An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον, from ἀμφί, meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον, meaning "place for viewing". Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, an "amphitheatre" may consist of theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round, stadia. Natural formations of similar shape are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in plan, with perimeter seating tiers, they were used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire.

Their typical shape and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape. The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first century BCE, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period onwards. Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire; the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and statuary. After the end of gladiatorial games in the 5th century and of staged animal hunts in the 6th, most amphitheatres fell into disrepair, their materials were recycled. Some were razed, others were converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places. A natural amphitheatre is a performance space located in a spot where a steep mountain or a particular rock formation amplifies or echoes sound, making it ideal for musical and theatrical performances. An amphitheatre can be occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose if no theatre has been constructed there.

Notable natural amphitheatres include the Drakensberg amphitheatre in South Africa, Slane Castle in Ireland, the Supernatural Amphitheatre in Australia, the Red Rocks and Gorge amphitheatres in the western United States. Arena Stadium Thingplatz List of Roman amphitheatres List of contemporary amphitheatres List of indoor arenas List of ancient Greek theatres Roman theatre Bomgardner, David Lee; the Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16593-8

John Leland (politician)

John Leland was a General in the British Army and Member of Parliament serving in the House of Commons of Great Britain He was born the son of Ralph Leland of Dublin. He inherited Strood Park in Sussex from his mother's uncle, he joined the Army and became a captain and major in the 58th Foot. He was a captain, lieutenant-colonel and brigadier-general, he was made colonel of the soon to be disbanded 80th Regiment of Foot in 1783 and elevated to major-general in 1787. In 1790 he was awarded the colonelcy of the 64th Foot, promoted lieutenant-general in 1797 and made full general in 1802, he had been with General Wolfe at Quebec in 1759 and in the West Indies in 1762. He was elected to Parliament to represent the Stamford constituency from 1796 until his death in 1808, he was Lieutenant-governor of Cork from 1796 until his death. He died in 1808, he had married Anne, daughter of Richard Upton, a ships master, but had no children


Myrmecozela is a genus of moths belonging to the family Tineidae. Myrmecozela armeniaca Zagulajev, 1971 Myrmecozela asariella Zagulajev, 1972 Myrmecozela ataxella Myrmecozela carabachica Zagulajev, 1968 Myrmecozela caustocoma Meyrick, 1928 Myrmecozela changaicus Zagulajev, 1997 Myrmecozela climacodes Myrmecozela corymbota Meyrick, 1919 Myrmecozela cuencella Myrmecozela curtella Tengström, 1869 Myrmecozela deserticola Walsingham, 1907 Myrmecozela diacona Walsingham, 1907 Myrmecozela dzhungarica Zagulajev, 1971 Myrmecozela erecta Braun, 1923 Myrmecozela gajndzhiella Zagulajev, 1968 Myrmecozela heptapotamica Zagulajev, 1971 Myrmecozela hispanella Zagulajev, 1971 Myrmecozela hyrcanella Zagulajev, 1968 Myrmecozela imeretica Zagulajev, 1972 Myrmecozela isopsamma Meyrick, 1920 Myrmecozela kasachstanica Zagulajev, 1972 Myrmecozela lambesella Rebel, 1901 Myrmecozela lutosella Myrmecozela mongolica Petersen, 1965 Myrmecozela ochraceella Myrmecozela ordubasis Zagulajev, 1968 Myrmecozela parnassiella Rebel, 1915 Myrmecozela paurosperma Meyrick, 1926 Myrmecozela pogonopis Meyrick, 1926 Myrmecozela pontica Zagulajev, 1971 Myrmecozela rjabovi Zagulajev, 1968 Myrmecozela samurensis Zagulajev, 1997 Myrmecozela saule Zagulajev, 1972 Myrmecozela stepicola Zagulajev, 1972 Myrmecozela taurella Zagulajev, 1971