The cashew tree is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple. The tree can grow as high as 14 m, but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m, has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields; the cashew seed is considered a nut in the culinary sense. Like the tree, the nut is simply called a cashew; the species is native to Central America, the Caribbean Islands, northern South America, including northeastern Brazil. Portuguese colonists in Brazil began exporting cashew nuts as early as the 1550s. In 2017, Vietnam and Ivory Coast were the major producers; the shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications including lubricants, waterproofing and arms production, starting in World War II. The cashew apple is a light reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet, astringent fruit drink or distilled into liquor, its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree: caju known as acaju, which itself is from the Tupian word acajú meaning "nut that produces itself".
The generic name Anacardium is composed of the Greek prefix ana-, the Greek cardia, the New Latin suffix -ium. It refers to the heart shape of the fruit, to "the top of the fruit stem" or to the seed; the word anacardium was earlier used to refer to Semecarpus anacardium before Linnaeus transferred it to the cashew. The cashew tree is large and evergreen, growing to 14 m tall, with a short irregularly shaped trunk; the leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4–22 cm long and 2–15 cm broad, with smooth margins. The flowers are produced in a corymb up to 26 cm long; the largest cashew tree in the world covers an area around 7,500 m2. The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit. What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium, that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as marañón, it ripens into a yellow or red structure about 5–11 cm long, it has a strong "sweet" smell and taste.
The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney– or boxing-glove–shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple; the true fruit contains a single seed, considered a nut in the culinary sense. The seed is surrounded by a double shell that contains an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid—which is a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better-known and toxic allergenic oil urushiol, found in the related poison ivy; some people are allergic to cashews, but they are a less frequent allergen than tree nuts or peanuts. The cashew tree is native to northeast Brazil, but the Portuguese took it to Goa, between 1560 and 1565. From there, it spread throughout Southeast Asia, Africa. Culinary uses for cashew seeds in snacking and cooking are similar to those for all tree seeds called nuts. Cashews are used in Indian cuisine and Pakistani cuisine, whole for garnishing sweets or curries, or ground into a paste that forms a base of sauces for curries, or some sweets.
It is used in powdered form in the preparation of several Indian sweets and desserts. In Goan cuisine, both roasted and raw kernels are used whole for making sweets. Cashews are used in Thai and Chinese cuisines in whole form. In the Philippines, cashew is a known product of Antipolo, is eaten with suman; the province of Pampanga has a sweet dessert called turrones de casuy, cashew marzipan wrapped in white wafers. In Indonesia and salted cashews are called kacang mete or kacang mede, while the cashew apple is called jambu monyet. In the 21st century, cashew cultivation increased in several African countries to meet the demands for manufacturing cashew milk, a plant milk alternative to dairy milk. In Mozambique, bolo polana is a cake prepared using powdered cashews and mashed potatoes as the main ingredients; this dessert is popular in South Africa. In Brazil, cashew fruit juice and the fruit pulp are used in the production of sweets, alcoholic beverages, such as cachaça, as a flour, milk or cheese.
In Panama, the cashew fruit is cooked with water and sugar for a prolonged time to make a sweet, paste-like dessert called dulce de marañón. The shell of the cashew nut contains oil compounds that can cause contact dermatitis similar to poison ivy resulting from the phenolic lipids, anacardic acid, cardanol. Due to the possible dermatitis, cashews are not sold in the shell to consumers, and inexpensively extracted from the waste shells, cardanol is under research for its potential applications in nanomaterials and biotechnology. In 2017, global production of cashew nuts was 3,971,046 tonnes, led by Vietnam, India and Côte d'Ivoire with 22%, 19%, 18% of the world's total respectively. Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Br
The Religious Torah Front was a political alliance in Israel composed of Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael. The Religious Torah Front was formed when the Ultra-orthodox parties Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael decided to contest the 1955 elections on a joint list. In the election the party won 4.7% of the vote and six seats, an improvement on the 3.6% won by the parties individually in the 1951 elections, but were not included in David Ben-Gurion's coalition government. During the Knesset session the party changed its name to Agudat Yisrael - Poalei Agudat Yisrael. However, they changed it back to Religious Torah Front before the 1959 elections. In the 1959 ballot, the party again won 4.7% of the vote and six seats but remained outside the government. Due to internal disagreements, the party split into its constituent parts before the 1961 elections, with Agudat Yisrael taking four of the six seats and Poalei Agudat Yisrael the other two; the party was reformed for the 1973 elections, in which it won 3.8 % of five seats.
Despite its poor showing, the party was the fourth largest in a Knesset dominated by the Alignment and Likud. However, the party split again during the Knesset session, with Agudat Yisrael taking three seats and Poalei Agudat Yisrael two. Agudat Israel caused the government to fall at the end of 1976 by bringing a motion of no-confidence after the Israeli Air Force had breached the Sabbath. Religious Torah Front Knesset website
The Saxe-Ernestine House Order was an order of merit instituted by Duke Friedrich of Saxe-Altenburg, Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Duke Bernhard II of Saxe-Meiningen on 25 December 1833 as a joint award of the Saxon duchies. At first, the Order consisted of five classes: Grand Cross, Commander's Cross with Star in First and Second Classes, Knight's Cross in First and Second Classes. Awards were reserved for officers. In 1864, a silver-gilt medal was added but subsequently suppressed in 1918, at the end of World War I. Gold and silver medals were associated with the Order. In 2006, the head of the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince Andreas, created the "Ducal Saxe-Coburg-Gotha House Order", it is based on the old Ducal Saxe-Ernestine House Order. Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden Leopold I of Belgium Eugène, 8th Prince of Ligne Leopold II of Belgium Olav V of Norway Pedro II of Brazil Jhr. Henri de Brouckère Baron Auguste Goffinet Sylvain Van de Weyer. Curt von Morgen Count d'Arschot Schoonhoven, Grand Marshall of the Court.
Albert Joseph, 1st Count Goblet d'Alviela. Count Felix de Muelenaere. Baron Jean-Baptiste Nothomb. Baron Edouard d'Huart. Charles Liedts. Charles Rogier, 8th Prime Minister of Belgium. Media related to Saxe-Ernestine House Order at Wikimedia Commons House Orders - Website of the Ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha