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American Airlines Flight 77

American Airlines Flight 77 was a scheduled American Airlines domestic transcontinental passenger flight from Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. The Boeing 757-223 aircraft serving the flight was hijacked by five Saudi men affiliated with al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001, as part of the September 11 attacks, they deliberately crashed the plane into the Pentagon in Arlington County, near Washington, D. C. killing all 64 people on board, including the five hijackers and six crew, as well as 125 people in the building. Less than 35 minutes into the flight, the hijackers stormed the cockpit and forced the passengers and pilots to the rear of the aircraft. Hani Hanjour, one of the hijackers, trained as a pilot, assumed control of the flight. Unknown to the hijackers, passengers aboard made telephone calls to friends and family and relayed information on the hijacking; the hijackers crashed the aircraft into the western side of the Pentagon at 09:37 EDT.

Many people witnessed the crash, news sources began reporting on the incident within minutes. The impact damaged an area of the Pentagon and caused a large fire. A portion of the building collapsed; the damaged sections of the Pentagon were rebuilt in 2002, with occupants moving back into the completed areas that August. The 184 victims of the attack are memorialized in the Pentagon Memorial adjacent to the crash site; the 1.93-acre park contains a bench for each of the victims, arranged according to their year of birth, ranging from 1930 to 1998. The hijackers on American Airlines Flight 77 were led by Hani Hanjour, who piloted the aircraft into the Pentagon. Hanjour first came to the United States in 1990. Hanjour trained at the CRM Airline Training Center in Scottsdale, earning his FAA commercial pilot's certificate in April 1999, he had wanted to be a commercial pilot for Saudia but was rejected when he applied to the civil aviation school in Jeddah in 1999. Hanjour's brother explained that, frustrated at not finding a job, Hanjour "increasingly turned his attention toward religious texts and cassette tapes of militant Islamic preachers".

Hanjour returned to Saudi Arabia after being certified as a pilot, but left again in late 1999, telling his family that he was going to the United Arab Emirates to work for an airline. Hanjour went to Afghanistan, where Al-Qaeda recruits were screened for special skills they might have. Having selected the Hamburg cell members, Al Qaeda leaders selected Hanjour to lead the fourth team of hijackers. Alec Station, the CIA's unit dedicated to tracking Osama bin Laden, had discovered that two of the other hijackers, al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar, had multiple-entry visas to the United States well before 9/11. Two FBI agents inside the unit tried to alert FBI headquarters. In December 2000, Hanjour arrived in San Diego, joining "muscle" hijackers Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, there since January 2000. Soon after arriving and Hazmi left for Mesa, where Hanjour began refresher training at Arizona Aviation. In April 2001, they relocated to Falls Church, where they awaited the arrival of the remaining "muscle" hijackers.

One of these men, Majed Moqed, arrived on May 2, 2001, with Flight 175 hijacker Ahmed al-Ghamdi from Dubai at Dulles International Airport. They moved into an apartment with Hanjour. On May 21, 2001, Hanjour rented a room in Paterson, New Jersey, where he stayed with other hijackers through the end of August; the last Flight 77 "muscle" hijacker, Salem al-Hazmi, arrived on June 29, 2001, with Abdulaziz al-Omari at John F. Kennedy International Airport from the United Arab Emirates, they stayed with Hanjour. Hanjour received ground instruction and did practice flights at Air Fleet Training Systems in Teterboro, New Jersey, at Caldwell Flight Academy in Fairfield, New Jersey. Hanjour moved out of the room in Paterson and arrived at the Valencia Motel in Laurel, Maryland, on September 2, 2001. While in Maryland and fellow hijackers trained at Gold's Gym in Greenbelt. On September 10, he completed a certification flight, using a terrain recognition system for navigation, at Congressional Air Charters in Gaithersburg, Maryland.

On September 10, Nawaf al-Hazmi—accompanied by other hijackers—checked into the Marriott in Herndon, near Dulles Airport. According to a U. S. State Department cable leaked in the WikiLeaks dump in February 2010, the FBI has investigated another suspect, Mohammed al-Mansoori, he had associated with three Qatari citizens who flew from Los Angeles to London and Qatar on the eve of the attacks, after surveying the World Trade Center and the White House. U. S. law enforcement officials said that the data about the four men was "just one of many leads that were investigated at the time and never led to terrorism charges". An official added that the three Qatari citizens have never been questioned by the FBI. Eleanor Hill, the former staff director for the congressional joint inquiry on the September 11 attacks, said the cable reinforces questions about the thoroughness of the FBI's investigation, she said that the inquiry concluded that the hijackers had a support network that helped them in different ways.

The three Qatari men were booked to fly from Los Angeles to Washington on September 10, 2001, on the same plane, hijacked and piloted into the Pentagon on the following day. Instead, they flew from Los Angeles via Washington and London. While the cable said that Mansoori was under investigation, U. S. law enforcement officials said that there was no active investi

Bernard Fox (Irish republican)

Bernard Fox is a former member of the Army Council of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who took part in the 1981 Irish hunger strike. Fox, an apprentice coach builder from the Falls Road in Belfast, Northern Ireland, joined the IRA in 1969 aged eighteen, he explained his motivation for joining the IRA in a 1998 interview with the Irish News, stating: "I was shot in a gun attack at Norfolk Street. I came away wanting a gun, it was survival. You wanted to protect your own people... myself. When the barricades went up I wanted a gun so I approached this fella, in the IRA and asked for gun and he said: could I shoot a British soldier? At that time I hadn't the idea that it was the British government's fault." In 1981, serving a twelve-year sentence in the Maze Prison for possession of explosives and bombing a hotel, joined the hunger strike on 24 August, replacing Paddy Quinn, taken off the strike by his family. Fox ended his strike after 32 days without food on 24 September after doctors warned him he would be dead within days due to an obstructed kidney.

As a result of his IRA activities, Fox was imprisoned on four occasions and spent over twenty years in prison, before being released in 1998 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement resulting from the Northern Ireland peace process. At Easter 2001, Fox was a speaker at the commemoration to mark the 85th anniversary of the Easter Rising in Dublin, saying "after spending nearly 22 years in jail, one of the questions I'm most asked is'was it worth it'? I can't answer that question. History will answer that; the question is phrased in the past tense. It's not over; the struggle continues and will continue until the British are out of Ireland". In 2005 Fox joined the IRA's Army Council replacing Brian Keenan. Fox resigned in September 2006 after accusing Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness of "undemocratically" controlling the organisation. In January 2007, Fox was returning from a family holiday when he was detained for questioning at Belfast International Airport by two men who identified themselves as members of the British security agency MI5, according to Fox's solicitors.

Fox made a formal complaint regarding his treatment to the Investigatory Powers Tribunal, a body set up under the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 to investigate complaints against MI5 and other law enforcement agencies

Muthi Muthi

The Muthi Muthi people are an indigenous Australian people whose traditional lands are located in the Northern Riverina and Far West regions of New South Wales. The Muthi Muthi are the traditional owners of Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee and share custodial rights for Lake Mungo, Mungo Man and Mungo Lady with the neighbouring Paakantji and Ngiyampaa groups; the Mati Mati spoke Madhi Madhi, a Kulinic language, according to Barry Blake, one of a subgroup, the Mathi languages, of which Matdhi Madhi is the best known. The subgroup includes the related Watiwati Letjiletji languages. What is distinctive about it compared to the languages spoken by most contiguous peoples is that it lacks monosyllabic nouns; the Muthi Muthi lands stretched over an estimated 2,200 sq. m. taking in the Murrumbidgee River in the area of Balranald, with their southwestern boundary on the Murray River. Their western extension ran cloise by to Lake Benanee, their northern reaches lay to the west of Carrawatha]. Modern towns encompassed by their territory are Booligal, Maude, Clare, Tooleybuc and Euston.

Running clockwise, their neighbours were the Parrintyi to the north, the YitaYita northeast, the Nari-Nari to the east, the Wati Wati on their southern flank, the Tatitati on their southwestern frontier, the Kureinji to their west. Archaeological investigation has confirmed a tribal boundary in this location as this is the last known location of Muthi Muthi burial mounds. Bakiin Madi-madi Mataua Matimati Matthee-matthee Moorta Moorta Muti muti Mutte Mutte Mutti MuttiSource: Mathews 1898, p. 68. Kutcha Edwards, a musician Mungo Man and Mungo Lady Ballandella and Tourandury Whitepeeper lénghi wanápi wuthúngi Source: Hercus 1989, p. 46

Evelyn Lincoln

Evelyn Maurine Norton Lincoln was the personal secretary to John F. Kennedy from his election to the United States Senate in 1953 until his 1963 assassination. Lincoln, in the motorcade when Kennedy was assassinated, made a point of visiting Kennedy's grave every year on the anniversary of his death. Lincoln was born Evelyn Maurine Norton on a farm in Nebraska, her father was a member of the United States House of Representatives. In 1930, she married Federal worker Harold W. Lincoln, whom she had met as a law student at George Washington University. Evelyn had always aimed to work on Capitol Hill for a future president, she achieved this ambition in 1953 by becoming personal secretary to the newly elected senator from Massachusetts, John F. Kennedy, she proved exceptionally suitable for the job, remained close to the president up to the day of his assassination in Dallas, when she was travelling in the same motorcade. She made it a point to visit Kennedy's grave at Arlington National Cemetery every year afterward on the anniversary of his death.

Many noted the irony of her surname since Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln were succeeded by a President Johnson after they were assassinated. However, despite rumors to the contrary, there is no evidence that President Lincoln employed a secretary named Kennedy. In 1968, she wrote a book and Johnson, in which she wrote that President Kennedy had told her that Lyndon B. Johnson would be replaced as Vice President of the United States. Lincoln wrote of that November 19, 1963 conversation, just before the assassination of President Kennedy, According to the National Archives, Lincoln gave away or sold many of Kennedy's documents and artifacts that she had been entrusted with managing by the Kennedy family after Kennedy's assassination. In 2005, a legal settlement was reached that enabled the National Archives, the Kennedy Library, Caroline Kennedy to recover thousands of pages of documents and other items. Lincoln died at Georgetown University Hospital in 1995, after complications that followed surgery for cancer.

Her cremated remains were inurned in a niche at a columbarium in Arlington National Cemetery. Lincoln was the author of two books: My 12 Years With John F. Kennedy Kennedy and Johnson, 1968 Robert Dallek, Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President, p. 142 James M. Roth, Reclaiming Pieces of Camelot: How NARA and the JFK Library Recovered Missing Kennedy Documents and Artifacts, Prologue Magazine, Summer 2006, Vol. 38, No. 2

Kijevo, Belgrade

Kijevo is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Rakovica. Kijevo is located between the southwestern slopes of the 209-metre-high Straževica hill on the east, the southeastern slopes of the 205-metre-high Petlovo Brdo on the west; the neighborhood is situated in the central part of the municipality, on the mouth of the stream of Kijevski Potok into the Topčiderka river. It is bordered by the neighborhoods of Petlovo Brdo on the west, Labudovo Brdo and Kneževac on the north and Resnik on the southeast; the neighborhood Sunčani Breg is located east of the quarry. Area south of Kijevo, the "Klik"' and "Šabinac" meadows, is still not urbanized; the neighborhood is situated in the valley of the Topčiderka, 14 km south of downtown Belgrade, near the crossroad of the Ibar highway and the Kružni put, the future, Belgrade beltway. The area was suitable for tourism and was well known as an excursion location; the flowery meadows surrounded both the Kijevski Potok and Topčiderka, which in turn were bordered by the oak forests and agricultural fields.

The artificial Lake Kijevo was formed in the valley. However, by the 1960s all that disappeared; the settlement became more populous, the highway and the tunnel were built and the area was urbanized. The lake was drained, the forests were cut and the meadows and fields transformed in time into the marshland; the Straževica slopes are made of rich deposits of sandy-detrital silicified limestone, which are today exploited in the Kijevo Quarry, open to supply the railroad company, but became the main stone source for Belgrade. Lake Kijevo is a former artificial lake. Kijevski Potok, which originates under the hillock of Mačkov kamen, between Kneževac and Rušanj, cut through the Kijevo valley and flooded it. In order to prevent damage by floodings to his factory, Stefanović built a sluice in 1901, forming the Lake Kijevo. Soon, the lake, surrounded by the thick forest, became an excursion site for the wealthier Belgraders; as Kijevo has its own railway station, a special excursion trains connected it to downtown Belgrade.

There was an small island in the lake which visitors could reached only by boats. Custom of the day was for the ladies to be brought to the island by boat and to have a Turkish coffee served there; as the lake became more and more popular, Stefanović built a hotel with the ballroom. Visitors included Serbian king Peter I, writer Branislav Nušić and painter Nadežda Petrović, it has been recorded that the lake was visited by Albert Einstein, his wife Mileva and their son Hans. During his 1905 visit to the botanist Nedeljko Košanin, chief of the Belgrade's botanical garden Jevremovac, the Einsteins were driving the boat and swam in the lake. In 1937-38 Stefanović's nephew, who inherited the business, parceled the remaining land into lots with the view on ada and sold them for the construction of the family houses. After the unusually rainy spring in 1941, the sluice gate was lifted for the sludge to be washed away; the gates were stolen and the lake began to recede. New authorities tried to clean an dredge the bottom of the valley, but gave up and the lake drained through the Kijevski Potok into the Topčiderka by 1947.

New government, aside from confiscating all their assets, declared the Stefanović's nephew and his brother public enemies. After the war, one of the brothers fell under the train in dubious circumstances and the other emigrated to the United States; when the construction of the neighborhood of Kanarevo Brdo began in the 1960s, the earth, dug was used to fill the former lake. The area was flattened and turned into the football court for the local club "FK Kijevo"; the club was disbanded in 2000, the court was left unattended. By 2015 it was overgrown by the vegetation and the football facilities deteriorated, while the stream became an open sewage canal; the only remaining property of the Stefanović family economic complex is one low, abandoned building full of rubbish, at the edge of the former court. Until the early 20th century, Kijevo was an uninhabited section of the Rakovica's rural area. Svetozar Stefanović, industrialist who founded the first canning factory in Serbia, in Kragujevac, moved to Belgrade and bought the land at the mouth of the Kijevski Potok into the Topčiderka and planted fruits and vegetables, including the large fruit plantation on the slopes of the west bank of Kijevski Potok.

In 1901 he transferred his factory from Kragujevac to Kijevo. The factory was nationalized after the World War II by the new Communist authorities, renamed to "Prvi Maj" and moved to Čukarica in the late 1950s; the factory was predecessor of the modern canning factory FMP. After the Lake Kijevo was created in 1901, lots around the lake were settled by the wealthy Belgrade citizens who build villas around the lake. Among the first was Moša Avram "Maca", proprietor of the first umbrella factory in Belgrade, his villa was adapted into the first Kijevo elementary school and after the World War II became the seat of local branch of OZNA for a while. The building was demolished in the 1960s. Apart from Stefanović, fast industrial development of Kijevo included the entrepreneurs Parapid, Tomić and Marković who founded the quarry, while a major landowner of the time, Fotelić, owned a large land complex on the southern and southeastern slopes of Petlovo Brdo. There were numerous smaller landowners peasant families from Kneževac, but from Resnik and nearby Rušanj.

As the peasants in time became in deb

Richard Wagener

Richard Wagener is an American wood engraver known for his prints and fine press books. His work has been collected by over seventy-five public institutions. One of his books was included in Artists' Books in the Modern Era, 1870–2000 at the Legion of Honor, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Victoria Dailey has called Wagener the first California artist since Paul Landacre to achieve prominence in the art of wood engraving. Wagener’s early engravings juxtaposed realistic elements against a field of abstract imagery incorporating letterforms. In 1990, while teaching at Kala Institute, he met fine press printer, Berkeley. California, their collaboration resulted in the publication of Zebra Noise with a Flatted Seventh. Zebra Noise included 26 wood engravings of a zoological alphabet as well as a text by Wagener, evocative of the American West. Simon Brett wrote that “No one else I know of is making such avant-garde grand opera in wood-engraved prints.” Mark Dimunation, Head of Special Collections at the Library of Congress, referred to the book as a “work of maturity and grace.”In 1999 Wagener was elected as a member of the Society of Wood Engravers in England.

