Frans Thomas Koppelaar, is a Dutch painter, born in The Hague, Netherlands. From 1963 to 1969, he attended the Royal Academy of Visual Arts at The Hague, he moved to Amsterdam in 1968. His landscapes and Amsterdam cityscapes are painted in a style that recalls the classical tradition of the Hague School and the Amsterdam Impressionists. Koppelaar's work is congenial to a figurative movement in Dutch contemporary painting that evolved during the 1990s in a reaction to the pared-down conceptual art and the too pompous art-theories of that period. Through the years his style evolved into a simpler, straightforward approach. By 1984, he no longer identified himself with any art movement. Koppelaar is known as a portraitist. Brunt, Ineke & Eisema, Joan, "Gegrepen door het moment - Amsterdam in olieverf", Stichting de Heeren Keyser ISBN 90-808649-3-5 "Amsterdam Urban Landscapes from the Meentwijck Collection", Auction House Christie's, Amsterdam Denninger, Carole, "Amsterdam 365 Stadsgezichten", THOTH, Bussum NL ISBN 978-90-6868-490-2 Official website
New Castle, Delaware
New Castle is a city in New Castle County, six miles south of Wilmington, situated on the Delaware River. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 5,285. New Castle was settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1651, under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, on the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck", to assert their claim to the area based on a prior agreement with the aboriginal inhabitants of the area; the Dutch named the settlement Fort Casimir, but this was changed to Fort Trinity following its seizure by the colony of New Sweden on Trinity Sunday, 1654. The Dutch conquered the entire colony of New Sweden the following year and rechristened the fort Nieuw-Amstel; this marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. As the settlement grew, Dutch authorities laid out a grid of streets and established the town common, which continue to this day.
In 1664, the English seized the entire New Netherland colony in the Second Anglo-Dutch War. They made it the capital of their Delaware Colony; the Dutch regained the town in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War but it was returned to Great Britain the next year under the Treaty of Westminster. In 1680, New Castle was conveyed to William Penn by the Duke of York by livery of seisin and was Penn's landing place when he first set foot on American soil on October 27, 1682; this transfer to Penn was contested by Lord Baltimore and the boundary dispute was not resolved until the survey conducted by Mason and Dixon, now famed in history as the Mason–Dixon line. The spire on top of the Court House, Delaware's colonial capitol and first state house, was used as the center of the Twelve-Mile Circle forming the northern boundary of Delaware; the Delaware River within this radius to the low water mark on the opposite shore is part of Delaware. Thus the Delaware Memorial Bridge was built as an intrastate span by Delaware, without financial participation by neighboring New Jersey.
Prior to the establishment of Penn's Philadelphia, New Castle was a center of government. After being transferred to Penn, Delaware's Swedish and English residents used to the relaxed culture of the Restoration monarchy grew uncomfortable with the more conservative Quaker influence, so Delaware petitioned for a separate legislature, granted in 1702. Delaware formally broke from Pennsylvania in 1704. New Castle again became the seat of the colonial government, thriving with the various judges and lawyers that fueled the economy. Many smaller houses were replaced in this era. In February 1777, John McKinly was elected the first President of Delaware. During the Revolution, when New Castle was besieged by William Howe, the government elected to move its functions south to Dover in May 1777. McKinley was captured by the held prisoner for several months. New Castle remained the county seat until after the Civil War, when that status was transferred to Wilmington. Three signers of the Declaration of Independence were from New Castle—Thomas McKean, George Read, George Ross.
The 16-mile portage between the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay saved a 400-mile trip around the Delmarva Peninsula, so this brought passengers and business to New Castle's port. In the years following the Revolution, a turnpike was built to facilitate travel between the two major waterways. New Castle became the eastern terminus of the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, the second-oldest rail line in the country, launched in 1828 with horse-drawn rail cars converting to steam power when an engine was purchased from Great Britain in 1832; the line traversed the Delmarva Peninsula, running to the Elk River, from where passengers changed to packet boats for further travel to Baltimore and points south. This helped the New Castle economy to further boom; the decline in New Castle's economy had the long-range fortunate effect of preventing most residents from making any significant structural changes to their homes. So, the many buildings of historic New Castle look much as they did in the colonial and Federal periods.
