Talladega is the county seat of Talladega County, United States. It was incorporated in 1835. At the 2010 census the population was 15,676. Talladega is 50 miles east of Birmingham; the city is home to the Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Blind and the Talladega Municipal Airport, a public general aviation airport. The Talladega Superspeedway, Talladega College and the International Motorsports Hall of Fame are located nearby; the First National Bank of Talladega is the oldest bank in the State of Alabama, being founded in 1848. The name Talladega is derived from a Muscogee Native American word Tvlvtēke, from the Creek tvlwv, meaning "town", vtēke, meaning "border" – indicating its location on the border between the Creeks and the Natchez. While the town's name is pronounced by local inhabitants, the racetrack's name is pronounced by auto racing fans. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.1 square miles, of which 24.0 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.30%, is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Talladega has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; the data below were accessed via the WRCC. They were compiled over the time period from 1888 to. Talladega's record high of 109 ºF occurred in September 1925, July 1930, June 1931, July 1933; the record low of -10 ºF occurred in February 1899. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,143 people, 5,836 households, 3,962 families residing in the city; the population density was 634.4 people per square mile. There were 6,457 housing units at an average density of 270.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 56.15% White, 42.28% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. 0.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,836 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.7% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families.
29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,617, the median income for a family was $36,296. Males had a median income of $27,951 versus $21,326 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,733. About 14.1% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.4% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,676 people, 5,719 households, 3,722 families residing in the city; the population density was 653.2 people per square mile.
There were 6,611 housing units at an average density of 275.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 48.7% Black or African American, 47.7% White, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. 3.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,719 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 23.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,449, the median income for a family was $38,147. Males had a median income of $31,957 versus $24,209 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,146. About 22.7% of families and 25.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.8% of those under age 18 and 19.0% of those age 65 or over. Talladega includes a number of properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including the J. L. M. Curry House and Swayne Hall, both listed as National Historic Landmarks; the main listed historic districts are the Silk Stocking District, which includes the Dr. Samuel Welch House, Talladega College Historic District, Talladega Courthouse Square Historic District. Included is the Talladega Superspeedway, a 2.66 miles long race track. It hosts two NASCAR races annually. Steadham Acker, pioneer aviator Tom Bleick, former NFL player, who played college football at Georgia Tech The original members of the gospel group The Blind Boys of Alabama met in Talladega at the Alabama School for the Blind Sydney J. Bowie, former U.
S. Representative and nephew of Franklin Welsh Bowdon Taul Bradford, former U. S. Representative Robert Bradley grew up in Evergreen and attended school in Talladega at the Alabama School for the Blind
Shaker furniture is a distinctive style of furniture developed by the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing known as Shakers, a religious sect that had guiding principles of simplicity and honesty. Their beliefs were reflected in the well-made furniture of minimalist designs. Shaker communities were self-sufficient: in their attempt to separate themselves from the outside world and to create a heaven-on-earth, members grew their own food, constructed their own buildings, manufactured their own tools and household furnishings.—Metropolitan Museum of Art Furniture was made thoughtfully, with functional form and proportion. Rather than using ornamentation — such as inlays, metal pulls, or veneers —, seen as prideful or deceitful, they developed "creative solutions such as asymmetrical drawer arrangements and multipurpose forms to add visual interest." Furniture was made of cherry, maple or pine lumber, stained or painted with one of the colors which were dictated by the sect blue, yellow or green.
Drawer pulls for other furniture were made of wood. A core business for the New Lebanon Shaker community by the 1860s was the production of well-made "ladder" back or turned post chairs; the minimalist design and woven seats were easy to produce. Furniture built and used by the New Lebanon "believers" is exhibited in the Shaker Retiring Room at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, which originated from the North Family Shakers' 1818 First Dwelling House; the furniture, acquired in the 1970s, Shaker textiles are considered among the finest Shaker collections in the world. Many examples of Shaker furniture survive and are preserved today, including such popular forms as Shaker tables, rocking chairs, cabinets, which are said to have Shaker doors, known for being flat paneled with rail frames. Collections of Shaker furniture are maintained by many art and historical museums in the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as in numerous private collections including the Shaker tilting chair.
The underlying principles of Shaker design have given inspiration to some of the finest designers of modern furniture. Shaker ladder back chairs, for instance influenced the work of an entire generation of postwar Danish designers. Many ideals of furniture formed around the common Shaker furniture construction. Tabitha Babbitt, Shaker toolmaker and inventor Ken Hakuta, Shaker furniture collector John Kassay and expert on Shaker furniture Isaac N. Youngs, Shaker furniture and clock maker Amish furniture Daniel Cragin Mill Shaker Shed Andrews, Edward Deming and Faith Andrews. Masterpieces of Shaker Furniture. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-40724-1. Andrews, Edward Deming and Faith Andrews. Shaker Furniture: The Craftsmanship of an American Communal Sect Dover Publications. 1964. Becksvoort, Christian; the Shaker Legacy: Perspectives on an Enduring Furniture Style. Taunton Press. ISBN 978-1-56158-357-7. Grant, Jerry V. & Douglas R. Allen. Shaker Furniture Makers. Pittsfield, Mass.: Hancock Shaker Village, 1989.
Grant, Jerry. Shaker: Function, Perfection. Assouline Publishing. New York, 2015. Kassay, John; the Book of Shaker Furniture. Univ of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-275-4. McKinstry, E. Richard; the Edward Deming Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection. New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1987. Moore, William D. “‘You’d Swear They Were Modern’: Ruth Reeves, the Index of American Design, the Canonization of Shaker Material Culture,” Winterthur Portfolio, 47, 1–34. Paterwic, Stephen J.. Historical Dictionary of the Shakers. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6255-5. Rieman, Timothy D. & Buck, Susan L. The Art of Craftsmanship: The Mount Lebanon Collection,Art Services International, Chrysler Museum. Rieman, Timothy D. & Muller, Charles R. The Shaker Chair". Shaker Museum and Library, Chatham, NY Shaker furniture at the Art Complex Museum
Richard Morris Hunt
Richard Morris Hunt was an American architect of the nineteenth century and an eminent figure in the history of American architecture. He helped sculpt the face of New York City with his designs for the 1902 entrance façade and Great Hall of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty, many Fifth Avenue mansions now lost to the wrecking ball. Hunt is renowned for his Biltmore Estate, America's largest private house, near Asheville, North Carolina, for his elaborate summer cottages in Newport, Rhode Island, which set a new standard of ostentation for the social elite and the newly-minted millionaires of the Gilded Age. Hunt was born at Vermont into the prominent Hunt family, his father, Jonathan Hunt, was a lawyer and U. S. congressman, whose own father, Jonathan Hunt, was lieutenant governor of Vermont. Hunt's mother, Jane Maria Leavitt, was the daughter of Thaddeus Leavitt, Jr. a merchant, a member of the influential Leavitt family of Suffield, Connecticut. Richard Morris Hunt was named for Lieut.
Richard Morris, an officer in the U. S. Navy, a son of Hunt's aunt, whose husband Lewis Richard Morris was a U. S. Congressman from Vermont and the nephew of Gouverneur Morris, author of large parts of the U. S. Constitution. Hunt was the brother of the Boston painter William Morris Hunt, the photographer and lawyer Leavitt Hunt. Following the death of his father at Washington, D. C. in 1832 at the age of 44, Hunt's mother moved her family to New Haven in 1837 to New York, in the spring of 1838 to Boston. There, Hunt enrolled in the Boston Latin School, while his brother William enrolled in Harvard College. However, in the summer of 1842, William left Harvard, transferring to a school in Stockbridge, while Richard was sent to school in Sandwich, Massachusetts. In October 1843, out of concern for William's health, Mrs. Hunt and her five children sailed from New York to Europe settling in Rome. There, Hunt studied art, but was encouraged by his mother and brother William to pursue architecture. In May 1844, Hunt enrolled in Mr. Briquet's boarding school in Geneva, the following year, while continuing to board with Mr. Briquet, arranged to study with the Geneva architect Samuel Darier.
In October 1846, Hunt entered the Paris atelier of the architect Hector Lefuel, while studying for the entrance examinations of the École des Beaux-Arts. According to the historian David McCullough, "Hunt was the first American to be admitted to the school of architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts – the finest school of architecture in the world – and the subsequent importance of his influence on the architecture of his own country can hardly be overstated."In 1853, Hunt's mentor Lefuel was placed in charge of the ambitious project of completing the Louvre, following the death of the project's architect Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti. Lefuel engaged Hunt to help supervise the work, to help design the Pavillon de la Bibliothèque, prominently situated opposite the Palais-Royal. Hunt would regale the sixteen-year-old future architect Louis Sullivan with stories of his work on the New Louvre in Lefuel's atelier libre. Hunt spent Christmas 1855 after which he returned to the United States. In March 1856, he accepted a position with the architect Thomas Ustick Walter helping Walter with the renovation and expansion of the U.
S. Capitol, the following year moved to New York to establish his own practice. Hunt's first substantial project was the Tenth Street Studio Building, where he rented a space, where in 1858 he founded the first American architectural school, beginning with a small group of students, including George B. Post, William Robert Ware, Henry Van Brunt and Frank Furness. Ware, influenced by Hunt, went on to found America's first two university programs in architecture: at MIT in 1866, at Columbia in 1881. Hunt's first New York project, a pair of houses on 37th Street for Thomas P. Rossiter and his father-in-law Dr. Eleazer Parmly, required Hunt to sue Parmly for non-payment of the supervisory portion of his services; the jury awarded Hunt a 2-1/2% commission, at the time the minimum fee charged by architects. According to the editors of Engineering Magazine, writing in 1896, the case, "helped to establish a uniform system of charges by percentage."It was in these early years that Hunt suffered his greatest professional setback, the rejection of his formal, classical proposal for the "Scholars' Gate", the entrance to New York's Central Park at 60th Street and Fifth Avenue.
According to Central Park historian Sarah Cedar Miller, the influential Central Park commissioner Andrew Haswell Green supported Hunt's design, but when the park commissioners adopted it, the park's designers, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux protested and resigned their positions with the Central Park project. Hunt's scheme was rejected, Olmsted and Vaux rejoined the project. Hunt's extroverted personality, a factor in his successful career, is well-documented. After meeting Hunt in 1869 the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in his journal of "one remarkable person new to me, Richard Hunt the architect, his conversation was spirited beyond any I remember, loaded with matter, expressed with the vigour and fury of a member of the Harvard boat or ball club relating the adventures of one of their matches. Hunt was said to be popular with his workmen, legend has it that during a final walk-through of the William K. Vanderbilt house on Fifth Avenue, Hunt discovered a mysterious tent-like object in one of the ballrooms.
Investigating, he found it covering a life-sized statue of h
Hillsboro is the fifth-largest city in the State of Oregon and is the county seat of Washington County. Lying in the Tualatin Valley on the west side of the Portland metropolitan area, the city hosts many high-technology companies, such as Intel, that comprise what has become known as the Silicon Forest. At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 91,611. For thousands of years before the arrival of European-American settlers, the Atfalati tribe of the Kalapuya lived in the Tualatin Valley near the site of Hillsboro; the climate, moderated by the Pacific Ocean, helped make the region suitable for fishing, food gathering, agriculture. Settlers founded a community here in 1842 named after David Hill, an Oregon politician. Transportation by riverboat on the Tualatin River was part of Hillsboro's settler economy. A railroad reached the area in the early 1870s and an interurban electric railway about four decades later; these railways, as well as highways, aided the slow growth of the city to about 2,000 people by 1910 and about 5,000 by 1950, before the arrival of high-tech companies in the 1980s.
Hillsboro has a council–manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. In addition to high-tech industry, sectors important to Hillsboro's economy are health care, retail sales, agriculture, including grapes and wineries; the city operates more than twenty parks and the mixed-use Hillsboro Stadium, ten sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Modes of transportation include private vehicles, public buses and light rail, aircraft using the Hillsboro Airport; the city is home to Pacific University's Health Professions Campus. Notable residents include two Oregon governors; the first people of the Tualatin Valley were the Atfalati or Tualaty tribe of the Kalapuya, who inhabited the region for up to 10,000 years before white settlers arrived. The valley consisted of open grassland maintained through annual burning by the Atfalati, with scattered groves of trees along the streams; the Kalapuya moved from place to place in good weather to fish and hunt and to gather nuts, seeds and berries.
Important foods included camas and wapato, the Atfalati traded for salmon from Chinookan tribes near Willamette Falls on the Willamette River. During the winter, they lived in longhouses in settled villages, some near what became Hillsboro and Beaverton, their population was reduced after contact in the late 18th century with Europeans, who carried smallpox and malaria. Of the original population of 1,000 to 2,000 Atfalati reported in 1780, only 65 remained in 1851. In 1855, the U. S. government sent the survivors to the Grande Ronde reservation further west. The European-American community was founded by David Hill, Isaiah Kelsey, Richard Williams, who arrived in the Tualatin Valley in 1841, followed by six more pioneers in 1842; the locality went by two other names—East Tualatin Plains and Columbia—before it was named "Hillsborough" in February 1850 in honor of Hill, when he sold part of his land claim to the county. On February 5, 1850, commissioners chosen by the territorial legislature selected the community to be the seat of the county government.
Hill was to be paid $200 for his land after plots had been sold for the town site, but he died before this occurred, his widow Lucinda received the funds. The town's name was simplified to Hillsboro. A log cabin was built in 1853 to serve as the community's first school, which opened in October 1854. Riverboats provided transportation to Hillsboro as early as 1867 when the side-wheel steamer Yamhill worked on the Tualatin River. In 1871, the Oregon and California Railroad line was extended to the area, but it ran just south of town because the city did not want to give the railroad land in exchange for the rail connection. Hillsboro was incorporated as the Town of Hillsboro on October 1876, by the Oregon Legislature; the first mayor was A. Luelling, who took office on December 8, 1876, served a one-year term. Notable mayors included Congressman Thomas H. Tongue and state senator William D. Hare. In 1923, the city altered its charter and adopted a council-manager government with a six-person city council, a part-time mayor who determined major policies, a city manager who ran day-to-day operations.
On September 30, 1908, 5,000 people gathered as the Oregon Electric Railway opened a connection between the city and Portland with an interurban electric rail line, the first to reach the community. In January 1914, the Southern Pacific Railroad introduced its own interurban service, known as the Red Electric, on a separate line and serving different communities between Hillsboro and Portland. SP discontinued its Hillsboro service on July 28, 1929, while the Oregon Electric Railway's passenger service to Hillsboro lasted until July 1932. A brick building was constructed in 1852 to house the county government, followed by a brick courthouse in 1873. In 1891, the courthouse was remodeled and a clock tower was added, the building was expanded with an annex in 1912. A new courthouse replaced the brick structure in 1928; the last major remodel of the 1928 structure occurred in 1972, when the Justice Services Building was built and incorporated into the existing building. The city's first fire department was a hook and ladder company organized in 1880 by the board of trustees.
