Benedict Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch is an English actor who has performed in film, television and radio. A graduate of the Victoria University of Manchester, he continued his training at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, obtaining a Master of Arts in Classical Acting, he first performed at the Open Air Theatre, Regent's Park in Shakespearean productions and made his West End debut in Richard Eyre's revival of Hedda Gabler in 2005. Since he has starred in the Royal National Theatre productions After the Dance and Frankenstein. In 2015, he played William Shakespeare's Hamlet at the Barbican Theatre. Cumberbatch's television work includes appearances in Silent Witness and Fortysomething before playing Stephen Hawking in the television film Hawking in 2004, he has starred as Sherlock Holmes in the series Sherlock since 2010. He has headlined Tom Stoppard's adaptation of Parade's End, The Hollow Crown: The Wars of the Roses and Patrick Melrose. In film, Cumberbatch has starred in Amazing Grace as William Pitt the Younger, Star Trek Into Darkness as Khan, 12 Years a Slave as William Prince Ford, The Fifth Estate as Julian Assange and The Imitation Game as Alan Turing.
From 2012 to 2014, through voice and motion capture, he played the characters of Smaug and the Necromancer in The Hobbit film series. Cumberbatch portrays the Marvel Comics character Dr. Stephen Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, appearing in Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok and Avengers: Infinity War. Cumberbatch has received numerous awards and nominations for acting including three Laurence Olivier Award nominations, winning Best Actor in a Play for Frankenstein, he has received six Primetime Emmy Award nominations, winning Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for Sherlock. His performance in The Imitation Game earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. In addition, he has received seven BAFTA nominations, five Screen Actors Guild Award nominations and two Golden Globe Award nominations among others. In 2014, Time magazine included him in its annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", he was appointed with a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in June 2015 for his services to the performing arts and to charity.
Cumberbatch was born at Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital in the White City district of West London's Hammersmith and Fulham borough, to actors Timothy Carlton and Wanda Ventham. He grew up in the Royal Borough of Chelsea, he has Tracy Peacock, from his mother's first marriage. His grandfather, Henry Carlton Cumberbatch, was a submarine officer of both World Wars, a prominent figure of London high society, his great-grandfather, Henry Arnold Cumberbatch, was a diplomat who served as consul in Turkey and Lebanon. His great-great-grandfather, Robert William Cumberbatch was a British consul in Turkey and the Russian Empire. Cumberbatch is third cousin 16 times removed of King Richard III, whom he portrayed in The Hollow Crown. Motivated by this connection, he read a poem. Cumberbatch attended boarding schools from the age of 8, he was a member of The Rattigan Society, Harrow's principal club for the dramatic arts, named after Old Harrovian and playwright Terence Rattigan. He was involved in numerous Shakespearean works at school and made his acting debut as Titania, Queen of the Fairies, in A Midsummer Night's Dream when he was 12.
Cumberbatch's drama teacher, Martin Tyrell, called him "the best schoolboy actor" he had worked with. After leaving Harrow, Cumberbatch took a gap year to volunteer as an English teacher at a Tibetan monastery in Darjeeling, India, he attended the Victoria University of Manchester, where he studied Drama. He continued his training as an actor at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art graduating with an MA in Classical Acting. On 16 January 2018, it was announced that Cumberbatch would succeed Timothy West as President of LAMDA. On being appointed Cumberbatch stated it would be "an honour to watch the next generation of actors and technicians blossom". Since 2001, Cumberbatch has had major roles in a dozen classic plays at the Regent's Park Open Air, Royal Court and Royal National Theatres, he was nominated for an Olivier Award for Best Performance in a Supporting Role for his role as George Tesman in Hedda Gabler, which he performed at the Almeida Theatre on 16 March 2005 and at the Duke of York's Theatre when it transferred to the West End on 19 May 2005.
This transfer marked his first West End appearance. In June 2010, Cumberbatch led the revival of Terence Rattigan's After the Dance directed by Thea Sharrock at the Royal National Theatre, he played 1920s aristocrat David Scott-Fowler to critical success. The play won four Olivier Awards including Best Revival. Cumberbatch acted in Danny Boyle's The Children's Monologues, a theatrical charity event at London's Old Vic Theatre, on 14 November 2010; the show was produced by Dramatic Need. In February 2011, Cumberbatch began playing, on alternate nights, both Victor Frankenstein and his creature, opposite Jonny Lee Miller, in Danny Boyle's stage production of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein at the Royal National Theatre. Frankenstein was broadcast to cinemas as a part of National Theatre Live in March 2011. Cumberbatch achieved the "Triple Crown of London Theatre" in 2011 when he received the Olivier Award, Evening Standard Award and Critics' Circle Theatre Award for his perf
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t
Hannah More was an English religious writer and philanthropist, remembered as a poet and playwright in the circle of Johnson and Garrick, as a writer on moral and religious subjects, as a practical philanthropist. Born in Bristol, she began writing plays, she became involved with the London literary elite as a leading Bluestocking member. Her plays and poetry became more evangelical and she joined a group campaigning against the slave trade. In the 1790s she wrote several Cheap Repository Tracts on moral and political topics, for distribution to the literate poor. Meanwhile, she did increasing philanthropic work in the Mendip area, encouraged by William Wilberforce. Born in 1745 at Fishponds in the parish of Stapleton, near Bristol, Hannah More was the fourth of five daughters of Jacob More, a schoolmaster from Harleston, Norfolk, he was from a strong Presbyterian family in Norfolk, but had become a member of the Church of England, intended to pursue a career in the Church, but after the disappointment of losing a lawsuit over an estate he had hoped to inherit, he moved to Bristol, where he became an excise officer and was appointed to teach at the Fishponds free school.
They were a close family and the sisters were first educated by their father, learning Latin and mathematics: Hannah was taught by her elder sisters, through whom she learned French. Her conversational French was improved by spending time with French prisoners of war in Frenchay during the Seven Years' War, she was keen to learn, possessed a sharp intellect – she was assiduous in studying, according to family tradition, began writing at an early age. In 1758 Jacob established his own girls' boarding school at Trinity Street in Bristol for the elder sisters and Elizabeth to run, while he and his wife moved to Stony Hill in the city to open a school for boys. Hannah More became a pupil when she was twelve years old, taught at the school in her early adulthood. In 1767 More gave up her share in the school after becoming engaged to William Turner of Tyntesfield, Somerset, whom she had met when he began teaching her cousins. After six years the wedding had not taken place. Turner seemed reluctant to name a date and in 1773 the engagement was broken off.
It seems that as a consequence, More suffered a nervous breakdown and spent some time recuperating in Uphill, near Weston-super-Mare. As compensation, Hannah More was induced to accept a £200 annuity from Turner; this set her free for literary pursuits, in the winter of 1773–74 she went to London in the company of her sisters and Martha – the first of many such trips she made at yearly intervals. Some verses that she had written on David Garrick's version of King Lear led to an acquaintance with the celebrated actor and playwright. Hannah More's first literary efforts were pastoral plays, written while she was teaching at the school and suitable for young ladies to act, the first being written in 1762 under the title of The Search after Happiness. By the mid-1780s over 10,000 copies of this had been sold. Metastasio was one of her literary models, she used his opera'Attilio Regulo as a basis for The Inflexible Captive. In London, More attempted to associate herself with the literary elite, including Samuel Johnson, Joshua Reynolds and Edmund Burke.
Johnson is quoted as saying to her, "Madam, before you flatter a man so grossly to his face, you should consider whether or not your flattery is worth having." He would be quoted as calling her "the finest versifatrix in the English language". She became one of the prominent members of the Bluestocking group of women engaged in polite conversation and literary and intellectual pursuits, attending the salon of Elizabeth Montagu, where she met and became acquainted with Frances Boscawen, Elizabeth Carter, Elizabeth Vesey and Hester Chapone, some of whom were to become lifelong friends, she wrote a witty celebration of her friends and the circle to which they belonged, in her 1782 poem The Bas Bleu, or, published in 1784. Garrick wrote the prologue and epilogue for Hannah More's tragedy Percy, acted with success at Covent Garden in December 1777. Percy was revived in 1785 with Sarah Siddons at Drury Lane. A copy of Percy was found amongst Mozart's possessions in 1791. Another drama, The Fatal Falsehood, produced in 1779 after Garrick's death, was less successful, as a consequence, she never wrote for the stage again.
However a tragedy entitled "The Inflexible Captive" was published in 1818. In 1781 she first met Horace Walpole, man of letters and art historian, corresponded with him from that time. At Bristol she discovered the poet Ann Yearsley and, when Yearsley became destitute, raised a considerable sum of money for her benefit. Lactilia, as Yearsley was called, published Poems, on Several Occasions in 1785, earning about £600. More and Montagu held the profits in trust to protect them from Yearsley's husband. However, Ann Yearsley wished to receive the capital, made insinuations of stealing against More, forcing her to release the money; these literary and social failures caused More's withdrawal from London's intellectual circles. In the 1780s Hannah More became a friend of James Oglethorpe, who had long been concerned with slavery as a moral issue and, working with Granville Sharp in an early abolitionist capacity. More published Sacred Dramas in 1782 and it ran through nineteen editions; these and the poems Bas-Bleu and Florio mark her gradual transition to more serious views of life, which were expressed in prose, in her Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great to General Society, An Estimate of
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing 10% powdered opium by weight. Reddish-brown and bitter, laudanum contains all of the opium alkaloids, including morphine and codeine. Laudanum was used to treat a variety of conditions, but its principal use was as a pain medication and cough suppressant; until the early 20th century, laudanum was sold without a prescription and was a constituent of many patent medicines. Today, laudanum is recognized as addictive and is regulated and controlled as such throughout most of the world; the United States Uniform Controlled Substances Act, for one example, lists it on Schedule II. Laudanum is known as a "whole opium" preparation since it contained all the opium alkaloids. Today, the drug is processed to remove all or most of the noscapine present as this is a strong emetic and does not add appreciably to the analgesic or anti-propulsive properties of opium. Laudanum remains available by prescription in the United States and theoretically in the United Kingdom, although today the drug's therapeutic indications are confined to controlling diarrhea, alleviating pain, easing withdrawal symptoms in infants born to mothers addicted to heroin or other opioids.
Recent enforcement action by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration against manufacturers of paregoric and opium tincture suggests that opium tincture's availability in the U. S. may be in jeopardy. The terms laudanum and tincture of opium are interchangeable, but in contemporary medical practice the latter is used exclusively. Paracelsus, a 16th-century Swiss-German alchemist, experimented with various opium concoctions, recommended opium for reducing pain. One of his preparations, a pill which he extolled as his "archanum" or "laudanum", may or may not have contained opium. Paracelsus' laudanum was strikingly different from the standard laudanum of the 17th century and beyond, containing crushed pearls, musk and other substances. One researcher has documented that "Laudanum, as listed in the London Pharmacopoeia, was a pill made from opium, castor, ambergris and nutmeg". Laudanum remained unknown until the 1660s when English physician Thomas Sydenham compounded a proprietary opium tincture that he named laudanum, although it differed from the laudanum of Paracelsus.
In 1676 Sydenham published a seminal work, Medical Observations Concerning the History and Cure of Acute Diseases, in which he promoted his brand of opium tincture, advocated its use for a range of medical conditions. By the 18th century, the medicinal properties of opium and laudanum were well known, the term "laudanum" came to refer to any combination of opium and alcohol. Several physicians, including John Jones, John Brown, George Young, the latter of whom published a comprehensive medical text entitled Treatise on Opium, extolled the virtues of laudanum and recommended the drug for every ailment. "Opium, after 1820, was mixed with everything imaginable: mercury, cayenne pepper, chloroform, whiskey and brandy." As one researcher has noted: "To understand the popularity of a medicine that eased -- if only temporarily -- coughing and pain, one only has to consider the living conditions at the time". In the 1850s, "cholera and dysentery ripped through communities, its victims dying from debilitating diarrhoea", dropsy, consumption and rheumatism were all too common.
By the 19th century, laudanum was used in many patent medicines to "relieve pain... to produce sleep... to allay irritation... to check excessive secretions... to support the system... as a soporific". The limited pharmacopoeia of the day meant that opium derivatives were among the most effective of available treatments, so laudanum was prescribed for ailments from colds to meningitis to cardiac diseases, in both adults and children. Laudanum was used during the yellow fever epidemic. Innumerable Victorian women were prescribed the drug for relief of vague aches. Nurses spoon-fed laudanum to infants; the Romantic and Victorian eras were marked by the widespread use of laudanum in Europe and the United States. Mary Todd Lincoln, for example, the wife of the US president Abraham Lincoln, was a laudanum addict, as was the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, famously interrupted in the middle of an opium-induced writing session of Kubla Khan by a "person from Porlock". A working class drug, laudanum was cheaper than a bottle of gin or wine, because it was treated as a medication for legal purposes and not taxed as an alcoholic beverage.
Laudanum was used in home prescriptions, as well as a single medication. For example, a 1901 medical book published for home health use gave the following two "Simple Remedy Formulas" for "dysenterry": Thin boiled starch, 2 ounces. In a section entitled "Professional Prescriptions" is a formula for "diarrhoea": Tincture opium, deodorized, 15 drops. "Diarrhoea": Aqueous extract of ergot, 20 grains. Take one pill every three or four hours."The early 20th century brought increased regu
John Newton was an English Anglican clergyman and abolitionist who served as a sailor in the Royal Navy for a period, as the captain of slave ships. He became ordained as an evangelical Anglican cleric, served Olney, for two decades, wrote hymns, known for "Amazing Grace" and "Glorious Things of Thee Are Spoken". Newton started his career at sea at a young age, worked on slave ships in the slave trade for several years. After experiencing a period of Christian conversion Newton renounced his trade and became a prominent supporter of abolitionism, living to see Britain's abolition of the African slave trade in 1807, just before his death. John Newton was born in Wapping, London, in 1725, the son of John Newton Sr. a shipmaster in the Mediterranean service, Elizabeth. Elizabeth was the only daughter of an instrument maker from London. Elizabeth was brought up as a Nonconformist, she died of tuberculosis in July 1732, about two weeks before John’s seventh birthday. Newton spent two years at boarding school before going to live in Aveley in Essex, the home of his father's new wife.
At age eleven he first went to sea with his father. Newton sailed six voyages before his father retired in 1742. At that time, Newton’s father made plans for him to work at a sugarcane plantation in Jamaica. Instead, Newton signed on with a merchant ship sailing to the Mediterranean Sea. In 1743, while going to visit friends, Newton was captured and pressed into the naval service by the Royal Navy, he became a midshipman aboard HMS Harwich. At one point Newton tried to desert and was punished in front of the crew of 350. Stripped to the waist and tied to the grating, he received a flogging of eight dozen lashes and was reduced to the rank of a common seaman. Following that disgrace and humiliation, Newton contemplated murdering the captain and committing suicide by throwing himself overboard, he recovered, both mentally. While Harwich was en route to India, he transferred to Pegasus, a slave ship bound for West Africa; the ship carried goods to Africa and traded them for slaves to be shipped to the colonies in the Caribbean and North America.
Newton did not get along with the crew of Pegasus. In 1745 they left him in West Africa with a slave dealer. Clowe gave him to his wife, Princess Peye of the Sherbro people, she abused and mistreated Newton as much as she did her other slaves. Newton recounted this period as the time he was "once an infidel and libertine, a servant of slaves in West Africa."Early in 1748 he was rescued by a sea captain, asked by Newton's father to search for him, returned to England on the merchant ship Greyhound, carrying beeswax and dyer’s wood, now referred to as camwood. During his 1748 voyage to England after his rescue, Newton had a spiritual conversion; the ship encountered a severe storm off the coast of Donegal and sank. He began to read other religious literature. By the time he reached Britain, he had accepted the doctrines of evangelical Christianity; the date was an anniversary he marked for the rest of his life. From that point on, he avoided profanity and drinking. Although he continued to work in the slave trade, he had gained sympathy for the slaves during his time in Africa.
He said that his true conversion did not happen until some time later: "I cannot consider myself to have been a believer in the full sense of the word, until a considerable time afterwards." Newton returned in 1748 to a major port for the Triangle Trade. Due to the influence of his father’s friend Joseph Manesty, he obtained a position as first mate aboard the slave ship Brownlow, bound for the West Indies via the coast of Guinea. While in West Africa, Newton acknowledged the inadequacy of his spiritual life, he became ill with a fever and professed his full belief in Christ, asking God to take control of his destiny. He said that this was the first time he felt at peace with God. Newton did not however renounce working in the slave trade. After his return to England in 1750, he made three voyages as captain of the slave ships Duke of Argyle and African. After suffering a severe stroke in 1754, he gave up seafaring and slave-trading activities, but continued to invest in Manesty’s slaving operations.
In 1750 Newton married Mary Catlett, in St. Margaret's Church, Rochester. Newton adopted his two orphaned nieces, Elizabeth Cunningham and Eliza Catlett, both from the Catlett side of the family. Newton's niece Alys Newton married Mehul, a prince from India. In 1755 Newton was appointed as tide surveyor of the Port of Liverpool, again through the influence of Manesty. In his spare time, he studied Greek and Syriac, preparing for serious religious study, he became well known as an evangelical lay minister. In 1757, he applied to be ordained as a priest in the Church of England, but it was more than seven years before he was accepted. During this period, he applied to the Methodists and Presbyterians, he mailed applications directly to the Bishops of Chester and Lincoln and the Archbishops of Canterbury and York. In 1764, he was introduced by Thomas Haweis to William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth, influential in recommending Newton to William Markham, Bishop of Chester. Haweis suggested Newton for the living of Buckinghamshire.
On 29 April 1764 Newton received deacon's orders, was ordained as a priest on
Slave Trade Act 1807
The Slave Trade Act 1807 An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire. Although it did not abolish the practice of slavery, it did encourage British action to press other nation states to abolish their own slave trades. Many of the supporters thought. Slavery on English soil was unsupported in English law and that position was confirmed in Somersett's Case in 1772, but it remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833. Martin Meredith states, "In the decade between 1791 and 1800, British ships made about 1,340 voyages across the Atlantic, landing nearly 400,000 slaves. Between 1801 and 1807, they took a further 266,000; the slave trade remained one of Britain's most profitable businesses."The Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed in 1787 by a group of Evangelical English Protestants allied with Quakers, to unite in their shared opposition to slavery and the slave trade.
The Quakers had long viewed slavery as immoral, a blight upon humanity. By 1807 the abolitionist groups had a sizable faction of like-minded members in the British Parliament. At their height they controlled 35–40 seats. Known as the "Saints", the alliance was led by the best known of the anti-slave trade campaigners, William Wilberforce, who had taken on the cause of abolition in 1787 after having read the evidence that Thomas Clarkson had amassed against the trade; these dedicated Parliamentarians had access to the legal draughtsmanship of James Stephen, Wilberforce's brother-in-law. They saw their personal battle against slavery as a divinely ordained crusade. On Sunday, 28 October 1787, Wilberforce wrote in his diary: "God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the slave trade and the reformation of manners."Their numbers were magnified by the precarious position of the government under Lord Grenville, whose short term as Prime Minister was known as the Ministry of All the Talents.
Grenville himself led the fight to pass the bill in the House of Lords, while in the Commons the Bill was led by the Foreign Secretary, Lord Howick. Other events played a part; the Bill was first introduced to Parliament in January 1807. It went to the House of Commons on 10 February 1807. On 23 February 1807, twenty years after he first began his crusade and his team were rewarded with victory. After a debate lasting ten hours, the House agreed to the second reading of the bill to abolish the Atlantic slave trade by an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16; the Bill received Royal Assent on 25 March 1807. However, while this Act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, slavery itself continued for another generation, it was not until the passage of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 that slavery itself was abolished. By its Act Against Slavery of 1793, the Parliament of Upper Canada in British North America had abolished the slave trade, in 1805 a British Order-in-Council had restricted the importation of slaves into colonies, captured from France and the Netherlands.
Following adoption of the 1807 Act, Britain used its influence to pressure other nations to end their own slave trades. By the 1810 Anglo-Portuguese treaty Portugal agreed to restrict its trade into its colonies. In the 1814 Anglo-Dutch treaty the Netherlands outlawed its slave trade, the 1817 Anglo-Spanish treaty called for Spain to suppress its trade by 1820; the United States adopted its Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves on March 2, 1807, the same month and year as the British action. It provided for the abolition of its Atlantic slave trade but did not alter its internal trade in slaves. Article 1, Section 9, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution forbade the closing of the slave trade for twenty years, until 1808; the long-planned law was passed a year earlier, with the economic incentives of the slave trade coming to an end, there was both a spike number of slaves being traded and a unification of political factions against the trade. The Act created fines for captains; these fines could be up to £100 per enslaved person found on a ship.
Captains would sometimes dump captives overboard when they saw Navy ships coming in order to avoid these fines. The Royal Navy, which controlled the world's seas, established the West Africa Squadron in 1808 to patrol the coast of West Africa, between 1808 and 1860 they seized 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard; the Royal Navy declared. Action was taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, such as "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers. In the 1860s, David Livingstone's reports of atrocities within the Arab slave trade in Africa stirred up the interest of the British public, reviving the flagging abolitionist movement; the Royal Navy throughout the 1870s attempted to suppress "this abominable Eastern trade", at Zanzibar in particular. In 1890 Britain handed control of the strategically important island of Heligoland in the North Sea to Germany in return for control of Zanzibar, in part to help enforce the ban on slave trading.
Amazing Grace, a film that portrays the campaign to pas