New Castle has a tradition, dating back to 1927, of tours of historical homes and gardens. These tours, called "A Day in Olde New Castle", are held on the third Saturday of May. Householders dress in colonial costumes and an admittance fee is collected, used toward the maintenance of the town's many historic buildings. In June the town holds its annual Separation Day celebration. On April 28, 1961, an F3 tornado hit the north side. Although no fatalities or injuries occurred, it was the only tornado of this magnitude recorded in Delaware. In the City of New Castle, many small and historical neighborhoods are within the city limits. However, many larger neighborhoods are surrounding the city limits and are labeled as New Castle within the general consensus; the New Castle area ranges from the southern city limits of Wilmington to the north, the Delaware River to the East, Wrangle Hill Road to the South, Bear and Christiana to the West. City of New Castle Shawtown Dobbinsville Washington Park Battery Park 6th & DelawareOutside neighborhoods Chelsea Estates Penn Acres Collins Park Minquadale Wilmington Manor Commons Boulevard Midvale Jefferson Farms Castle H
The Royal Theatre Carré is a Neo-Renaissance theatre in Amsterdam, located near the river Amstel. When the theatre was founded in 1887, it was meant as a permanent circus building, it is used for musicals, cabaret performances and pop concerts. German circus director Oscar Carré, looking for a location for circus performances in the winter, opened Circus Carré on 3 December 1887. In the beginning, it was just a wooden building with a stone façade. In the first years, it was only in use in the winter, but from 1893 on, Dutch theatre producer Frits van Haarlem brought vaudeville shows in the summer months; the shows became successful, thus changing the circus building to a theatre for all forms of popular entertainment. In 1920, it changed its name to Theater Carré. In the early 20th century the building was used for vaudeville and revue shows Italian operas and operettas. Dutch stars like Lou Bandy and Louis Davids and international celebrities like Josephine Baker and the clown Grock performed here.
After the Second World War and winter circuses remained popular. In 1956, Carré introduced musical theatre to the Netherlands with Bess; the one-man show followed in 1963. At the end of the 1960s, the theatre was in danger of being demolished. After protests from artists, the municipality of Amsterdam refused permission for demolition. In 1977 the municipality bought the building. In 1987, at the centenary, the Royal Predicate was granted and the name was changed to Koninklijk Theater Carré. In 2004, the theatre was renovated; the historic façade and interior design have been retained. Media related to Koninklijk Theater Carré at Wikimedia Commons Official website
George Hendrik Breitner
George Hendrik Breitner was a Dutch painter and photographer. An important figure in Amsterdam Impressionism, he is noted for his paintings of street scenes and harbours in a realistic style, he painted en plein air, became interested in photography as a means of documenting street life and atmospheric effects – rainy weather in particular – as reference materials for his paintings. George Hendrik Breitner was born in Netherlands. From 1876–1880 he attended the Art Academy in The Hague where his extraordinary talent was rewarded on various occasions. From October 1878 till April 1879 he worked as an art teacher at the Leiden academy Ars Aemula Naturae. In 1880 he was expelled from the Art Academy of The Hague for misconduct, because he had destroyed the regulations-board. In the same year he lived at landscapist Willem Maris's place at Loosduinen and was accepted as a member of Pulchri Studio, an important artist's society in The Hague, he distanced himself from the Hague School and today he is regarded as an Amsterdam Impressionist.
During 1880–1881 he worked at the famous Panorama Mesdag together with Hendrik Mesdag, S. Mesdag-van Houten, Theophile de Bock and Barend Blommers. In 1882 he met and worked together with Vincent van Gogh, with whom he went sketching in the poorer areas of The Hague. Breitner preferred working-class models: labourers, servant girls and people from the lower class districts. Interest in the lot of the common people, which many artists felt in that period, was nurtured by the social conscience of French writers such as Émile Zola, he was associated with the Dutch literary group known as the Tachtigers. This was a group that championed impressionism and naturalism against romanticism, influencing other painters such as Isaac Israëls, Willem Witsen, poets like Willem Kloos. In 1886, he entered the Rijksakademie of Amsterdam, but soon it became clear that Breitner was far beyond the level of education offered there. Breitner saw himself as "le peintre du peuple", the people's painter, he was the painter of city views par excellence: wooden foundation piles by the harbour, demolition work and construction sites in the old centre, horse trams on the Dam, or canals in the rain.
With his nervous brush strokes, he captured the dynamic street life. By 1890, cameras were affordable, Breitner had a much better instrument to satisfy his ambitions, he became interested in capturing movement and illumination in the city, became a master in doing this. It is not impossible that Breitner's preference for cloudy weather conditions and a greyish and brownish palette resulted from certain limitations of the photographic material. Breitner painted female nudes, but just like Rembrandt he was criticized because his nudes were painted too realistically and did not resemble the common ideal of beauty. In his own time Breitner's paintings were admired by artists and art lovers, but despised by the Dutch art critics for their raw and realistic nature. By the turn of the century Breitner was a famous painter in the Netherlands, as demonstrated by a successful retrospective exhibition at Arti et Amicitiae in Amsterdam. Breitner travelled in the last decades of his life, visiting Paris and Berlin, among other cities, continued to take photographs.
In 1909 he went to the United States as a member of the jury for the Carnegie International Exhibition in Pittsburgh. Although Breitner exhibited abroad early on, his fame never crossed the borders of the Netherlands. At the time foreign interest was more for picturesque works; as time went by critics lost interest in Breitner. The younger generation regarded impressionism as too superficial, they aspired to a more elevated and spiritual form of art, but Breitner did not allow himself to be influenced by these new artistic trends. Around 1905–1910 pointillism as practised by Jan Sluyters, Piet Mondrian and Leo Gestel was flourishing. Between 1911 and 1914 all the latest art movements arrived in the Netherlands one after another including cubism and expressionism. Breitner's role as contemporary historical painter was finished. Breitner had Kees Maks and Marie Henrie Mackenzie, he died on 5 June 1923 in Netherlands. In the early months of 1882, Breitner came into contact with Vincent van Gogh. Van Gogh appears to have been introduced to him by his brother Theo, the pair sketched together in the working-class districts of The Hague.
Breitner was motivated to do. Van Gogh at any rate, was more intent on recruiting models, it is that Breitner introduced van Gogh to the novels of Émile Zola and the cause of social realism. Breitner was hospitalised in April. Van Gogh visited him in hospital, but Breitner did not return the visits when van Gogh himself was hospitalised two months and they did not meet again until the following July when van Gogh was on the verge of leaving The Hague and Breitner spending more time in Rotterdam than the Hague. At that time van Gogh gave Theo a less than flattering account of Breitner's paintings as resembling mouldy wallpaper, although he did say he thought he would be all right in the end. For his part, there is no evidence, he reminisced that sketching with van Gogh was problematic because, whereas Breitner sketched discreetly in a notebook, van Gogh came laden with apparatus and attracted hostile attention. Two years after van Gogh's death, Breitner wrote that he did not like van Gogh's paintings: "I can’t help it, but to me it seems like art for Eskimos, I cannot
The Rokin is a canal and major street in the centre of Amsterdam. The street runs from Muntplein square to Dam square; the Rokin canal used to run from Muntplein square to Dam Square, but in 1936, the part between Spui square and Dam Square was filled in. On the remaining part of the water, canal boats are now moored, it was part of the river Amstel, was known as Ruck-in. During the ongoing construction of the North-South line, a new metro line, archeologists dug down to a depth of 20 meters on the Rokin; the archeological finds in what used to be the Amstel river are expected to shed new light on the history of Amsterdam and on the landscape and environment of the area in the millennia that preceded the founding of the city. The Mirakelkolom, which stands on the Rokin, was temporarily removed during the construction of the metro line; the Mirakelkolom is a stone column made up of remnants of the Heilige Stede, a chapel built to commemorate the 1345 Mirakel van Amsterdam. The chapel was demolished in 1908.
Amsterdam's first commodities exchange was built in 1608-1609 at the corner of the Rokin and Dam Square. The commodities exchange, designed by Hendrick de Keyser, played a key part in the economic success of the city during the Dutch Golden Age; the building was demolished in 1835. A fire in the Rokin on May 9, 1977, claimed 33 deaths. Arti et Amicitiae, an artists' society and art gallery at the corner of Rokin and Spui, constructed in 1841 and designed in part by Berlage; the former offices of The Marine Insurance Company Limited at Rokin 69, a Jugendstil building from 1901 designed by Gerrit van Arkel. Tobacco shop Hajenius at Rokin 92-96, royal purveyor of cigars and other tobacco goods since 1826. Both the building from 1914 and the richly decorated interior were designed by the brothers van Gendt, sons of the prominent 19th century architect Adolf Leonard van Gendt; the Allard Pierson Museum for antiquities, on the Oude Turfmarkt, in the former headquarters of the Nederlandsche Bank, the Dutch central bank.
Magazijn De Gouden Bril, the oldest remaining optician in the Netherlands, at Rokin 72. There is a statue of a monkey with binoculars on the rooftop; the house of Pieter Janszoon Sweelinck, son of composer and organ player Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, at Rokin 145, built in 1642/1643 under the direction of Philips Vingboons, with a splendid example of a raised neck-gable at the top of the building. Hotel de l'Europe, at the corner of the Nieuwe Doelenstraat and the Rokin, an imposing building from 1895/96. Rokin metro station on Route 52 of the Amsterdam Metro opened in July 2018; the Rokin is served by tramway lines 4, 14 and 24
Nes aan de Amstel
Nes aan de Amstel, is a small village, part of the municipality of Amstelveen in the province of North Holland, Netherlands. The village's name indicates its located on the River Amstel, is situated on the edge of the Rond Hoep polder, it was established in the 16th century developing since 1947. The landscape is determined by the village's Catholic church, St. Urbanuskerk, built to a design by the famous architect Joseph Cuypers. Dorpsfeest; each year in the summer during the village festival, the slob en sloot race is organized where 50 participants submit an itinerary through the fields and ditches around the village. Agatha Deken and poet Bas van Bergen founder of FC Nes United
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees