Our Home – Russia
Our Home – Russia, abbreviated as NDR, was a Russian political party that existed from 1995 to the mid-2000s. Our Home – Russia was founded in 1995 by Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, it was a liberal, centrist political movement, founded for the purpose of rallying more technocratic-reformist government supporters. At the time of its founding, Chernomyrdin had the backing of Russian president Boris Yeltsin along with numerous large financial institutions such as Association of Russian Banks, major companies such as Gazprom, of which he was the chairman; the movement attracted the sympathies and interests of many prominent members of the ruling elite of Russia, NDR was thus nicknamed "the party of power". It was known as the party of the Oligarchs, the position identified with another political party, Russia's Choice. Two other parties were interested in cooperating with NDR after its foundation: parts of the Agrarian Party of Russia and Democratic Choice of Russia. Together their platform would promote "freedom and legality", would favor such policies as reducing the state's role in the economy, support for small businesses, privatization of agriculture, military cutbacks.
However, after Chernomyrdin's candidacy for a second term as Prime Minister was in 1998 rejected by the Duma, Our Home – Russia declined the other parties' bid for cooperation. Although it was critical of the war in Chechnya, Viktor Chernomyrdin and NDR played a central role in supporting Yeltsin in his 1996 bid for re-election as President of the Russian Federation. "To sum up why Our Home – Russia is for Yeltsin, I can say only one thing--because we are for reforms, for the constitution of Russia, for peace in Chechnya, for a normal life in Russia," Chernomyrdin told Itar-Tass news agency in 1996. In the spring of 1998, Yeltsin dismissed Chernomyrdin as head of government and in 1999 Yeltsin's administration backed a newly formed party, instead of Our Home – Russia; as a result, Our Home – Russia, which had 55 seats in the Russian State Duma in 1995-1999, won only 8 seats in the December 1999 election. It merged with United Russia instead. Political parties in Russia Politics of Russia David E. Hoffman.
The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia, New York, Public Affairs, 2002, 2003, ISBN 1-58648-202-5 Chernomyrdin's biography
Lyudmila Borisovna Narusova is a Russian politician, a member of the Federation Council of Russia, representing Tyva Republic. In 2010-2012 she represented Bryansk Oblast in the Federation Council of Russia. Narusova was born in Bryansk, USSR, the daughter of Borish Narusovich, a Jewish Platoon Commander of the Red Army and a lieutenant of the Komsomol, appointed the Director of the School for the Deaf in Bryansk. In 1969-1974 she studied history in Saint Petersburg State University. In 1977-1980 she studied history at the graduate school of the Institute of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences and worked at Saint Petersburg State University. In 1980 she married Anatoly Sobchak. After obtaining Ph. D. in History, she taught history at the St. Petersburg Academy of Culture. Narusova entered Russian politics when she was elected to the State Duma in 1995, she was a member of "Our Home – Russia" faction until 2006. Since 2000, Narusova became a host of TV-show "Freedom of speech" at St. Petersburg branch of RTR.
In October 2002 she was elected a member of the Federation Council of Russia from Tuva Republic. Since 2010, Narusova served as a senator from Bryansk Oblast, but she was dismissed by Nikolay Demin, a former governor of Bryansk Oblast. In 2016 she became a member of the Federation Council of Russia from Tuva Republic for a new term. In 2013 Narusova was expelled from the Fair Russia party. However, she claimed she had never formally been a member of a party. Narusova is the widow of Anatoly Sobchak, a prominent Russian politician and teacher of both Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev, the mother of Ksenia Sobchak, a celebrity known in Russia as a presenter on the reality show Dom-2 and other TV-shows. Medal "In Commemoration of the 850th Anniversary of Moscow" Medal "In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of Saint Petersburg" Official site of Anatoly Sobchak
Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai
Chita is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers east of Irkutsk. Population: 324,444 . Pyotr Beketov's Cossacks founded Chita in 1653. After 1825, several of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita. According to George Kennan, "Among the exiles in Chita were some of the brightest, most cultivated, most sympathetic men and women that we had met in Eastern Siberia."When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one wooden, church. He estimated Chita's population at under 1,000, but predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. By 1885, Chita's population had reached 5,728, by 1897 it increased to 11,500. In 1945, the last Emperor of China, some of his associates were held prisoner in the city, in a former sanatorium for officers. Chita is the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Chitinsky District, to which it is subordinated.
As a municipal division, the city of Chita together with one rural locality in Chitinsky District is incorporated as Chita Urban Okrug. The city is subdivided into four administrative districts: Chernovsky, Ingodinsky and Zheleznodorozhny. Chernovsky Administrative District used to be a mining settlement, incorporated into Chita in 1941. Chernovskiye mines themselves are a geological nature monument of international status. Chita is served by Kadala Airport, situated 15 km to the west. Chita is home to several facilities of higher education: Transbaikal State University Chita State Academy of Medicine Chita Northwest air base is located nearby, as well as the 101st Communications Brigade and the 53rd Material Support Regiment. FC Chita is Chita's association football club. An indoor arena for speed skating is planned. Chita experiences a borderline subarctic climate/humid continental climate with cold dry winters and warm, wet summers. Chita is twinned with: Ulan-Ude, Russia. 1 января 2014 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Забайкальского края», в ред.
Распоряжения №209-р от 10 июня 2014 г... Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №316-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №770-ЗЗК от 26 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г.. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chita". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 247. Official website of Chita Account of Englishman's life in Chita, 2005-2006 Old Chita, website of local history
Privatization in Russia
Privatization in Russia describes the series of post-Soviet reforms that resulted in large-scale privatization of Russia's state-owned assets in the industrial and financial sectors. Most privatization took place in the early and mid-1990s under Boris Yeltsin, who assumed the presidency following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Private ownership of enterprises and property had remained illegal throughout the Soviet era, with Soviet communism emphasizing national control over all means of production but human labor. Under the Soviet Union, the number of state enterprises was estimated at 45,000. In the years of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev relaxed restrictions on private property and introduced initial market reforms. Privatization shifted Russia from the Soviet planned economy towards a market economy, resulted in a dramatic rise in the level of economic inequality and a collapse in GDP and industrial output. Privatization facilitated the transfer of significant wealth to a small group of business oligarchs and New Russians natural gas and oil executives.
This economic transition has been described as katastroika and as "the most cataclysmic peacetime economic collapse of an industrial country in history". A few "strategic" assets, including much of the Russian defense industry, were not privatized during the 1990s; the mass privatization of this era remains a contentious issue in Russian society, with many Russians calling for revision or reversal of the reforms. In the late 1980s, as part of the perestroika reformation movement, legislation championed by Mikhail Gorbachev—who pledged to build a "mixed socialist economy"—effectively transferred some controlling rights over enterprises from the government to the employees and management. In 1987, over the opposition of some of his allies, Gorbachev succeeded in passing a "law on state enterprise" through the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, which granted work collectives a greater role in running enterprises. In 1988, the Law on Cooperatives legitimized "socialist cooperatives," which functionally operated as private companies and were permitted to directly deal with foreign companies, reduced reliance on central planning.
That year, private Soviet farmers were permitted to rent land from the state, purchase equipment, hire workers, a significant step away from mandated collective farming following decades of dominance by state-owned agricultural concerns. The new regulations were seen as an effort to break state farms into smaller units and address critical food shortages in the Soviet Union; the legislation enabled these enterprises to withdraw from associations on their own, which led to the process of so-called spontaneous privatization in which control over some industrial assets was acquired by their managers. However, this accounted for only several thousand enterprises, a small fraction of the Soviet industry. In September 1990, the Soviet parliament granted Gorbachev emergency privatization powers, including the authority to transform state enterprises into joint-stock companies with shares offered on stock exchanges. One of the largest privatization efforts during the Soviet era was the transformation of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy into a joint stock company known as Rosneftgaz in September 1991.
In the months before the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, soon-to-be president Boris Yeltsin began assembling a team of economic reformers led by Yegor Gaidar a young reformist economist, including Anatoly Chubais. The reform team considered Swedish social democracy as a model for Russia, but Gaidar opted instead to study Hungary as a template and was influenced by Poland's use of shock therapy. Both Gaidar and Chubais were convinced that despite Russia's uniquely non-capitalist economic history, a market economy could take hold in the country. Following the August 1991 coup d'état attempt, the economic situation in the country worsened and an acute food shortage emerged. In October, Yeltsin delivered a speech in which he declared that price controls would be lifted on January 1, 1992, over Gaidar's recommendation that no specific date for the freeing of prices be given. Privatization took place on a much wider scale in the early 1990s, when the government of Russia deliberately set a goal to sell its assets to the Russian public.
Upon the Soviet Union's collapse, the new government was forced to manage the huge and inefficient state enterprise sector inherited from the Soviet economy. Privatization was carried out by the State Committee for State Property Management of the Russian Federation under Chubais with the primary goal being to transform the state-owned enterprises into profit-seeking businesses, which would not be dependent on government subsidies for their survival. To distribute property and to win over popular support, the reformers decided to rely on the mechanism of free voucher privatization, earlier implemented in Czechoslovakia; the Russian government believed that the open sale of state-owned assets, as opposed to the voucher program, would have resulted in the further concentration of ownership among the Russian mafia and the nomenklatura, which they sought to avoid. Contrary to the government's expectations, insiders managed to acquire control over most of the assets, which remained dependent on government support for years to come.
From 1992 to 1994, ownership of 15,000 firms was transferred from state control via the voucher program. Thus, although several of the initial objectives had not been achieved by the end of the vouchers program, a great deal of assets did fall into private ownership remarkably and worked
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent 1977 Soviet constitution, which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system; the party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a majority faction detached from the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in the October Revolution of 1917. After 74 years, it was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory, soon after a failed coup d'état by hard-line CPSU leaders against Soviet president and party general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and was outlawed three months on 6 November 1991 in Russian territory; the CPSU was a Communist party, organized on the basis of democratic centralism. This principle, conceived by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies.
The highest body within the CPSU was the Party Congress. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body; because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat and the Orgburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time; the party leader was the de facto chairman of the CPSU Politburo and chief executive of the Soviet Union. The tension between the party and the state for the shifting focus of power was never formally resolved, but in reality the party dominated and a paramount leader always existed. After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy referred to as the New Economic Policy, which allowed for capitalist practices to resume under the Communist Party dictation in order to develop the necessary conditions for socialism to become a practical pursuit in the economically undeveloped country.
In 1929, as Joseph Stalin became the leader of the party, Marxism–Leninism, a fusion of the original ideas of German philosopher and economic theorist Karl Marx, Lenin, became formalized as the party's guiding ideology and would remain so throughout the rest of its existence. The party pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized and a planned economy was implemented. After recovering from the Second World War, reforms were implemented which decentralized economic planning and liberalized Soviet society in general under Nikita Khrushchev. By 1980, various factors, including the continuing Cold War, ongoing nuclear arms race with the United States and other Western European powers and unaddressed inefficiencies in the economy, led to stagnant economic growth under Alexei Kosygin, further with Leonid Brezhnev and a growing disillusionment. After a younger vigorous Mikhail Gorbachev, assumed leadership in 1985, rapid steps were taken to transform the tottering Soviet economic system in the direction of a market economy once again.
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms along with the institution of free multiparty elections led to a decline in the party's power, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation. A number of causes contributed to CPSU's loss of control and the dissolution of the Soviet Union during the early 1990s; some historians have written that Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" was the root cause, noting that it weakened the party's control over society. Gorbachev maintained. Others have blamed the economic stagnation and subsequent loss of faith by the general populace in communist ideology. In the final years of the CPSU's existence, the Communist Parties of the federal subjects of Russia were united into the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
After the CPSU's demise, the Communist Parties of the Union Republics became independent and underwent various separate paths of reform. In Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation emerged and has been regarded as the inheritor of the CPSU's old Bolshevik legacy into the present day. 1912–18:Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party 1918–25:Russian Communist Party 1925–52:All-Union Communist Party 1952–91:Communist Party of the Soviet Union The origin of the CPSU was in the Bolshevik majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, left the party in January 1912 to form a new one at the Prague Party Conference, called the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – or RSDLP. Prior to the February Revolution, the first phase of the Russian Revolutions of 1917, the party worked underground as organized anti-Tsarist groups. By the time of the revolution, many of the party's central leaders, including Lenin, were in exile. With Emperor Nicholas II, deposed in February 1917, a republic was established and administered by a provisional gove
President of Russia
The President of Russia the President of the Russian Federation, is the head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister of Russia, who becomes Acting President of Russia; the Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.
The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances; the president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term; the law prohibits anyone from being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. In May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth president. A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation, at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia for at least 10 years; the Constitution of Russia limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms.
Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term. The election of the President is regulated by the Presidential Election Law and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights; the Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call a presidential election, due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election; the Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections; the minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law. Terms were extended from four during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.
The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes; the last presidential election was in 2018, the next is expected in 2024. Inauguration of the President of Russia is conducted six years after the previous inauguration. If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people. Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death and removal from office.
In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president; these devices are used on special occasions. The first insignia, issued is the chain of office with an emblem; the central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms; the other eight consist of a rosette bearing the motto "Benefit and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions.
The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the stan
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly