Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant. These cells transport water and nutrients throughout the plant. Sap is distinct from resin, or cell sap. Saps may be broadly divided into two types: xylem sap and phloem sap. Xylem sap consists of a watery solution of hormones, mineral elements and other nutrients. Transport of sap in xylem is characterized by movement from the roots toward the leaves. Over the past century, there has been some controversy regarding the mechanism of xylem sap transport. Xylem sap transport can be disrupted by cavitation—an "abrupt phase change from liquid to vapor"—resulting in air-filled xylem conduits. In addition to being a fundamental physical limit on tree height, two environmental stresses can disrupt xylem transport by cavitation: "increasingly negative xylem pressures associated with water stress, freeze-thaw cycles in temperate climates. Phloem sap consists of sugars and mineral elements dissolved in water, it flows from where carbohydrates are stored to where they are used.
The pressure flow hypothesis proposes a mechanism for phloem sap transport. Although other hypotheses have been proposed. Phloem sap is thought to play a role in sending informational signals throughout vascular plants. "Loading and unloading patterns are determined by the conductivity and number of plasmodesmata and the position-dependent function of solute-specific, plasma membrane transport proteins. Recent evidence indicates that mobile proteins and RNA are part of the plant's long-distance communication signaling system. Evidence exists for the directed transport and sorting of macromolecules as they pass through plasmodesmata." A large number of insects of the order Hemiptera, feed directly on phloem sap, make it the primary component of their diet. Phloem sap is "nutrient-rich compared with many other plant products and lacking in toxins and feeding deterrents, it is consumed as the dominant or sole diet by a restricted range of animals"; this apparent paradox is explained by the fact that phloem sap is physiologically extreme in terms of animal digestion, it is hypothesized that few animals take direct advantage of this because they lack two adaptations that are necessary to enable direct use by animals.
These include the existence of a high ratio of non-essential/essential amino acids in phloem sap for which these adapted Hemiptera insects contain symbiotic microorganisms which can provide them with essential amino acids. A much larger set of animals do however consume phloem sap by proxy, either "through feeding on the honeydew of phloem-feeding hemipterans. Honeydew is physiologically less extreme than phloem sap, with a higher essential:non-essential amino acid ratio and lower osmotic pressure," or by feeding on the biomass of insects that have grown on more direct ingestion of phloem sap. Maple syrup is made from reduced sugar maple xylem sap; the sap is harvested from the Sugar Maple, Acer saccharum. In some countries harvesting the early spring sap of birch trees for human consumption is common practice. Certain palm tree sap can be used to make palm syrup. In the Canary Islands they use the Canary Island Date Palm while in Chile they use the Chilean Wine Palm to make their syrup called miel de palma.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant; the embryo is developed from the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates; the term "seed" has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Many structures referred to as "seeds" are dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate. Sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to and surrounding the actual seed. Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms. Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth; some fruits have layers of both fleshy material. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, which begin their development "naked" on the bracts of cones. However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales.
Seed production in natural plant populations varies from year to year in response to weather variables and diseases, internal cycles within the plants themselves. Over a 20-year period, for example, forests composed of loblolly pine and shortleaf pine produced from 0 to nearly 5 million sound pine seeds per hectare. Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, nine good seed crops, when evaluated for production of adequate seedlings for natural forest reproduction. Angiosperm seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: the embryo formed from the zygote, the endosperm, triploid, the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization, which involves the fusion of two male gametes with the egg cell and the central cell to form the primary endosperm and the zygote. Right after fertilization, the zygote is inactive, but the primary endosperm divides to form the endosperm tissue.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination. After fertilization the ovules develop into the seeds; the ovule consists of a number of components: The funicle or seed stalk which attaches the ovule to the placenta and hence ovary or fruit wall, at the pericarp. The nucellus, the remnant of the megasporangium and main region of the ovule where the megagametophyte develops; the micropyle, a small pore or opening in the apex of the integument of the ovule where the pollen tube enters during the process of fertilization. The chalaza, the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, where integument and nucellus are joined together; the shape of the ovules as they develop affects the final shape of the seeds. Plants produce ovules of four shapes: the most common shape is called anatropous, with a curved shape. Orthotropous ovules are straight with all the parts of the ovule lined up in a long row producing an uncurved seed. Campylotropous ovules have a curved megagametophyte giving the seed a tight "C" shape.
The last ovule shape is called amphitropous, where the ovule is inverted and turned back 90 degrees on its stalk. In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, this establishes the polarity of the embryo; the upper or chalazal pole becomes the main area of growth of the embryo, while the lower or micropylar pole produces the stalk-like suspensor that attaches to the micropyle. The suspensor absorbs and manufactures nutrients from the endosperm that are used during the embryo's growth; the main components of the embryo are: The cotyledons, the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis. There may be two; the cotyledons are the source of nutrients in the non-endospermic dicotyledons, in which case they replace the endosperm, are thick and leathery. In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are papery. Dicotyledons have the point of attachment opposite one another on the axis; the epicotyl, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.
The plumule, the tip of the epicotyl, has a feathery appearance due to the presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, will become the shoot upon germination. The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root transition zone; the radicle, the basal tip of the hy
The cashew tree is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple. It can grow as high as 14 m, but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m, has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields; the species is native to Central America, the Caribbean Islands, northern South America. Portuguese colonists in Brazil began exporting cashew nuts as early as the 1550s. In 2017, Vietnam and Ivory Coast were the major producers; the cashew seed simply called a cashew, is consumed. It is used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter; the shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications including lubricants, waterproofing and arms production, starting in World War II. The cashew apple is a light reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet, astringent fruit drink or distilled into liquor, its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree caju, which itself is derived from the Tupian word acajú meaning "nut that produces itself".
The generic name "Anacardium" (derived from Greek ἀνά, meaning "outside," and καρδία, meaning "heart", refers to the unusual location of the seed outside of the fruit. The cashew tree is large and evergreen, growing to 14 m tall, with a short irregularly shaped trunk; the leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4–22 cm long and 2–15 cm broad, with smooth margins. The flowers are produced in a corymb up to 26 cm long; the largest cashew tree in the world covers an area around 7,500 m2. The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit. What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium, that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as marañón, it ripens into a yellow or red structure about 5–11 cm long, it has a strong "sweet" smell and taste. The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple.
The drupe develops first on the tree, the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple. Within the true fruit is a single seed, considered a nut, in the culinary sense; the seed is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid, a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better-known allergenic oil urushiol, a toxin found in the related poison ivy. Some people are allergic to cashews, but cashews are a less frequent allergen than tree nuts or peanuts. While the cashew plant is native to northeast Brazil, the Portuguese took it to Goa, between 1560 and 1565. From there, it spread throughout Southeast Asia and Africa. Culinary uses for cashew seeds in snacking and cooking are similar to those for all tree seeds called nuts. Cashews are used in Indian cuisine and Pakistani cuisine, whole for garnishing sweets or curries, or ground into a paste that forms a base of sauces for curries, or some sweets, it is used in powdered form in the preparation of several Indian sweets and desserts.
In Goan cuisine, both roasted and raw kernels are used whole for making sweets. Cashews are used in Thai and Chinese cuisines in whole form. In the Philippines, cashew is a known product of Antipolo, is eaten with suman; the province of Pampanga has a sweet dessert called turrones de casuy, cashew marzipan wrapped in white wafers. In Indonesia and salted cashews are called kacang mete or kacang mede, while the cashew apple is called jambu monyet. In the 21st century, cashew cultivation increased in several African countries to meet the demands for manufacturing cashew milk, a plant milk alternative to dairy milk. In Mozambique, bolo polana is a cake prepared using powdered cashews and mashed potatoes as the main ingredients; this dessert is popular in South Africa. In Brazil, cashew fruit juice and the fruit pulp are used in the production of sweets, alcoholic beverages, such as cachaça, as a flour, milk or cheese. In Panama, the cashew fruit is cooked with water and sugar for a prolonged time to make a sweet, paste-like dessert called dulce de marañón, with marañón as a Spanish name for cashew.
The shell of the cashew nut contains oil compounds which may cause contact dermatitis similar in severity to that of poison ivy resulting from the phenolic lipids, anacardic acid, cardanol. Due to the possible dermatitis, cashews are not sold in the shell to consumers, and inexpensively extracted from the waste shells, cardanol is under research for its potential applications in nanomaterials and biotechnology. In 2017, global production of cashew nuts was 3,971,046 tonnes, led by Vietnam, India and Côte d'Ivoire with 22%, 19%, 18% of the world's total respectively. Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Brazil had significant production of cashew kernels. In 2014, rapid growth of cashew cultivation in Côte d'Ivoire made this country the top African exporter. Fluctuations in world market prices, poor working conditions, low pay for local harvesting have caused discontent in the cashew nut industry; the cashew tree is cultivated in the
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants. His classification was based on an extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu. Jussieu was born in Lyon, he went to Paris to study medicine, graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826, his son Adrien-Henri became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum, Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson; this was a significant improvement over the "artificial" system of Linnaeus, whose most popular work classified plants into classes and orders based on the number of stamens and pistils. Jussieu did keep Linnaeus' binomial nomenclature, resulting in a work, far-reaching in its impact. Morton's 1981 History of botanical science counts 76 of Jussieu's families conserved in the ICBN, versus just 11 for Linnaeus, for instance.
Writing of the natural system, Sydney Howard Vines remarked "The glory of this crowning achievement belongs to Jussieu: he was the capable man who appeared at the psychological moment, it is the men that so appear who have made, will continue to make, all the great generalisations of science." In 1788, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was a member of Les Neuf Sœurs; the system of suprageneric nomenclature in botany is dated to 4 Aug 1789 with the publication of the Genera Plantarum. De Jussieu system
Sumac, is any one of about 35 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. Sumac grows in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world in East Asia and North America. Sumacs are small trees that can reach a height of 1 -- 10 m; the leaves are spirally arranged. The flowers are in dense panicles or spikes 5–30 cm long, each flower small, creamy white or red, with five petals; the fruits form. The dried drupes of some species are ground to produce a crimson spice; this shrub or low tree, belonging to the family Anacardiadeae, which includes the terebinth and the pistachio, grows wild in the groves of Palestine. The tree is dioecious, with pinnate leaves containing a high proportion of tannin, used in the manufacture of leather, whence its Hebrew name og ha-bursaka'im; the female trees bear reddish fruits arranged in dense clusters. The fruits are shaped like lentils, are hairy with an acrid taste, it is used as a spice by some Asian communities, was used in the Colonial United States, in present-day North America.
Its fruits, soaked in cold water, make a vitamin C-rich beverage. It was cultivated in mishnaic times and is therefore reckoned with those fruits to which the law of pe'ah applied, but in Palestine, where it grew wild abundantly, it was not highly valued and a lenient attitude was adopted about pe'ah. Sumacs propagate both by seed, by new shoots from rhizomes, forming large clonal colonies; the taxonomy of Rhus has a long history, with de Candolle proposing a subgeneric classification in 1825, with five sections. At its largest circumscription, with over 250 species, has been the largest genus in the family Anacardiaceae. Other authors used subgenera and placed some species in separate genera, hence the use of Rhus sensu lato and Rhus sensu stricto. One classification uses two subgenera and Lobadium, while at the same time Cotinus, Malosma, Metopium and Toxicodendron segregated to create Rhus s.s.. Other genera that have been segregated include Baronia; as defined, Rhus s.s. appears monophyletic by molecular phylogeny research.
However the subgenera do not appear to be monophyletic. The larger subgenus, has been divided further into sections, Terebinthifolia. and Styphonia. The word'sumac' traces its etymology from Old French sumac, from Mediaeval Latin sumach, from Arabic summāq, from Syriac summāq - meaning "red". Species including the fragrant sumac, the littleleaf sumac, the skunkbush sumac, the smooth sumac, the staghorn sumac are grown for ornament, either as the wild types or as cultivars; the fruits of Rhus coriaria are ground into a reddish-purple powder used as a spice in Middle Eastern cuisine to add a tart, lemony taste to salads or meat. In Arab cuisine, it is used as a garnish on meze dishes such as hummus and tashi, is added to salads in the Levant, as well as being one of the main ingredients in Palestine's national dish, musakhan. In Afghan, Bangladeshi, Iranian, Israeli and Pakistani cuisines, sumac is added to rice or kebab. In Azerbaijani, Central Asian and Turkish cuisines, it is added to salads and lahmajoun.
Rhus coriaria is used in the spice mixture za'atar. In North America, the smooth sumac and the staghorn sumac are sometimes used to make a beverage termed "sumac-ade", "Indian lemonade", or "rhus juice"; this drink is made by soaking the drupes in cool water, rubbing them to extract the essence, straining the liquid through a cotton cloth, sweetening it. Native Americans use the leaves and drupes of the smooth and staghorn sumacs combined with tobacco in traditional smoking mixtures; the leaves of certain sumacs yield a substance used in vegetable tanning. Notable sources include the leaves of R. coriaria, Chinese gall on R. chinensis, wood and roots of R. pentaphylla. Leather tanned with sumac is flexible, light in weight, light in color. One type of leather made with sumac tannins is morocco leather; the dyeing property of sumac needed to be considered when it was shipped as a fine floury substance in sacks as a light cargo accompanying heavy cargoes such as marble. Sumac was dangerous to marble: "When sumac dust settles on white marble, the result is not apparent, but if it once becomes wet, or damp, it becomes a powerful purple dye, which penetrates the marble to an extraordinary depth."
Sumac was used as a treatment for several different ailments in medieval medicine in Middle Eastern and South Asian countries. An 11th-century shipwreck off the coast of Rhodes, excavated by archeologists in the 1970s, contained commercial quantities of sumac drupes; these could have been intended for use as a culinary spice, or as a dye. Staghorn sumac is a powerful antioxidant, with ORAC rating over 1,500 μmol TE/g; the anti-hypertension effect of sumac has been investigated, with a clinical trial study sho
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms. Green, sepals function as protection for the flower in bud, as support for the petals when in bloom; the term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, derived from the Greek σκεπη, a covering. Collectively the sepals are called the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower; the word calyx was adopted from the Latin calyx, not to be confused with a cup or goblet. Calyx derived from the Greek κάλυξ, a bud, a calyx, a husk or wrapping, while calix derived from the Greek κυλιξ, a cup or goblet, the words have been used interchangeably in botanical Latin. After flowering, most plants have no more use for the calyx which becomes vestigial; some plants retain a thorny calyx, either dried or live, as protection for seeds. Examples include species of Acaena, some of the Solanaceae, the water caltrop, Trapa natans. In some species the calyx not only persists after flowering, but instead of withering, begins to grow until it forms a bladder-like enclosure around the fruit.
This is an effective protection against some kinds of birds and insects, for example in Hibiscus trionum and the Cape gooseberry. Morphologically, both sepals and petals are modified leaves; the calyx and the corolla are the outer sterile whorls of the flower, which together form what is known as the perianth. The term tepal is applied when the parts of the perianth are difficult to distinguish, e.g. the petals and sepals share the same color, or the petals are absent and the sepals are colorful. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Tulipa. In contrast, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished petals; the number of sepals in a flower is its merosity. Flower merosity is indicative of a plant's classification.
The merosity of a eudicot flower is four or five. The merosity of a monocot or palaeodicot flower is a multiple of three; the development and form of the sepals vary among flowering plants. They may be fused together; the sepals are much reduced, appearing somewhat awn-like, or as scales, teeth, or ridges. Most such structures protrude until the fruit is mature and falls off. Examples of flowers with much reduced perianths are found among the grasses. In some flowers, the sepals are fused towards the base. In other flowers a hypanthium includes the bases of sepals and the attachment points of the stamens. Plant morphology