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Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres and are detritivores or scavengers. There are more than 9,900 amphipod species so far described, they are marine animals, but are found in all aquatic environments. Some 1,900 species live in fresh water, the order includes terrestrial animals and sandhoppers such as Talitrus saltator; the name Amphipoda comes, via the New Latin amphipoda, from the Greek roots ἀμφί and πούς, in reference to two kinds of legs that amphipods possess. This contrasts with the related Isopoda. Among anglers, amphipods are known as freshwater shrimp, scuds or sideswimmers; the body of an amphipod is divided into 13 segments, which can be grouped into a head, a thorax and an abdomen. The head is fused to the thorax, bears two pairs of antennae and one pair of sessile compound eyes, it carries the mouthparts, but these are concealed. The thorax and abdomen are quite distinct and bear different kinds of legs.

The thorax bears eight pairs of uniramous appendages, the first of which are used as accessory mouthparts. Gills are present on the thoracic segments, there is an open circulatory system with a heart, using haemocyanin to carry oxygen in the haemolymph to the tissues; the uptake and excretion of salts is controlled by special glands on the antennae. The abdomen is divided into two parts: the pleosome. Amphipods are less than 10 millimetres long, but the largest recorded living amphipods were 28 centimetres long, were photographed at a depth of 5,300 metres in the Pacific Ocean. Samples from the Atlantic Ocean with a reconstructed length of 34 centimetres have been assigned to the same species, Alicella gigantea; the smallest known amphipods are less than 1 millimetre long. The size of amphipods is limited by the availability of dissolved oxygen, such that the amphipods in Lake Titicaca at an altitude of 3,800 metres can only grow up to 22 millimetres, compared to lengths of 90 millimetres in Lake Baikal at 455 metres.

Mature females bear a marsupium, or brood pouch, which holds her eggs while they are fertilised, until the young are ready to hatch. As a female ages, she produces more eggs in each brood. Mortality is around 25–50% for the eggs. There are no larval stages; some species have been known to eat their own exuviae after moulting Over 9,950 species of amphipods are recognised. Traditionally they were placed in the four suborders Gammaridea, Caprellidea and Ingolfiellidea; the classification of the Amphipoda is however being rearranged to better reflect their phylogeny, the relationships within the suborder Gammaridea having suffered from the most confusion. A new classification has been developed in the works of Lowry & Myers, where a new large suborder Senticaudata was split off from the Gammaridea in 2013; that taxon, which encompasses the previous Caprellidea, now comprises over half of the known amphipod species. The classification given below, from the rank of suborder down to superfamily, however still represents the traditional division as given in Martin & Davis, except that superfamilies are recognised here within the Gammaridea.

Amphipods are thought to have originated in the Lower Carboniferous. Despite the group's age, the fossil record of the order Amphipoda is meagre, comprising specimens of one species from the Lower Cretaceous Weald Clay and 12 species dating back only as far as the Upper Eocene, where they have been found in Baltic amber. Amphipods are found in all aquatic environments, from fresh water to water with twice the salinity of sea water and in the Challenger Deep, the deepest known point in the ocean, they are always an important component of aquatic ecosystems acting as mesograzers. Most species in the suborder Gammaridea are epibenthic, although they are collected in plankton samples. Members of the Hyperiidea are all marine. Many are symbionts of gelatinous animals, including salps, siphonophores, colonial radiolarians and ctenophores, most hyperiids are associated with gelatinous animals during some part of their life cycle; some 1,900 species, or 20% of the total amphipod diversity, live in fresh water or other non-marine waters.

Notably rich endemic amphipod faunas are found in the ancient Lake Baikal and waters of the Caspian Sea basin. The landhoppers of the family Talitridae are terrestrial, living in damp environments such as leaf litter. Landhoppers have a wide distribution in areas that were part of Gondwanaland, but have colonised parts of Europe and North America in recent times. Around 750 species in 160 genera and 30 families are troglobitic, are found in all suitable habitats, but with their centres of diversity in the Mediterranean Basin, southeastern North America and the Caribbean. In populations found in Benthic ecosystems, amphipods play an essential role in controlling brown algae


