital; the historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese province. Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture.
It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Govapuri and Gomantak. Other historical names for Goa are Sindapur and Mahassapatam. Prehistory Rock art engravings found in Goa exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India. Goa, situated within the Shimoga-Goa Greenstone Belt in the Western Ghats, yields evidence for Acheulean occupation. Rock art engravings are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing Kushavati river and in Kajur. In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals and other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre. Petroglyphs, stone-axe, choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in various locations in Goa, including Kazur and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. Evidence of Palaeolithic life is visible at Dabolim, Shigao, Arli, Diwar, Sanguem and Aquem-Margaon.
Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period. Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture. Early History In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur, Western Kshatrapas, the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris; the rule passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas.
Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa. In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate; the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Portuguese period In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya, they set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961; the Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, was abolished in 1812.
In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits; the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory. Contemporary period After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2, it lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats
Odisha is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres of coastline along the Bay of Bengal from Balasore to Ganjam, it is the 9th largest state by area, the 11th largest by population. It is the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia is the official and most spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census. The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha; the modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Odisha Day. The region is known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c.
1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha; the term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, dated to 1025. Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha; the inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya. The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa Bill, 2010 and the Constitution Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010. On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament passed the bill and the amendment. Prehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans.
Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar people of Odisha have been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed tribal traditions. Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, the eighth year of his reign. According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected; the resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have affected Ashoka. He converted to Buddhism. By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler, he built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Shashanka, it was a part of Harsha's empire. The kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom.
Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri, Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple; the Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal, they agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had died. But, they broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh pacified the region. Orissa was the first subah added to Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan, it had Cuttack as seat and bordered Bihar and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent and tributary chiefs.
From 1717, the Orissa and Bihar governors were reduced to deputies of the Nawab of the pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah. In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the Maratha Empire; the British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War; the northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency. The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths. Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912, the Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936, Orissa were split into separate provinces; the new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as
Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast and Diu to the south and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west, its capital city is Gandhinagar. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state; the economy of Gujarat is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.96 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹157,000. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.
Along with Bihar and Nagaland, Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Present-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, meaning the land of the Gurjaras who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation, it contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was; the ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat; the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.
There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime, he built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas.
The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history; the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps; the greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century AD. The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods.
The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka state, he shifted his capital from Giringer near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University, it was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang/ I Tsing visited in 640 along the Silk Road. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages; the oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century.
In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam, which stretched
Purnima is the Indian and Nepali word for full moon, while in Indonesian it is known as Purnama. The day of Purnima is the day in each month when the full moon occurs, marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights. A full moon occurs when the Sun and the Moon appear separated by 180°; this lunar day is the considered auspicious for new beginnings. The Shukla Paksha is the fortnight before, the Krishna Paksha is the fortnight after Purnima; this lunar phase lasts only for a while, when the Sun and the Moon are aligned in a straight line, called a syzygy of the Sun–Earth–Moon system. Full moon is considered the third of the four primary phases of the Moon; the full moon shows 100% illumination, causes high tides, can concur with lunar eclipses. The following festivals occur on Purnima. Kartik Poornima, is celebrated on the full moon day of Kartik of Nepali Calendar, it is called Tripura Purnima. Shravan Poornima, is the full moon day in Shravan; this day has a number of different names.
Hayagriva Jayanti is celebrated on Shravana Purnima. It is known as Narali Purnima Vat Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Jyeshta. Women pray for their husbands by tying threads around a banyan tree on this day, it honors the legendary wife of Satyavan who escaped death for her husband's life. It is the chosen day for worshipping Yama deva Guru Purnima, devotees offer puja to their Guru, on a full moon day; this is well known as Vyasa Purnima after the birthday of the celebrated author of Mahabharata, declared as the guru of all in the Shiva Purana. Sharad Purnima or Kojagiri purnima, the Autumn Harvest Festival, on a full moon day. Buddha Poornima, the day of birth and passing away of Gautama Buddha, on a full moon day. Holi/Phalgun Purnima, the Spring Festival of Colours in Hinduism/Buddhism/Jainism, the full moon day in Phalgun. Dattātreya Jayanti is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Margashira Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated on the full mon of the lunar month Chaitra.
However, this is celebrated on different days in different states. While Orissa celebrates this as Vaisakha Sankranti, Andhra Pradesh celebrates Vaisakha shukla paksha dashami, Kerala celebrates it in a previous month Margashira Amavasya coinciding with Mula Nakshatra. Chaitra Purnima is the chosen day for donation of rice to please Moon god. Shakambhari Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Pausha Madhu Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Bhaadra. On this day Uma Maheswara Vrata as well as Shakra Vrata where Indra is worshiped for children and well-being. Satyanarayan Puja vrata is observed on all full moon days Get Purnima vrat dates 2018 more information about full moon and guru Purnima. Introduction to the Hindu Calendar
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim