Amnisos Amnissos and Amnisus, is a bronze-aged settlement on the north shore of Crete and was used as a port to the palace city of Knossos. It appears in Greek literature and mythology from the earliest times, but its origin is far earlier, in prehistory; the historic settlement belonged to a civilization now called Minoan. Excavation at Amnisos in 1932 uncovered a villa that included the "House of the Lilies", named for the lily theme, depicted in a wall fresco. Amnisos is 7 km east of Heraklion on a beach used for recreation by the citizens of the modern city; the current sea level is three meters higher than the bronze-aged sea level. Drowned houses are visible; the ancient settlement bears the same name as the river exiting there. Called the Karteros, from the iron-aged name of Caeratus, the river was the Amnisos during the Bronze Age. Across from its mouth is a small island called Amnisos; the river runs through Karteros Ravine. During the drier season, the river is reduced to a stream; the divinities, were associated with the river.
There was no navigable stream to Knossos, today part of the port city. The road was lined with ancient cult sites. One site is the cave of the goddess Eileithyia, it contained objects dating as far back as the neolithic period. Amnisos was first excavated in 1932 by Spyridon Marinatos, who discovered the villa and "The House of Lilies", named for the only restorable fresco; the two-storeyed villa had ten rooms and included a paved court, a hall with a polythyra, a kitchen area, a shrine, a bathroom. The restored 1.8-meter-high lily fresco on the second storey depicts red and white lilies, mint and papyrus growing in pots. Concerning the date, Matz has this to say: "The blossoms... are inlaid with coloured paste on a ruby ground, by a method similar to that used for inlaying intarsia. This is a rare technical process. Dating is made possible by concurrence with vases originating from a Late MM IIIa level."If it is on the border between the middle Bronze Age and the late Bronze Age the fresco is an early instance of a typical style in the early period of the late Bronze Age, LMIA, or "Palace Period."
Termed the "naturalistic style", it flourished ca. 1570-1470 BCE. In it are stylized motifs from nature floral, courtly scenes; the original colors of red, blue and black were bright. The house was destroyed by fire during LMIA. Amnisos is mentioned in a few Linear B tablets from Knossos, as, a-mi-ni-so, reconstructed to *Amnisos. An example is tablet KN Gg 705 quoted by Ventris and Chadwick: "Amnisos: One jar of honey to Eleuthia, One jar of honey to all the gods...." The tablet records a votive offering from or at Amnisos to the goddess of childbirth the one worshipped at the cave mentioned above. The word "a-mi-ni-so" was pivotal in Michael Ventris' deciphering of Linear B. Ventris had constructed elaborate tables with possible phonemic values for the syllabary's symbols and had identified key grammatical features such as declensional suffixes, he made the crucial educated guess that a particular word referred to Amnisos, the port of Knossos. The guess proved an inspired one, as it was correct and let all the other pieces of the puzzle fall into place.
The date of the Knossos tablets is still uncertain, but it is that they belong to the late Bronze Age. Amnisos is mentioned on the itinerary published on the statue base of Amenophis III at Kom el-Heitan, as an ambassadorial stop to Keftiu, dated ca. 1380 BCE. By that date, the residents of Knossos and certainly of its port, were speaking Greek. In the thumbnail historical sketch given by John Chadwick in The Mycenaean World, Chapter 1, Chadwick writes: "Crete was occupied down to the fifteenth century by people who did not speak Greek..." Instead, they spoke the language, written in the yet undeciphered script called Linear A. These people, called Minoans by Arthur Evans, were influential at sea: "Around the sixteenth century the Minoan influence on the mainland becomes marked." During this floruit, the House of Lilies was occupied. Minoan civilization is not believed to have been warlike, they represented a mercantile hegemony, safe in their island home and protected by their fleet. Around 1450 BCE, the villa was burned along with all of the other major sites in Crete except for Knossos.
These events are interpreted as an interest in ruling the island by Mycenaean Greeks. As the name Amnisos evidences the pre-Greek -ssos suffix, they took the name as it was. Amnisos was noted in ancient Greek history, noted by several authors, it was described as the harbour of Knossos, was situated at the mouth of a river named Amnisos. It possessed a sanctuary of Eileithyia, the nymphs of the river, called Amnisabes and Amnisides, were sacred to this goddess; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Amnisus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Matz, The Art of Crete and Early Greece, 1st published in 1962. Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-521-08558-6 Chadwick, The Mycenaean World, Cambridge University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-521-21077-1 hard, 0 521 29037 6 paper Swindale, Minoan Crete Amnissos page The Tsunami Caused by the Prehistoric Eruption of Thera, Thera Foundation The Amnisos Gardens, Foundation of the Hellenic World Walberg, Gisela and Perspective in Minoan A
Georg Scholl was a gardener at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. He was sent by Emperor Joseph II as assistant to gardener-botanist Franz Boos to collect specimens for the royal garden and cabinet on a collecting trip to the Cape of South Africa. Arriving at the end of May 1786 he completed a few short collecting trips with Scotsman Francis Masson and commisar Robert Jacob Gordon these becoming longer over the next few months, the itineraries being unknown. Scholl was left at the Cape when Boos left for the Mascarene Islands on 18 February 1787, he returned a year with so much material that it could not be transported in a single consignment. Boos sailed for Europe on 5 February 1788. Scholl remained at the Cape for another 14 years before returning to Europe. Much of this time Masson was at the Cape and in correspondence to Joseph Banks pointed out the difficulties of getting transport for their collections. From the collections it seems that Boos and Scholl, or Scholl alone, collected as far north as Namaqualand and east to Kaffraria.
From a horticulture stand point, the collections enriched the gardens at Schönbrunn Palace and much of their new material was described and beautifully illustrated in the work of botanist Jacquin. List of gardener-botanist explorers of the Enlightenment European and American voyages of scientific exploration Plantarum Rariorum Horti Caesarei Schoenbrunnensis Nikolaus von Jaquin's catalogue of plants held in the collections at the Schönbrunn Palace of Emperor Joseph II in Vienna between 1797 and 1804. Gunn, Mary. Cape Town: A. A. Balkema. ISBN 0-86961-129-1. Kronfield Park und Vienna 2003 Garside J. S. Afr. Bot. 8: 201–224, 1942 Forbes Pioneer travelers in South Africa. Cape Town 1965
Marie-Thérèse Assiga Ahanda was a Cameroonian novelist and paramount chief of the Ewondo and Bene people. Early in life, Ahanda worked for the chemistry department of the University of Yaoundé, she moved to the Republic of the Congo with her husband, Jean Baptiste Assiga Ahanda, took to writing. When they returned to Cameroon, Ahanda became an elected delegate in the National Assembly of Cameroon, a position she held from 1983 to 1988. Ahanda became the Ewondo paramount chief in 1999. In December 2000, she began renovating her father's palace at Efoulan, Yaoundé, a project that costed an estimated 150,000,000 francs CFA. Ahanda is the daughter of Charles Atangana—paramount chief of the Ewondo and Bene peoples under the German and French colonial regimes—by his second wife, Julienne Ngonoa. Marie-Thérèse Assiga Ahanda was raised as a princess alongside her brother, prince René Grégoire Atangana, in Yaoundé, Cameroon, she had one half sister, Catherine Edzimbi Atangana, one half brother, Jean Ndengue Atangana.
Both of her half-siblings were from her father's first marriage to Marie Biloa, they were born around forty years before she was. She was the daughter of Julienne Ngonoa and Charles Antangana, the paramount chief of the Ewondo and Bene people. Ahanda's father, Charles Atangana known as Ntsama Atangana or Karl Atangana, died only two years after her birth in 1943. Charles Atangana always kept friendly ties to both the French colonial administrations, his companionship with many of the German and French officials was said to have aided in his political advancement. He was an advocate for the westernization of Yaoundé and Cameroonian culture, his rule has been both commended globally. Marie-Thérèse Assiga Ahanda explains her father's legacy in a short biography she wrote on him, but touches on themes of colonization in Cameroon in some of the other written works. Most of Ahanda's schooling took place in Europe before the 1950s; as a princess, she had access to formal education which gave her opportunities to explore different disciplines.
It was through her father's loyalty to the colonial administrations, the power he received through it, that she was able to grow up with these opportunities. The Western-style education she received was influential to her writing as well. In the early 1970s, she married Jean Baptiste Assiga Ahanda, a finance manager from Yaoundé who held a prominent position at Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, she moved to Congo with him for several years before returning to Cameroon where they lived until she died in 2014. She was married to Jean Baptiste for 40 years, together they had four children and multiple grandchildren. Although they were together for a long time, their marriage was controversial to many. Jean Baptiste was of the large Etoudi clan, outside of her own clan. Most of this controversy surrounding their marriage was based on questions as to why they were married and if there were any political incentive or gain. Marie-Thérèse Assiga Ahanda ventured into many disciplines after receiving her education in Europe and returning to Yaoundé.
She first worked as a chemist in her early life before getting involved in politics. She worked for a few years at the University of Yaoundé in the science department for her career in chemistry. After doing chemistry for a few years, Ahanda took to writing articles, her main goal as an author was to make her mark in history. Some of her published works include: Sociétés africaines et'High Society': Petite ethnologie de l'arrivisme Je suis raciste "Turbulences" in Mots Pluriels These works were published after Cameroon's independence in 1960; the novel Sociétés africaines et'High Society': Petite ethnologie de l'arrivisme touches on themes of westernization and colonialism. It is about a young couple and Vincent, who both lived abroad and received Western education; when they came back to their homeland, they were astonished by the after effects of colonial rule, such as post-colonial corruption. They became obsessed with power and found themselves intertwined in the system. Ahanda uses Mathilde to draw upon the theme of sexism in the novel.
Mathilde, the main female character's intelligence is underestimated and disregarded by most of the authoritative characters. This was said to highlight societal or systematic oppression that most women face, in order to motivate her female readers to improve their situations; this novel indicates the importance of individualism and individual rights in combating neo-colonialism. However, this individualistic perspective may come from the influence of the Westernized notion of individualism, as opposed to collectivism seen in the traditional village system. In other words, through her writing she uses colonial influences to fight neo-colonialism. After publishing her first two novels, Marie-Thérèse Assiga Ahanda returned to Cameroon, she served as a deputy for the National Assembly of Cameroon for five years, between 1983 and 1988. As a previous chemist and author, this was her first experience of political involvement outside of the duties of being a princess, she did however understand politics and history through the research she conducted for her novel Sociétés africaines et'High Society': Petite ethnologie de l'arrivisme.
Cameroonian president Ahmadou Ahidjo resigned in 1982, Paul Biya, the prime minister at the time, took over. Ahanda was instrumental in making decisions regarding chiefdoms, or the hierarchical system of chiefs. Years prior to Ahanda's birth, before any colonial figures came to that region of
International Okinawan Gōjū-ryū Karate-dō Federation known as the International Federation of Karate-do Goju-ryu Okinawa, is an international martial art organization covering Gōjū-ryū karate. It was founded by Morio Higaonna in July 1979. Higaonna is Chairman of the IOGKF International; the IOGKF is responsible for spreading the original Gōjū-ryū karate style of Okinawa throughout the world, following the teachings of Chojun Miyagi. In 2018, the IOGKF was estimated to have around 70,000 members in 60 countries. IOGKF Structure: Honorary Chairman: Anichi Miyagi President of the IOGKF: Morio Higaonna IOGKF World Chief Instructor: Tetsuji Nakamura Technical Advisor and Headquarters Grading Panel: Bakkies Laubscher and Kazuo Terauchi IOGKF Chairman: Katsuya Yamashiro IOGKF Vice Chief Instructor: Ernie Molyneux and Henrik Larsen IOGKF Executive Committee and Headquarters Grading Panel: Ernie Molyneux, Henrik Larsen and Tetsuji Nakamura
Claudelands Arena is a multi-purpose indoor sports and entertainment centre located in Hamilton, New Zealand. Claudelands contains four-star conference and exhibition centre. Construction was completed in 2011 at a cost of $68.4 million. The arena includes a unique C-shaped auditorium, the only one of its kind in New Zealand and Australia, retractable and capable of holding live music and entertainment, international sporting events, large banquets and exhibitions; the arena is one of the home venues for the Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic netball team in the ANZ Championship. The New Zealand Breakers have played pre-season games at the venue in 2011 and 2012. Bob Dylan performed 2 nearly sold-out shows on 9 & 10 August 2014 during his Never Ending Tour 2014. Official website
Vong Savang was the Crown Prince to throne of the Kingdom of Laos. After the Laotian Civil War in 1975, he and his family were arrested by the Pathet Lao and sent to re-education camps, where they died, he was born on 27 September 1931, at the Royal Palace Luang Prabang, Laos to King Savang Vatthana and Queen Khamphoui. He was educated at Montpellier University and École sciences et politiques in Paris, he became the Crown Prince on 29 October 1962, married Princess Mahneelai Panya on 4 August 1962. They had three daughters. Having read the royal rescript of abdication of his father on 2 December 1975, he lived in a private residence with his family until 1977, when they were arrested and taken to northern Laos and placed in a re-education camp, he died there on 2 May 1978. The children of Vong Savang and Mahneelai are: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Million Elephants and the White Parasol. Medal of the Reign of King Sisavang Vong, 1st class. Medal of the Reign of King Savang Vatthana, 1st class.
Japan: Knight Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. Cambodia: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Cambodia. Nepal: King Birendra Coronation Medal. Thailand: King Rama IX Royal Cypher Medal, First Class. Laos – "seminar Camps" And The Death Of King Savang Vatthana Photographs of Royal Family of Laos