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Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate and quantify matter. In practice, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry consists of modern, instrumental methods. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed with the same instrument and may use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields; the same instrument can separate and quantify an analyte.

Analytical chemistry is focused on improvements in experimental design and the creation of new measurement tools. Analytical chemistry has broad applications to medicine and engineering. Analytical chemistry has been important since the early days of chemistry, providing methods for determining which elements and chemicals are present in the object in question. During this period significant contributions to analytical chemistry include the development of systematic elemental analysis by Justus von Liebig and systematized organic analysis based on the specific reactions of functional groups; the first instrumental analysis was flame emissive spectrometry developed by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff who discovered rubidium and caesium in 1860. Most of the major developments in analytical chemistry take place after 1900. During this period instrumental analysis becomes progressively dominant in the field. In particular many of the basic spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques were discovered in the early 20th century and refined in the late 20th century.

The separation sciences follow a similar time line of development and become transformed into high performance instruments. In the 1970s many of these techniques began to be used together as hybrid techniques to achieve a complete characterization of samples. Starting in the 1970s into the present day analytical chemistry has progressively become more inclusive of biological questions, whereas it had been focused on inorganic or small organic molecules. Lasers have been used in chemistry as probes and to initiate and influence a wide variety of reactions; the late 20th century saw an expansion of the application of analytical chemistry from somewhat academic chemical questions to forensic, environmental and medical questions, such as in histology. Modern analytical chemistry is dominated by instrumental analysis. Many analytical chemists focus on a single type of instrument. Academics tend to either focus on new methods of analysis; the discovery of a chemical present in blood that increases the risk of cancer would be a discovery that an analytical chemist might be involved in.

An effort to develop a new method might involve the use of a tunable laser to increase the specificity and sensitivity of a spectrometric method. Many methods, once developed, are kept purposely static so that data can be compared over long periods of time; this is true in industrial quality assurance and environmental applications. Analytical chemistry plays an important role in the pharmaceutical industry where, aside from QA, it is used in discovery of new drug candidates and in clinical applications where understanding the interactions between the drug and the patient are critical. Although modern analytical chemistry is dominated by sophisticated instrumentation, the roots of analytical chemistry and some of the principles used in modern instruments are from traditional techniques, many of which are still used today; these techniques tend to form the backbone of most undergraduate analytical chemistry educational labs. A qualitative analysis determines the presence or absence of a particular compound, but not the mass or concentration.

By definition, qualitative analyses do not measure quantity. There are numerous qualitative chemical tests, for example, the acid test for gold and the Kastle-Meyer test for the presence of blood. Inorganic qualitative analysis refers to a systematic scheme to confirm the presence of certain aqueous ions or elements by performing a series of reactions that eliminate ranges of possibilities and confirms suspected ions with a confirming test. Sometimes small carbon containing ions are included in such schemes. With modern instrumentation these tests are used but can be useful for educational purposes and in field work or other situations where access to state-of-the-art instruments are not available or expedient. Quantitative analysis is the measurement of the quantities of particular chemical constituents present in a substance. Gravimetric analysis involves determining the amount of material present by weighing the sample before and/or after some transformation. A common example used in undergraduate education is the determination of the amount of water in a hydrate by heating the sample to remove the water such that the difference in weight is due to the loss of water.

Titration involves the addition of a reactant to a solution being analyzed until some equivalence point is reached. The amount of material in the solution being ana

Bob Bell (politician)

Robert Linfield Bell was a New Zealand politician of the National Party. He had a farming background and represented the Gisborne electorate in Parliament from 1975 until his defeat in 1984. Bell was born in Blenheim in 1929, his father was Alex Linfield Bell. He received his education at Christchurch Boys' High School, Horowhenua College, Feilding Agricultural High School, he graduated from Lincoln College in 1951 with a diploma in farm management. In 1954, he married Anne Wilkinson, the daughter of John Arthur Wilkinson, they were to have two daughters and one son, he was a farm appraiser for six years, followed by seven years as the Gisborne–East Coast representative of London Wood Brokers Ltd. For ten years after that, he was valuer. Bell was a director of Gisborne Holdings Ltd. Bell was a counsellor for the Gisborne Budgetary Advisory Service, a committee member of the Poverty Bay A & P Association, a director of the YMCA in Gisborne, he served in the Territorials for six years, with the rank of lieutenant, was appointed as a justice of the peace in 1987.

Bell joined the National Party in 1958, was chair of the Kaiti branch from 1962 to 1978. He represented the Gisborne electorate in Parliament from 1975 to 1984, when he was defeated by Allan Wallbank. Bell was part of the small group of National MPs that stopped Robert Muldoon driving home drunk on the night that he had called the 1984 snap election. Bell was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977, the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal. Bell died on 16 November 2011 in Tauranga, aged 82. Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103

Arpin (town), Wisconsin

Arpin is a town in Wood County, United States. The population was 786 at the 2000 census. In 1851 the six-mile square which became the town of Arpin was surveyed by crews working for the U. S. government. They marked them; when done, the deputy surveyors filed these general descriptions: The soil in this Township is a dark loam and is the surface is level, except in the South western part, Rolling and somewhat stony - the stone are a Blue Flint - The Timber in the South West Part is Sugar Ironwood & Butternut with little or no undergrowth. The Eastern and Northern Part is timbered the Timber being Birch Oak Pine Soft Maple with some undergrowth of Blue Beech along the Border of the streams. We find alder thickets caused by the overflowing of the Bottom Lands in times of high water & from Beaver Dams; the streams are fed by the swamps and are subject to sudden rise and fall. This may be considered a valuable district of which a considerable portion would command a ready rate, if in market at the present time.

There is no settlement upon it. A few small rough log cabins, occupied in the winter season by the shingle makers, comprise all the improvements on it. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.0 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 786 people, 267 households, 213 families residing in the town; the population density was 23.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 280 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.84% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.25% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. 1.15 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 267 households out of which 42.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.8% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.2% were non-families. 15.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.31. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.7% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,115, the median income for a family was $45,313. Males had a median income of $27,679 versus $23,864 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,750. About 7.7% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Lester Public Library of Arpin 1852 plat map covering town of Arpin 1879 plat map of Arpin 1896 plat map 1909 plat map 1928 plat map 1956 plat map

James Malcolm (politician)

James Malcolm, was a Canadian politician. James Malcolm was born July 14, 1889 in Kincardine, Ontario to Andrew Malcolm, Member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario and Annie Robertson. In 1905 at the age of 16, Malcolm married Ethel A. Swan whom he lived with in Kincardine. Malcolm's father operated a furniture company in Kincardine, Ontario. Malcolm and his brother joined their father's company in which Malcolm become chairman and ran the Kincardine factory. Malcolm was elected to the House of Commons of Canada representing the Ontario riding of Bruce North in the 1921 federal election. A Liberal, he was re-elected in 1925, 1926, 1930. From 1926 to 1930, he served as Minister of Trade and Commerce in the cabinet of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King. Malcolm was the first Canadian to make a public address by Trans-Atlantic telephone in 1928. In 1923, Malcolm purchased a large mansion in Kincardine; the building still stands today as a retirement residence and bares the name'Malcolm Place' in his honour.

James Malcolm – Parliament of Canada biography

Triple M Melbourne

3MMM is a radio station broadcasting in Melbourne, Victoria. Its target demographic is the 18-54 age group. Triple M Melbourne is part of Southern Cross Austereo's Triple M Network and broadcasts on the 105.1 MHz frequency. The station was Australia's first commercial FM station known as Eon FM, broadcasting on 92.3 MHz. In late 1979, a consortium, members of which included recording entrepreneur Bill Armstrong, band manager Glenn Wheatley and stockbroker Bill Conn bid on one of two Melbourne FM licenses and set about creating a commercial FM radio station. Armstrong headed the consortium, having seen the commercial opportunities of FM radio in the US and the UK. Despite what their license application read, they had no blueprint at all with regard to marketing, administration or promotion; the next six months was spent building a radio station from scratch. A makeshift studio was set up in Bank Street, South Melbourne, draped with hessian to deaden the noise. Late-night dummy runs were performed a week before the on-air date to test the equipment.

