In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude. At this phase, the lunar disk is not visible to the unaided eye, except when silhouetted during a solar eclipse. Daylight outshines the earthlight; the actual phase is a thin crescent. The original meaning of the term new moon, still sometimes used in non-astronomical contexts, is the first visible crescent of the Moon after conjunction with the Sun; this thin waxing crescent is and faintly visible as the Moon gets lower in the westerly sky after sunset. A lunation, or synodic month, is the average time from one new moon to the next. In the J2000.0 epoch, the average length of a lunation is 29.530588 days. However, the length of any one synodic month can vary from 29.26 to 29.80 days due to the perturbing effects of the Sun's gravity on the Moon's eccentric orbit. In a lunar calendar, each month corresponds to one lunation; each lunar cycle can be assigned a unique lunation number to identify it.
The length of a lunation is about 29.53 days. Its precise duration is linked to many phenomena in nature, such as the variation between spring and neap tides. An approximate formula to compute the mean moments of new moon for successive months is: d = 5.597661 + 29.5305888610 × N + × N 2 where N is an integer, starting with 0 for the first new moon in the year 2000, and, incremented by 1 for each successive synodic month. To obtain this moment expressed in Universal Time, add the result of following approximate correction to the result d obtained above: − 0.000739 − × N 2 daysPeriodic perturbations change the time of true conjunction from these mean values. For all new moons between 1601 and 2401, the maximum difference is 0.592 days = 14h13m in either direction. The duration of a lunation varies in this period between 29.272 and 29.833 days, i.e. −0.259d = 6h12m shorter, or +0.302d = 7h15m longer than average. This range is smaller than the difference between mean and true conjunction, because during one lunation the periodic terms cannot all change to their maximum opposite value.
See the article on the full moon cycle for a simple method to compute the moment of new moon more accurately. The long-term error of the formula is approximately: 1 cy2 seconds in TT, 11 cy2 seconds in UT The moment of mean conjunction can be computed from an expression for the mean ecliptical longitude of the Moon minus the mean ecliptical longitude of the Sun. Jean Meeus gave formulae to compute this in his Astronomical Formulae for Calculators based on the ephemerides of Brown and Newcomb; these are now outdated: Chapront et al. published improved parameters. Meeus's formula uses a fractional variable to allow computation of the four main phases, uses a second variable for the secular terms. For the convenience of the reader, the formula given above is based on Chapront's latest parameters and expressed with a single integer variable, the following additional terms have been added: constant term: Like Meeus, apply the constant terms of the aberration of light for the Sun's motion and light-time correction for the Moon to obtain the apparent difference in ecliptical longitudes:Sun: +20.496" Moon: −0.704" Correction in conjunction: −0.000451 daysFor UT: at 1 January 2000, ΔT was +63.83 s.
The term includes a tidal contribution of 0.5×. The most current estimate from Lunar Laser Ranging for the acceleration is:"/cy2. Therefore, the new quadratic term of D is = -6.8498"T2. Indeed, the polynomial provided by Chapront et alii provides the same value; this translates to a correction of +14.622×10−12N2 days to the time of conjunction. For UT: analysis of historical observations shows that ΔT has a long-term increase of +31 s/cy2. Converted to days and lunations, the correction from ET to UT becomes:−235×10−12N2 days; the theoretical tidal contribution to ΔT is about +42 s/cy2 the smaller observed value is thought to be due to changes in the shape of the Earth. Because the discrepancy is not explained, uncertainty of our prediction of UT may be as large as the difference between these values: 11 s/cy2; the error in the position of the Moon itself is only maybe 0.5"/cy2, or (because the apparent mean angular veloc
"Everytime I Cry" is a song written by Bob Regan and Karen Staley, recorded by Canadian country music artist Terri Clark. It was released in January 1999 as the third single from her album; the song reached number 2 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in May 1999 and number 12 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. The song chronicles a woman's continuing disappointment in her ex-lover who keeps putting her heart into misery over and over again. Deborah Evans Price, of Billboard magazine reviewed the song favorably, saying that Clark gives a strong performance, she calls Stegall's production "always right on the mark." The music video was directed by Morgan Lawley and premiered in early 1999. The video shows Clark in a room with the walls around her moving closer; the video storyline interprets various forms of domestic abuse. A young boy is shown with a hamster in the cage, at the same time a man calls the house while the mother lets the phone ring, as the boy attempts to answer the phone he is denied by his mother, who advises him not to.