A drinking water and electricity distribution system added in 1892–93 gave the town three fire hydrants and minimal street lighting. Hillsboro built its first sewer system in 1911, but sewage treatment was not added until 1936. In 1913, the city built its own water system, the first library, Carnegie City Library, opened in December 1914. From 1921 to 1952, the world's second-tall
Charles Eliot Norton
Charles Eliot Norton was an American author, social critic, professor of art. He was a progressive social reformer and a liberal activist whom many of his contemporaries considered the most cultivated man in the United States. Norton was born at Massachusetts, his father, Andrews Norton, was a Unitarian theologian, Dexter professor of sacred literature at Harvard. Charles William Eliot, president of Harvard, was his cousin. Norton graduated from Harvard in 1846, where he was a member of the Hasty Pudding, started in business with an East Indian trading firm in Boston, travelling to India in 1849. After a tour in Europe, where he was influenced by John Ruskin and pre-Raphaelite painters, he returned to Boston in 1851, devoted himself to literature and art, he translated the Divina Commedia. He worked tirelessly as secretary to the Loyal Publication Society during the Civil War, communicating with newspaper editors across the country, including the journalist Jonathan Baxter Harrison who became a lifelong friend.
From 1864 to 1868, he edited the influential magazine North American Review, in association with James Russell Lowell. In 1861 he and Lowell helped Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his translation of Dante and in the starting of the informal Dante Club. In 1862 Norton married Susan Ridley Sedgwick, daughter of Theodore Sedgwick III and Sara Morgan Ashburner, they were the parents of six children: Eliot, Elizabeth, Rupert and Richard. Susan died at age thirty-three in Dresden, following the birth of their sixth child. "Probably only someone with Norton’s experiences and scholarly range – who had written about the Mound Builders, roamed India, organized classical archaeology, scoured medieval archives, published nineteenth-century painting – could have concocted Western Civilization. And only if he had filtered these materials through the sieve of college teaching during years of curricular anarchy. For Western civilization had a scholarly and pedagogical specificity about it." From 1855 to 1874 Norton spent much time in travel and residence on the continent of Europe and in England, it was during this period that his friendships began with Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, Edward FitzGerald and Leslie Stephen, an intimacy which did much to bring American and English men of letters into close personal relation.
Another friend was father of Rudyard Kipling. Father and son visited Norton in Boston and the younger Kipling recalled the visit years in his autobiography: We visited at Boston old friend, Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard, whose daughters I had known at The Grange in my boyhood and since, they were Brahmins of the Boston Brahmins, living delightfully, but Norton himself, full of forebodings as to the future of his land’s soul, felt the established earth sliding under him, as horses feel coming earth-tremors.... Norton spoke of Emerson and Wendell Holmes and Longfellow and the Alcotts and other influences of the past as we returned to his library, he browsed aloud among his books. Norton was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1860, he began teaching at Harvard in 1874. In 1875, he was appointed professor of the history of art at Harvard, a chair, created for him and which he held until retirement in 1898, he "centered his teaching upon the golden ages of art history -- classical Athens, the Italian Gothic style of Venetian architecture, the Florence of the early Renaissance."The Archaeological Institute of America chose him as its first president.
Norton had a peculiar genius for friendship, it is on his personal influence rather than on his literary productions that his claim to fame rests. In 1881 he inaugurated the Dante Society, whose first presidents were Longfellow and Norton himself. From 1882 onward he confined himself to the study of Dante, his professorial duties, the editing and publication of the literary memorials of many of his friends. In 1883 came the Letters of Carlyle and Emerson. Norton was made Ruskin's literary executor, he wrote various introductions for the American "Brantwood" edition of Ruskin's works, his other publications include Notes of Travel and Study in Italy, an Historical Study of Church-building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Florence. He organized exhibitions of the drawings of Turner and of Ruskin, for which he compiled the catalogues. In 1886, he opposed the opening of a'drinking saloon' on the main street near his home, in a letter which reveals little empathy for, or understanding of the significance of, Irish immigration to Cambridge in that era.
Like his friend Ruskin, Norton believed one of the best things one could do for working-class people was to give them opportunities to gain satisfaction by engaging in workmanship, as opposed to monotonous routine labor where they have to work like machines. T. J. Jackson Lears has described Norton as the foremost American proponent of the Arts and Crafts movement. Norton was a founding member of The Society of Crafts of Boston. During the first years of the twentieth century, Norton spoke out in favor of legalized euthanasia, he lent his name to a movement led by Ohio socialite Anna S. Hall to pass physician-assisted suicide legislation in Ohio and Iow
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important