On 11 July 1980, Australia's first commercial FM radio station, Eon FM, began broadcasting on 92.3 MHz, beating Fox FM to the title by two weeks. Behind the microphone at the momentous occasion was DJ Peter Grace, a former DJ for 3XY, a popular radio station at the time. "It's one past midnight and this is 92.3, E-O-N FM, I'm Peter Grace and this is the beginning of a long, long time..." The first song was "New Kid in Town" by The Eagles. Armstrong was the first managing director. Other announcers included Mike Nicholls, Karl Van Est, Joe Miller, John Peters, Andy McLean, Jan Cannon, Paul Cashmere, Kenny The Paper-Boy, Kent Forbes, John Hood, Gavin Wood, Trish Mulholand, Craig Huggins and Mark Irvine. Newsreader Jennifer Keyte began her career as a cadet at Eon FM. At first, Eon FM played songs that "would not be played elsewhere", having no playlist and avoiding Top 40 songs. Said Armstrong, "we thought we were going to be the beginning of a new era, it took us a while to realise we were wrong."

Eon FM performed better than the other non-commercial FM stations, but was beaten by the AM stations. Management was worried, shareholders were asked to invest another $1 million between them only a year after the station was launched. Programme Director Lee Simon went against the flow of the album rock formats favoured by Australia's FM stations and radically changed Eon's format by playing Top 40 hits and staging outdoor concerts. Molly Meldrum, host of Countdown, was invited to do a regular breakfast spot with Gavin Wood, the voice-over man of Countdown. Gavin and Molly's partnership included a segment of their own version of the crime fighters "Batman and Robin", they appeared in the Moomba procession as the crime fighting duo in the Batmobile. The combination of Gavin and Molly proved to be a ratings winner when in 1985, Eon FM topped Melbourne's ratings. Ken Gibson was Marketing Manager; the station's distinctive blue-and-yellow 92.3 EON-FM bumper stickers soon became a familiar sight throughout Melbourne.

In early 1986, 3EON FM was sold to Triple M Sydney, owned by Hoyts, for $37.5 million. The deal was negotiated by Wheatley, who subsequently became the managing director of Hoyts Media; the station was rebranded 3MMM on 27 November 1988, was moved to the current frequency. In 1987, a new style of breakfast show had begun taking shape on 3MMM featuring a team of comedians known as The D-Generation. With a successful sketch show on ABC TV behind them and hired in 1986 by Lee Simon to write comedy pieces for The John Peters Breakfast Show, the team of Tom Gleisner, Santo Cilauro, Rob Sitch, Tony Martin, Michael Veitch, Mick Molloy, Jason Stephens took over the breakfast air waves; the show had a number of anchors during its run, notably Ian Rogerson, Peter O’Callaghan and Kevin Hillier, but it is the sixteen month'anchorless' period, best-remembered by fans. The show had a popular mix of sketches and clever comedy, producing a number of best-of CDs. In September 1990, 3MMM moved from the original South Melbourne premises to the 8th Floor, 140 Bourke Street, Melbourne.

The on-air line-up in 1991 consisted of: Station Floater: Craig Huggins In late 1991, the D-Generation team pitched The Late Show to ABC TV. Sitch and Martin left the radio show to prepare, with the rest of the team following in April to star in it. Richard Stubbs, another ex-3XY DJ, moved from the morning slot to the newly vacated breakfast position. Tim Smith and Brigitte Duclos, like Jane Kennedy earlier, began working at the station as a newsreader, joined him to form The Richard Stubbs Breakfast Show. Saturday nights hosted Live from the Ivy, a dance music program hosted live from the Ivy Club in Melbourne. In 1994, the Triple M network, owned by Hoyts, was sold to Village Roadshow, who, on 1 December 1994, sold the network to Austereo, owner of the Today Network, in return for a 53.5% share of Austereo. This gave Austereo, therefore Village Roadshow, control of two national networks; the merger of two competing radio stations created some rivalries in ea

Battle of St Pol de Léon

The Battle of Saint-Pol-de-Léon was a minor action during the Breton War of Succession and thus part of the larger Hundred Years War. The battle was fought in June 1346 and marked a minor turning point in the fortunes of the Montfortists and their English allies in Brittany following several setbacks including the imprisonment and subsequent death of their leader, John of Montfort; the commander of the Anglo-Breton faction was Sir Thomas Dagworth, a veteran professional soldier who had served with his overlord King Edward III for many years and was trusted to conduct the Breton war in an effective manner whilst Edward was raising funds in England and planning the invasion of Normandy for the following year, which would result in the crushing battle of Crécy. Dagworth's fortunes were low, his forces were stretched across a handful of coastal towns and castles, his main opponent, Charles of Blois, was on the march with a substantial army of East Breton volunteers, French soldiers and German mercenaries, a number of his allies and subordinates were showing signs of changing sides or declaring their independence from his command and setting up their own fiefdoms.

To strengthen his faction's morale, Dagworth was conducting a tour of his possessions on the Northern coast of Brittany, thus confirming support in his rear and ensuring a valid line of retreat to England should his besieged strongholds in the south of the region fall. On 9 June, Dagworth was in the Finistère region, moving north from the town of Morlaix, scene of his earlier victory in the battle of Morlaix. Here Blois, who had led the fastest elements of his army north in a surprise march, ambushed Dagworth and his 180-man bodyguard at the isolated village of Saint-Pol-de-Léon. Dagworth formed up his men and led them in a rapid withdrawal towards a nearby hill, where they dug trenches and prepared positions. Blois was an intelligent general, he had seen and noted the ruthless efficiency of the English longbow at Morlaix and in numerous smaller skirmishes, he knew that cavalry would be doomed on the slopes of the hill and that the only way to break the English position and capture Dagworth before relief could arrive was a direct frontal assault with infantry.

To this end he dismounted all of his soldiers and abandoned his horse himself and ordered his superior numbers to make a three-pronged assault on the Anglo-Breton lines. The assault and the others that followed it during the afternoon were all repulsed by accurate archery fire, which decimated the attackers' ranks, some desperate last-ditch hand-to-hand fighting; the final assault came at last light with Charles himself in the vanguard, but this failed to achieve victory, the Franco-Breton forces were forced to abandon their attack and return to Eastern Brittany, leaving behind dozens of dead and captured soldiers on the hillside of the battlefield. The English force had suffered and, despite a number of severe injuries, none of the knights or men-at-arms had been killed, while losses among the archers and rank and file were low, although actual totals were not recorded; the French suffered more although contemporary accounts are certainly exaggerated. The real effect of the battle was psychological.

Charles of Blois, who had a reputation as a fierce and intelligent commander, had again been defeated by an English commander, one of common stock at that. Indeed, Charles failed to win a single one of the five significant battles he fought against the English between 1342 and 1364, although he proved more efficient at siegework and lengthy campaigns; the Breton nobility had now been given pause for thought in choosing their side in the ongoing war. Dagworth and Blois would meet in battle again, with the same result, at La Roche-Derrien the following year. Turnbull, Stephen; the Book of the Medieval Knight. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1985. ISBN 0-85368-715-3 Sumption, The Hundred Years War, Vol 1, Trial by Battle, 1990, ISBN 0-571-13895-0