Amherst College

Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts. Founded in 1821 as an attempt to relocate Williams College by its then-president Zephaniah Swift Moore, Amherst is the third oldest institution of higher education in Massachusetts; the institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Jeffery, Lord Amherst, Commander-in-Chief of British forces of North America during the French and Indian War. Established as a men's college, Amherst became coeducational in 1975. Amherst is an undergraduate four-year institution. Students choose courses from 38 major programs in an open curriculum and are not required to study a core curriculum or fulfill any distribution requirements. For the class of 2023, Amherst received 10,567 applications and accepted 1,144, yielding a 10.8% acceptance rate. Amherst was ranked as the best liberal arts college in the country for 2018–19 by The Wall Street Journal, the second best liberal arts college in the country by U. S. News & World Report, 16th out of all U.

S. colleges and universities by Forbes in their 2018 rankings. Amherst competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference. Amherst has had close relationships and rivalries with Williams College and Wesleyan University, which form the Little Three colleges; the college is a member of the Five College Consortium, which allows its students to attend classes at four other Pioneer Valley institutions: Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Founded in 1821, Amherst College developed out of the secondary school Amherst Academy; the college was suggested as an alternative to Williams College, struggling to stay open. Although Williams survived, Amherst was diverged into its own institution. In 1812, funds were raised in Amherst for Amherst Academy; the academy incorporated in 1816. The institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Jeffery, Lord Amherst, a veteran from the Seven Years' War and commanding general of the British forces in North America.

On November 18, 1817, a project was adopted at the Academy to raise funds for the free instruction of "indigent young men of promising talents and hopeful piety, who shall manifest a desire to obtain a liberal education with a sole view to the Christian ministry." This required a substantial investment from benefactors. During the fundraising for the project, it became clear that without larger designs, it would be impossible to raise sufficient funds; this led the committee overseeing the project to conclude. On August 18, 1818, the Amherst Academy board of trustees accepted this conclusion and began building a new college. Moore President of Williams College, still believed that Williamstown was an unsuitable location for a college, with the advent of Amherst College was elected its first president on May 8, 1821. At its opening, Amherst had forty-seven students. Fifteen of these had followed Moore from Williams College; those fifteen represented about one-third of the whole number at Amherst, about one-fifth of the whole number in the three classes to which they belonged in Williams College.

President Moore died on June 29, 1823, was replaced with a Williams College trustee, Heman Humphrey. Williams alumni are fond of an apocryphal story ascribing the removal of books from the Williams College library to Amherst College. In 1995, Williams president Harry C. Payne declared the story false, but many still nurture the legend. Amherst grew and for two years in the mid-1830s it was the second largest college in the United States, second only to Yale. In 1835, Amherst attempted to create a course of study parallel to the classical liberal arts education; this parallel course focused less on Greek and Latin, instead focusing on English, Spanish, economics, etc. The parallel course did not take hold, until the next century. Amherst was founded as a non-sectarian institution "for the classical education of indigent young men of piety and talents for the Christian ministry,". One of the hallmarks of the new college was its Charity Fund, an early form of financial aid that paid the tuition of poorer students.

Although non-denominational, the initial Amherst was considered a religiously conservative institution with a strong connection to Calvinism. As a result, there was considerable debate in the Massachusetts government over whether the new college should receive an official charter from the state. A charter was not granted until February 21, 1825, as reflected on the Amherst seal.. Religious conservatism persisted at Amherst until the mid-nineteenth century: students who consumed alcohol or played cards were subject to expulsion, there were a number of religious revivals at Amherst where mobs of righteous students would herd less religious students into the chapel and berate them for lack of piety. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the college began a transition towards secularism, culminating in the demolishing of the college church in 1949. Academic hoods in the United States are traditionally lined with the official colors of the school, in theory so watchers can tell where the hood wearer earned his or her degree.

Amherst's hoods are purple with a white stripe or chevron, said to signify that Amherst was born of Williams. Amherst records one of the first uses of Latin honors of any American college, dating back to 1881; the college was an all-male school until the late 1960s, when a

Elk River (Michigan)

The Elk River is a short but significant river in the Lake Michigan drainage basin of the U. S. state of Michigan. It flows from Elk Lake into Grand Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan, it forms a harbor for the municipality of Elk Rapids. Elk Lake is a former arm of Lake Michigan; when the larger lake's level dropped, a belt of sediment separated Elk Lake from Grand Traverse Bay, a short, whitewater river, Elk River, formed to provide drainage for the smaller lake. The Indians named the short, rapid river the Meguzee, in honor of the Anishinaabe name for the bald eagle. In the early 19th century, Euro-American settlers arrived. In 1858, someone discovered a pair of elk antlers in the rapids; the rapids are quiet now. Boats must portage the dam. Below the dam, the river forms the harbor of Elk Rapids. Elk River Chain of Lakes Watershed Map of Elk River, with location of dam

Intellectual property in India

Intellectual property in India refers to the patents and other intangible assets in India. Indian government approved its first Intellectual Property Rights Policy in May 2016; the "Copyright Act, 1957" governs the subject of copyright law in India. The history of copyright law in India can be traced back to its colonial era under the British Empire; the Copyright Act, 1957 was the first post-independence copyright legislation in India and the law has been amended six times since 1957. The most recent amendment was in the year 2012, through the Copyright Act 2012. "Indian trademark law" statutorily protects trademarks as per the Trademark Act, 1999 and under the common law remedy of passing off. Statutory protection of trademark is administered by the Controller General of Patents and Trade Marks, a government agency which reports to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry; the Patents Act, 1970 were brought into the force on 20 April 1972, further amendments were carried in 1999, 2002 and 2005.

The Patent Rules, 2003 were introduced along with the Patent Act, 2002 on 20 May 2003, recent amendments were carried in 2016, 2017. The Patents Rules 2016 focused on expediting the grant process, benefits to startup, increase in official fees; the Intellectual Property India is administered by the Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks. This is a subordinate office of the Government of India and administers the Indian law of Patents, Trade Marks and Geographical Indications