WKNH is a student-run radio station licensed to serve Keene, New Hampshire. The station is owned by Keene State College; the station started out as WKNH 89.1 FM - The Sound Alternative and was sponsored by long-time KSC staff member Lou Dumont. Early station managers like Lisa Mesce, Stephanie Hamitty and Ken Wilson built a foundation based on "creativity and excellence". Early music directors Steve Tyrrell and Bill Harris created open format programming allowing on-air personnel extensive creative control over programming. WKNH provided programming 24 hours a day on the weekends. Al Dalton and Mark Barlow were the anchors of the weekend programming. Starting on Friday evening Dalton provided the overnight "All Night Rock and Roll Show" and Barlow ended it with the "Sunday Sundown Jazz Show" In between those anchors on-air talent such as Steve Tyrrell, Marshall Hall, Bob Zurek, Judy Belanger, Kevin Riley, Kevin Lemeiux, Karen Croland and Bill Verdere made certain WKNH was continually on the air.

Charles Moser directed an award-winning news staff. WKNH promoted live local dances and concerts. Musicians such as Jonathan Edwards, Tom Rush, Whole Wheat, Atlanta Rhythm Section, James Taylor, Bela Fleck, Dave Malett, Earth Wind and Fire and America showed up at WKNH to chat and provide listeners an excerpt of new music or upcoming concerts. KSC airs a college radio format; the WKNH studios are located on the third floor of the Young Student Center on the Keene State College campus. Music played on WKNH includes alternative rock, indie rock, world music, reggae, hip hop, metal and other eclectic selections typical of college radio stations. Longform programming includes shows commentary shows such as Pacifica's Democracy Now; the station's DJ content is predominantly student and local community member-based, with basic DJ qualifications being "if you are a Keene State College student, faculty member, or a member of the Keene community within driving distance ". The station airs live performances of plays and poetry on a regular basis, posted on the station's website previous to the events.

WKNH began streaming its programming live on the internet from its website on January 1, 2006. In November 2012, WKNH released a compilation of rare and unreleased acoustic tracks called Give Some to the Starving Artist featuring songs from Max Bemis of Say Anything, The Civil Wars, Someone Still Loves You Boris Yeltsin among others. All proceeds from the compilation went towards the funding and continued operation of the Keene arts venue/collective The Starving Artist; the compilation featured songs from local artists along with album art created by graphic designers from The Keene State Equinox. WKNH official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WKNH Radio-Locator information on WKNH Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WKNH

Laverton Gold Mine

The Laverton Gold Mine is a gold mine 9 km east of Laverton, Western Australia. It is owned by Crescent Gold Limited and has recommenced mining in August 2009, after having been shut for just over one year; the mine is sometimes referred to as the Barnicoat Gold Mine, named after its processing facility. The mine is located on the native title of the Wongatha aboriginal people, whom Crescent signed a Land Access Agreement with on 2 March 2005. In exchange for access, Crescent granted the representative of the Wongatha, the Wongatha Claim Group, up to 350,000 Crescent shares and between 0.2 and 0.4% in royalties of the future gold production. A similar agreement between the Wongatha and the owners of the BrightStar Gold Mine had taken place in 2004; the mine was owned by Sons of Gwalia, who closed it in 1998. Sons of Gwalia sold the mine in July 2002 to Focus Technologies Limited for A$2.68 million, who changed their name to Apollo Gold Mining in December 2002. In June 2004, Apollo changed its name to Crescent Gold Limited.

The mine reopened after commissioning in March 2007, with the plant upgrade having finished in August 2007. Mining ceased once more on 7 July 2008, the official reason being that Crescent was to review the operation. Crescent incurred a loss of A$28.8 million for the 2007-08 financial year, leaving the company with A$50 million in cash in hand. In February 2009, Crescent and Barrick Gold signed a memorandum of understanding in regards to ore from Laverton being processed at Barrick's Granny Smith Gold Mine rather than Crescent's Barnicoat processing facility, which would remain in care and maintenance. Mining and haulage operations re-commenced in August 2009, with ore to be processed at the processing plant of Granny Smith, 20 km away. A first gold pour at Granny Smith from Crescent's ore was announced on 21 October 2009. Focus Minerals Limited, owner of the Coolgardie Gold Mine, placed a friendly takeover offer for Crescent Gold Limited in June 2011 which would place Focus in the top-five of the Australian gold producers with an annual production of 230,000 ounces.