The mother, meanwhile is putting on makeup to cover bruises on her face. The young boy goes over to a young girl's place with the hamster in the shoebox; as she attempts to leave the house, he witnesses the girl getting verbally and physically abused by her father. The boy runs home and calls 911 to report the abuse and the young girl is taken away by Child Protective Services. After the call is made, the father is confronted by the authorities and the young boy gives the girl the hamster he intended to give her earlier as she is in the police car. Another girl is seen breaking into her parents house and stealing money from her mother's purse and is kicked out of the home after being confronted by her mother, she gets in the van with her boyfriend, seen to be her pimp. When she attempts to return home in the video, the locks on the doors are changed by her parents, she attempts to break down the door to no avail, while her parents are in fear of their daughter, who returns to her boyfriend. The video sees both families meeting in a support group for abuse victims.
The video concludes with the number for the National Domestic Violence Hotline showing on the screen. "Everytime I Cry" debuted at number 58 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of February 6, 1999. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Luis Gueilburt Talmazán is an Argentinian sculptor and writer based in Barcelona. He has exhibited his work in Reus, Mollet del Vallès, Moià and Nagoya. In the course of his academic research of Catalan modernism and Antoni Gaudí, he has written several books on the subject, his work is framed in a figurative but not realistic style, developed in various supports and materials, such as wood, stone or metal, as well as artistic installations. He studied Fine Arts at the Municipal School of Avellaneda. Between 1968 and 1978 he participated in various individual and collective exhibitions in several Latin American countries. In 1978 he settled in Barcelona, his works are in public and private collections in Spain, Argentina, Guatemala and Peru. In 1989 he made a sculpture that joined the Public Art collection of Barcelona, Euclidean or The Four Elements, located in park Les Corts, it is placed in a meandering channel that runs through the park. Made of stainless steel and ceramic on a limestone base, it is conceived as a tribute to the Greek geometer Euclid.
The work consists of four stainless steel railing circles supported by a vertical tube in the center of the diameter, in addition to several metal clamps set in the circles, which hold cylindrical ceramic pieces. Thirteen of these elements are found, which could refer to the thirteen volumes of the Euclidean treatise, where he exposes his studies on plane geometry, the geometry of space, greater magnitudes and the properties of numbers amongst others; that year he won the contest for the elaboration of a statuette awarded to the winners of the Surbisa Prize for rehabilitation in Bilbao, established in 1985. In 1992 he produced a public piece for Mollet del Vallès, Monument to Mollet Ciutat Pubilla de la Sardana, in Can Mulà park, in celebration to the city’s appointment as Capital of Sardana that year, it is a work of iron and cast stone with a legend of wrought copper and bronze, consisting of an M around one of whose legs a group of sculpted children is dancing sardana. In 2000 he made the sculpture Ribbons in Shin Kawasaki, Tokyo.
As an expert in the work of the modernist architect Antoni Gaudí, he has taught a monographic course on the life and work of Gaudí at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia since 1997. In the same center he has been in charge of the Research Line Gaudí and Catalan Modernism, the architectural and artistic style of 1900 since 1998, he has participated in courses, conferences and congresses in various universities in Spain, United States, Mexico and Argentina. Between 1993 and 2003 he directed the Center for Gaudí Studies; as a sculptor he was responsible for the restoration of some of Gaudí's works, such as the gate dragon at Güell Pavilions, commissioned by the Gaudí Chair. Between 1990 and 1998 he participated in the restoration of the Gaudí House Museum in Park Güell. With some pieces of Gaudí's works recovered from these restorations, he organized the Gaudir Gaudí exhibition with the Association of Surveyors, Technical Architects and Building Engineers of Barcelona, exhibited in Vic, Mollet del Vallès and Nagoya between 1993 and 1996.
He has carried out restorations of various sculptures and monuments, such as those of the Thomas and Lleó Morera houses by Lluís Domènech i Montaner, the Roca i Pi Monument by Torquat Tasso in Badalona, the sculptures of the Albéniz Palace and the Robert Palace in Barcelona, the Monument to Mosén Jacint Verdaguer by Joan Borrell i Nicolau and the Monument to General Geroni Galceràn i Tarrés in Les Masies de Voltregà. Some of his publications are: Ceramics in Gaudí's work, Colegio de las Teresianas de Gaudí: history and architecture, Gaudí Album, Gaudí and the Property Registry, Obradores - Obradoiros Gaudí, Hierro y Forja. 1987: Lost Universes, Art Workshop School of Diputació de Tarragona, Reus. 1987: Bibliomeca, installation in the Anar i Tornar space of the Association of Surveyors, Technical Architects and Building Engineers of Barcelona. 1988: Camí Sinuós, Berlin Center B. C. B.. 1991: Mater Materia, Gloria de Prada Gallery, Barcelona. 1993: Gaudir Gaudí, Association of Surveyors, Technical Architects and Building Engineers of Barcelona and Osona, Vic.
1994: Gaudir Gaudí, La Marineta, Mollet del Vallès. 1996: Gaudir Gaudí, Chukyo University, Japan. 2000: In praise of the Shadows, H2O Gallery, Barcelona. Lecea, Ignasi de. Art públic de Barcelona. Barcelona: Ayuntamiento de Barcelona and Àmbit Serveis Editorials. ISBN 978-84-96645-08-0
Dr. J. Butz is a music publishing house in Bonn-Beuel, focused on sacred vocal music and organ music; the publisher is the representative in Germany of English composers such as Colin Mawby, Christopher Tambling and Robert Jones. The composer, organist and pedagogue Josef Butz founded the publishing house in Bad Godesberg in 1924, first for choral music. Butz was successful until 1940 with his own compositions which were performed at Sängerbundwochen and earned prizes from broadcasters, they motets. When he refused to become a member of the NSDAP, paper supplies were first reduced withdrawn completely. After World War II, the house reopened. In 1983 the publisher moved from Bad Godesberg to Meindorf; the following year Josef Butz Jr, took over. He introduced the publication of major choral works such as masses with orchestra, as well as organ music, concentrating on German and French Romantic organ music. During the 1990s, additional genres such as solo songs and works for organ and other instruments or orchestra.
When Josef Butz Jr died in 1999, he was succeeded by organist Hans-Peter Bähr. The publisher began in 2000 to supply editions of the French publisher Éditions Publimuses in Germany and Switzerland. In 2002, the complete organ catalogue of the Belgian publisher Éditions Chantraine was added, which includes the recorded improvisations by the organist at Notre Dame de Paris, Pierre Cochereau; the complete books of the Musikwissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft were included. In 2005 the house began to publish books, they moved to Bonn-Beuel in 2008 and added music for children's choirs in 2010. Official website Dr. J. Butz Musikverlag Deutsche Musikinformationszentrum An Interview with Colin Mawby Contemporary Music Centre 1 Dec 2006
Humboldt Township is a civil township of Marquette County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 469 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 95.7 square miles, of which 93.8 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 469 people, 194 households, 142 families residing in the township; the population density was 5.0 per square mile. There were 419 housing units at an average density of 4.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 98.93% White, 1.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.85% of the population. There were 194 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.4% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.77.
In the township the population was spread out with 19.0% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 34.1% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $35,625, the median income for a family was $39,107. Males had a median income of $42,344 versus $22,292 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,872. About 6.0% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over
Jason Peake is an English retired footballer who played as a Midfielder. Born in Leicester, Peake made his professional first team debut for his hometown club, Leicester City in 1990, he spent time on loan with Hartlepool United in 1992 before joining Halifax Town that year. Two years he was signed by Rochdale and spent a productive two years there, scoring six goals in 95 league games. One year spells with Brighton & Hove Albion and Bury followed, he scored another 11 goals in 81 league appearances, but couldn't agree a new contract in the summer of 2000. He was signed by Kevin Hodges for Plymouth Argyle, his time with the Devon club was short-lived as he fell out of favour following the arrival of Paul Sturrock as the club's new manager. He scored three goals in 13 appearances, including one in a man of the match performance against Carlisle United, before being allowed to join non-league club Nuneaton Borough in December 2000, he signed for them permanently at the end of the 2000–01 season. Peake was an influential member of the squad in his first season with the club, but endured an injury-plagued 2002–03 season at Manor Park.
He was released from his contract in April 2003