This organization was started in 1920 by a group of artists including Eric Gill. In 2003, Wagener contributed abstract color wood engravings to accompany The Fragments of Parmenides, Editions Koch, Berkeley; this book, some ten years in the making, features a new translation of the Parmenides fragments by Robert Bringhurst, Canadian poet and author, uses two new Greek typefaces commissioned for this project by Peter Koch. The first typeface was designed by Christopher Stinehour in a digital format; the second typeface was cut in steel and cast in metal by Dan Carr at the Golgonooza Typefoundry in Ashuelot, New Hampshire. In 2006, Wagener established the imprint Mixolydian Editions for his own fine press projects; the first publication was Cracked Sidewalks and prose poems about growing up in Los Angeles. The second book was Mountains & Religion, twenty engravings based on imagery from a journey to Nepal and Tibet in 1995, published in 2011, his print Kathmandu Alley, from Mountains and Religion, is a prime example of realistic imagery informed by an abstract sensibility.

The Book Club of California published California in Relief. Peter Koch collaborated in the printing of this book. Jan Elsted noted: “Wagener’s essential engravings of an outer landscape remind us of the echo within ourselves of an interior one, we respond with grateful recognition.”In 2009 Wagener was invited to Magnolia Editions, California, to develop large-scale woodcut interpretations of his wood engravings. Four images, two from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and two from Nepal, were published in limited editions. Wagener has produced a number of engraved bookplates, he designed the logo for the XXVII FISAE Congress held in Boston, 2000. His bookplates have been featured in Print Magazine. In 2013 Wagener again collaborated with Peter Koch to create a companion book, The Sierra Nevada Suite: Thirty-One Wood Engravings, published by the Book Club of California; this book continued Wagener’s observations of the sometimes stark and austere details of California’s landscape and featured two fold-out panoramic engravings of Yosemite.

It received a Juror's Choice award at the Fine Press show in England. At the 2013 Codex Book Fair and Symposium held at the Craneway Pavilion, California, Wagener met the New Zealand poet Alan Loney. After seeing Wagener’s new suite of prints based on the idea of weaving, Loney agreed to write a poetic response; the resultant book, was collaboratively designed and published by David Pascoe, Nawakum Press, Santa Rosa and Richard Wagener, Mixolydian Editions, California. Craig Jensen at Booklab II in San Marcos, Texas did the binding. Loom had its debut at Codex Australia Book Fair held in Melbourne, March 2014. David Pascoe made a short film about the making of this book that focuses on Wagener, the engraver, Patrick Reagh, the printer, Craig Jensen, the bookbinder; the development of a special print for the deluxe edition of Loom led to a small series of prints that looked at weaving from a different point of view. Alan Loney subsequently wrote a poetic response to these engravings. Mixolydian Editions published the prints in a book titled Vestige.

This book was printed and bound using handmade paper from Twinrocker Paper, Brookston and Papeterie St. Armand, Canada. Lisa Van Pelt, California, bound the limited edition of the book. Vestige had its debut at the 2015 Codex Book Fair. Edwin Dobb, independent writer and lecturer at the UC Berkeley School of Journalism, interviewed Wagener about his development as a book artist engaged in wood engraving. A highlight of this interview is an examination of the relationship between abstract and realistic imagery in his engravings; this interview was published in the Book Club of California Quarterly, Winter 2015. Wagener created an engraving of Festival Hall from the Panama Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco during 1915. Wagener printed the engraving for a broadside published by the Book Club of California in commemoration of the centennial of this event; the broadside was designed and printed by