The bid values Crescent at A$66 million. Previous to the offer, Focus had supplied the struggling Crescent with A$13 million in loans. Production figures of the mine: The Australian Mines Handbook: 2003-2004 Edition, Louthean Media Pty Ltd, Editor: Ross Louthean Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2008 Page 34: Principal Mineral and Petroleum Producers - Gold MINEDEX website

Velocity Frequent Flyer

Velocity is the frequent-flyer program of Virgin Australia. Velocity was launched by Virgin Blue in 2005 as Velocity Rewards, with partner National Australia Bank offering a companion credit card. Velocity differed from most other frequent flyer programs with points earned being based on the cost of a flight, rather than distance. Velocity members earned 6 points per dollar spent on Virgin Australia flights. By 2007, points earned in loyalty programs operated by Westpac, American Express and Diners Club could be transferred to Velocity Rewards, as well as from the ANZ loyalty program from September 2008; as part of Virgin's effort to attract business travelers, status levels were introduced to the program in late 2007. Alongside the entry-level "Red" status, members could attain "Silver" and "Gold" status, each with its own set of benefits. With the introduction of status levels, the earning rate was changed: Red members earned 5 points per dollar, Silver members remained at 6 points, Gold members earned 7.

Velocity was the first frequent flyer program in Australia to offer "any seat, any time" reward flight availability. The number of points required to redeem an award seat directly corresponds to the current fare of that seat, allowing any seat available to be redeemed. Qantas introduced a similar feature to their frequent flyer program in May 2008. By February 2008, Velocity Rewards had 1.3 million members and Virgin Blue stated it was considering selling it or entering into a joint venture once its operation was profitable, considered a membership of 1.6 to 1.7 million members would put the operation in a break-even position. The program reached 4 million members by the end of 2014. In August 2011, the program was renamed "Velocity" and a "Platinum" status level was introduced, among other changes; the changes included changes to the bonus system: Red status members now earn 5 points per dollar spent, Silver members earn a bonus of 50%, Gold members earn a bonus of 75% and Platinum members earn a bonus of 100%.

In July 2013, Velocity introduced the Global Wallet, the first travel money card in Australia, which can be used as a Visa prepaid card. Velocity co-branded credit cards earn points on purchases and these points are automatically allocated to the holder's Velocity account each month. Co-branded cards are offered by Virgin Money and Westpac Australia. Most banks and credit companies have cards which earn points into their rewards program, which can be transferred to another program such as Velocity; the Velocity Global Wallet prepaid Visa product is owned by Cuscal Limited and managed by Rev Australia Pty Ltd. The card is meant to be used as a travel wallet card, where holders are able to earn points on purchases and avoid overseas transaction fees; the Global Wallet card allows the holder to load money onto the card in Australian dollars, up to a total value of A$25,000. Multiple currencies are able to be stored on the card, with 10 supported currencies, such as Japanese Yen and New Zealand Dollars.

The card can be used as a Visa prepaid card, with the money able to be accessed around the world anywhere where Visa is accepted and at ATMs. However, fees apply, most for use of the card to make purchases in other than Australian dollars, for withdrawal of cash at ATMs; the exchange rate for the foreign currencies are locked in at the time the currencies are bought, not at the time of a transaction, as would be the case with a credit card transaction. The Velocity Frequent Flyer program called Velocity Rewards, won the 2009 Freddie Awards for best frequent flyer program, best award redemption, best affinity credit card, best member communications, best website; this was the fourth consecutive Freddie Awards. The Velocity Frequent Flyer program won the "program of the year" award third year in a row at the 2015 Freddie Awards. List of frequent flyer programs Official website Velocity Frequent Flyer Guide

Tugal Caris

Tugal Caris spelled Carris or Cariste, was a 17th-century French sculptor and architect. Caris was born in early seventeenth century. In 1630, he was associated in a market with Jean Martinet for the purchase of 600 carts of stones from the Couldre and Bootz quarries at Changé, he lived in Laval. This purchase did not concern the construction of altarpieces, he was the husband of Jeanne Barais the sister of Catherine Barais, wife of the architect Michel Bellier. They had several children, including a son Jacques Caris who moved to Nantes where, after having been associated with his father, he became an architect. Marie Bellier, wife of Antoine Agenyau, architect. Michel Bellier, husband of Catherine Barais. Louise Bellier, wife of Philippe Bault, lawyer at Rennes Guillaume Bellier Renée Bellier, wife of Jean Martinet, architect Olivier Martinet, architect His first known altarpiece is that of Vaiges, now missing, built in 1634, he can also be attributed the realization of the altar Saint-Denis at Saint-Denis-du-Maine in 1632, the altar Saint-Pierre at Nuillé-sur-Ouette in 1633.

From 1634 to 1636, he erected the altarpiece of the Saint-Sauveur Abbey of Redon. Caris is attributed the two side altars of this church, but which do not date from the same period. In June 1636, he was in Laval where he contested the quality of the marble ordered from Étienne Arnoul, asked for an expertise from Pierre Corbineau and Jean Martinet. After Redon's realization, he made an altarpiece at the church of the Cordeliers of Rennes in 1636 from 1637 to 1639, the high altar of the Saint-Vénérand church of Laval. Around 1639, he made the main altarpiece of the Tréguier Cathedral. At the same time, he raised two altarpieces at Bonchamp-lès-Laval. In 1640, he realized the high altar and the altar of the Rosary of the Saint-Martin church of Châtillon-sur-Colmont; the reredos of the right altar, representing the Virgin Mary, is composed of small medallions. In each medallion, a mystery of the Rosary is represented as a scene. After the lavallois reredos, he moved to architecture, was entrusted with the realization of the façade of the Rennes Cathedral.

He built the large portal and part of the towers from 1640 to 1654. He became entrepreneur du Palace of Rennes, whose construction he resumed after Jacques Corbineau, he signed with the community of the city of Rennes on 28 April 1640 for the "continuation of work on the side of the Cordeliers". He lived in Rennes where he directed the most important works. In 1642 he built two side altarpieces and the main altar of Availles-sur-Seiche as well as that of Rannée He is attributed the altarpiece of the high altar of the church of Tinténiac; the work carried out at the Palace of Parliament of Brittany was deemed not to conform to the plans and specifications drawn up by Salomon de Brosse in 1618, was destroyed in 1647 by order of the Parliament of Brittany. Caris was dispossessed of his office for the benefit of Pierre Corbineau. In 1648 he left Rennes for Nantes where he built private mansions, it is possible that he was at this time between Nantes, Rennes where he managed the cathedral site until 1654, Gaël where he raised the altarpiece of the high altar in 1650-1651.

He seems to leave Rennes in 1654 definitively, the cathedral site was taken over by Pierre Corbineau. The construction of the Cathedral in Rennes was eventful: Tugal Caris must start again in 1651 in granite instead of the tufa chosen. According to Léon Palustre, Tugal Caris would have led the work to the cornice on the first floor. After him, from 1654 to 1678, Pierre Corbineau completed the superposition of the three orders and placed the coat of arms of Louis XIV above the immense window in the façade of the monument. François Huguet cleared the two towers, gave them two independent floors, in 1703 put the finishing touches to this work, he brought the levels to their current height of 48 metres and added on the pediment at the top of the façade Louis XIV's motto: Nec pluribus impar, the unparalleled. Caris completeed the rededo of the altar Notre-Dame-de-Pitié in one of the chapels of the Nantes Cathedral circa 1656, the same year he was awarded the contract for the cathedral's works Il meurt à Nantes en 1665 ou 1666.

Jules-Marie Richard, Les constructeurs de retables, Société d'archéologie et d'histoire de la Mayenne, 1906. Salbert, Jacques. Les ateliers de retabliers lavallois aux XVIIIe siècles. Étude historique et artistique. Persée. Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Journal d'un bourgeois de Rennes au XVIIe siècle, Apogée, 1993, p. 194-199. Les retables du XVIIe et du XVIIIe siècle en Ille-et-Vilaine on Persée

Palumbina guerinii

Palumbina guerinii is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It is found in southern Europe, from the Iberian Peninsula north to France, east to Italy and Greece; the wingspan is about 11 mm. The forewings are pale a little darker posteriorly. Before the middle is an oblique whitish fascia, nearest the base of the wing on the inner margin, the whitish colour of this fascia runs along the edge of the costa and inner margin to the middle of the wing. Beyond the middle is a whitish blotch not reaching to the costa, intersected by two dark olive-grey veins; the apex of the wing streaked with grey. The hindwings are pale grey, it is considered a pest on pistachio trees