Pericles was a prominent and influential Greek statesman and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful, Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, a contemporary historian, acclaimed him as the first citizen of Athens. Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire, and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles promoted the arts and literature, it is principally through his efforts that Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural center of the ancient Greek world and he started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis. This project beautified and protected the city, exhibited its glory, Pericles fostered Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a populist. Pericles was born c.495 BC, in Athens, Greece and he was the son of the politician Xanthippus, though ostracized in 485–484 BC, returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later.
Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant of Sicyon, according to Herodotus and Plutarch, Agariste dreamed, a few nights before Pericles birth, that she had borne a lion. Interestingly, legends say that Philip II of Macedon had a dream before the birth of his son. Pericles belonged to the tribe of Acamantis and his early years were quiet, the introverted young Pericles avoided public appearances, instead preferring to devote his time to his studies. His familys nobility and wealth allowed him to pursue his inclination toward education. He learned music from the masters of the time and he is considered to have been the first politician to attribute importance to philosophy and he enjoyed the company of the philosophers Protagoras, Zeno of Elea, and Anaxagoras. Anaxagoras, in particular, became a friend and influenced him greatly. Pericles manner of thought and rhetorical charisma may have been in part products of Anaxagoras emphasis on emotional calm in the face of trouble and his proverbial calmness and self-control are often regarded as products of Anaxagoras influence.
In the spring of 472 BC, Pericles presented The Persians of Aeschylus at the Greater Dionysia as a liturgy, Plutarch says that Pericles stood first among the Athenians for forty years. If this was so, Pericles must have taken up a position of leadership by the early 460s BC- in his early or mid-thirties, throughout these years he endeavored to protect his privacy and to present himself as a model for his fellow citizens. For example, he would often avoid banquets, trying to be frugal, in 463 BC, Pericles was the leading prosecutor of Cimon, the leader of the conservative faction who was accused of neglecting Athens vital interests in Macedon. Although Cimon was acquitted, this proved that Pericles major political opponent was vulnerable. The leader of the party and mentor of Pericles, the Ecclesia adopted Ephialtes proposal without opposition
Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Platos entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Along with his teacher and his most famous student, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy. Alfred North Whitehead once noted, the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. In addition to being a figure for Western science, philosophy. Friedrich Nietzsche, amongst other scholars, called Christianity, Platonism for the people, Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy, which originate with him. He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word “philosopher” should be applied, few other authors in the history of Western philosophy approximate him in depth and range, perhaps only Aristotle and Kant would be generally agreed to be of the same rank.
Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Platos early life, the philosopher came from one of the wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens. Ancient sources describe him as a bright though modest boy who excelled in his studies, the exact time and place of Platos birth are unknown, but it is certain that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina between 429 and 423 BCE. According to a tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus. Platos mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker, besides Plato himself and Perictione had three other children, these were two sons and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus. The brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon are mentioned in the Republic as sons of Ariston, and presumably brothers of Plato, but in a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon much younger than Plato.
Then, at twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, went to Euclides in Megara, as Debra Nails argues, The text itself gives no reason to infer that Plato left immediately for Megara and implies the very opposite. Thus, Nails dates Platos birth to 424/423, another legend related that, when Plato was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping, an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy. Ariston appears to have died in Platos childhood, although the dating of his death is difficult. Perictione married Pyrilampes, her mothers brother, who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, who was famous for his beauty. Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes second son, the half-brother of Plato and these and other references suggest a considerable amount of family pride and enable us to reconstruct Platos family tree
Parmenides of Elea was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia. He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy, the single known work of Parmenides is a poem, On Nature, which has survived only in fragmentary form. In this poem, Parmenides describes two views of reality, in the way of truth, he explains how reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform and unchanging. In the way of opinion, he explains the world of appearances, in which ones sensory faculties lead to conceptions which are false, Parmenides was born in the Greek colony of Elea, according to Herodotus, had been founded shortly before 535 BC. He was descended from a wealthy and illustrious family,450 BC, which, if true, suggests a year of birth of c.515 BC. He was said to have been a pupil of Xenophanes, and regardless of whether they knew each other. Diogenes Laërtius describes Parmenides as a disciple of Ameinias, son of Diochaites, the Pythagorean, the first hero cult of a philosopher we know of was Parmenides dedication of a heroon to his teacher Ameinias in Elea.
Parmenides was the founder of the School of Elea, which included Zeno of Elea, of his life in Elea, it was said that he had written the laws of the city. His most important pupil was Zeno, who according to Plato was 25 years his junior, Parmenides had a large influence on Plato, who not only named a dialogue, after him, but always spoke of him with veneration. William Smith wrote in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Reason is our guide, on the latter the eye that does not catch the object and re-echoing hearing. Thought and that which is thought of coinciding, the passages of Plato, Aristotle and others. Parmenides is one of the most significant of the pre-Socratic philosophers and his single known work, a poem conventionally titled On Nature, has survived only in fragments. Approximately 160 verses remain today from a total that was probably near 800. The poem was divided into three parts, A proem, which introduced the entire work, A section known as The Way of Truth. The proem is a sequence in which the narrator travels beyond the beaten paths of mortal men to receive a revelation from an unnamed goddess on the nature of reality.
Aletheia, an estimated 90% of which has survived, and doxa, in the proem, Parmenides describes the journey of the poet, escorted by maidens, from the ordinary daytime world to a strange destination, outside our human paths. Carried in a chariot, and attended by the daughters of Helios the Sun. The goddess resides in a well-known mythological space, where Night and its essential character is that here all opposites are undivided, or one
Lampsacus was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. An inhabitant of Lampsacus was called a Lampsacene, the name has been transmitted in the nearby modern town of Lapseki. Originally known as Pityusa or Pityussa, it was colonized from Phocaea, in the 6th century BC Lampsacus was attacked by Miltiades the Elder and Stesagoras, the Athenian tyrants of the nearby Thracian Chersonese. A revolt against the Athenians in 411 BC was put down by force, in 196 BC, the Romans defended the town against Antiochus the Great, and it became an ally of Rome and Strabo attest its continuing prosperity under Roman rule. Lampsacus was notable for its worship of Priapus, who was said to have been born there, the philosopher Anaxagoras was forced to retire to Lampsacus after a trial in Athens around 434-33 BC. The citizens of Lampsacus erected an altar to Mind and Truth in his honor, Lampsacus produced a series of notable historians and philosophers.
Charon of Lampsacus composed histories of Persia and Ethiopia, Metrodorus of Lampsacus was a philosopher from the school of Anaxagoras. Strato of Lampsacus was a Peripatetic philosopher and the director of Aristotles Lyceum at Athens. Euaeon of Lampsacus was one of Platos students, according to legend, St Tryphon was buried at Lampsacus after his martyrdom at Nicaea in 250. The first known bishop in Lampsacus was Parthenius, under Constantine I, in 364, the see was occupied by Marcian and in the same year a council of bishops was held at Lampsacus. Marcian, was summoned to the First Council of Constantinople of Constantinople in 381, the See of Lampsacus is mentioned in the Notitiae Episcopatuum until about the 12th or 13th century. The famous Lampsacus Treasure, now in the British Museum, dates from this period, the Bishopric remains a vacant and titular see. List of traditional Greek place names Lampsace Anaximenes of Lampsacus Polyaenus of Lampsacus Metrodorus of Lampsacus Abramios the Recluse
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured arc, Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. However, the observer sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground. In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer part and this rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. In a double rainbow, an arc is seen outside the primary arc. A rainbow is not located at a distance from the observer. Thus, a rainbow is not an object and cannot be physically approached, indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. Even if an observer sees another observer who seems under or at the end of a rainbow, Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours.
Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water and these include not only rain, but mist and airborne dew. Rainbows can be observed there are water drops in the air. Because of this, rainbows are seen in the western sky during the morning. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is dark with raining clouds. The result is a rainbow that contrasts with the darkened background. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is often visible and it appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours. The rainbow effect is commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. Rarely, a moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on strongly moonlit nights, as human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are often perceived to be white. It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, for a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required
Written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493. It is one of the early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to successfully integrate illustrations. Latin scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum as this appears in the index introduction of the Latin edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg Chronicle after the city in which it was published, german-speakers refer to it as Die Schedelsche Weltchronik in honour of its author. Two Nuremberg merchants, Sebald Schreyer and his son-in-law, Sebastian Kammermeister and they commissioned George Alt, a scribe at the Nuremberg treasury, to translate the work into German. Both Latin and German editions were printed by Anton Koberger, in Nuremberg, the contracts were recorded by scribes, bound into volumes, and deposited in the Nuremberg City Archives. The first contract, from December,1491, established the relationship between the illustrators and the patrons and Pleydenwurff, the painters, were to provide the layout of the chronicle, to oversee the production of the woodcuts, and to guard the designs against piracy.
The patrons agreed to advance 1000 gulden for paper, printing costs, a second contract, between the patrons and the printer, was executed in March,1492. It stipulated conditions for acquiring the paper and managing the printing, the blocks and the archetype were to be returned to the patrons once the printing was completed. The author of the text, Hartmann Schedel, was a doctor, humanist. He earned a doctorate in medicine in Padua in 1466, settled in Nuremberg to practice medicine, according to an inventory done in 1498, Schedels personal library contained 370 manuscripts and 670 printed books. The author used passages from the classical and medieval works in this collection to compose the text of Chronicle and he borrowed most frequently from another humanist chronicle, Supplementum Chronicarum, by Jacob Philip Foresti of Bergamo. It has been estimated that about 90% of the text is pieced together from works on humanities, philosophy, Nuremberg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire in the 1490s, with a population of between 45,000 and 50,000.
Thirty-five patrician families comprised the City Council, the Council controlled all aspects of printing and craft activities, including the size of each profession and the quality and type of goods produced. Although dominated by an aristocracy, Nuremberg was a center of northern humanism. Anton Koberger, printer of the Nuremberg Chronicle, printed the first humanist book in Nuremberg in 1472, Sebald Shreyer, one of the patrons of the chronicle, commissioned paintings from classical mythology for the grand salon of his house. Hartmann Schedel, author of the chronicle, was a collector of both Italian Renaissance and German humanist works. Hieronymus Münzer, who assisted Schedel in writing the chapter on geography, was among this group, as were Albrecht Dürer and Johann
Battle of Salamis
The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, and marked the high-point of the second Persian invasion of Greece. To block the Persian advance, a force of Greeks blocked the pass of Thermopylae. In the resulting Battle of Thermopylae, the rearguard of the Greek force was annihilated, whilst in the Battle of Artemisium the Greeks had heavy losses and this allowed the Persians to conquer Boeotia and Attica. The Allies prepared to defend the Isthmus of Corinth whilst the fleet was withdrawn to nearby Salamis Island, the Persian king Xerxes was eager for a decisive battle. As a result of subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the Persian navy rowed into the Straits of Salamis, in the cramped conditions of the Straits, the great Persian numbers were an active hindrance, as ships struggled to maneuver and became disorganized. Seizing the opportunity, the Greek fleet formed in line and scored a decisive victory, Xerxes retreated to Asia with much of his army, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece.
However, the year, the remainder of the Persian army was decisively beaten at the Battle of Plataea. Afterwards, the Persians made no attempts to conquer the Greek mainland. These battles of Salamis and Plataea thus mark a point in the course of the Greco-Persian wars as a whole, from onward. The main source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus, who has been called the Father of History, was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor. He wrote his Enquiries around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, Herodotuss approach was entirely novel, and at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented history as we know it. Some subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, criticised Herodotus, Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off, and therefore evidently felt that Herodotuss history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, since the 19th century his reputation has been dramatically rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have repeatedly confirmed his version of events.
The prevailing modern view is that Herodotus generally did a job in his Historia. Nevertheless, there are some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story. This account is consistent with Herodotuss. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column, some of Herodotuss specific claims. The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had supported the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499-494 BC, led by the satrap of Miletus, the Persian Empire was still relatively young, and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples
Ionia is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements, never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek and it was bounded by Aeolia to the north, Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks, according to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean. Their settlement was connected with the history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at four times the direct distance. A great part of area was, occupied by mountains.
None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres, the geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position that was both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times, the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland, the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity, the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources, Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left. These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios.
Smyrna, originally an Aeolic colony, was occupied by Ionians from Colophon. These cities do not match those of Achaea, the Achaea of Herodotus time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most likely spoke Mycenaean Greek, which is not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there, Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks probably under the name of Achaeans, the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names even then. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as yavanar or yona, in modern Turkish, the people of that region were called yunan and the country that is now Greece is known as Yunanistan
When the object enters the atmosphere, various factors like friction and chemical interactions with the atmospheric gases cause it to heat up and radiate that energy. It becomes a meteor and forms a fireball, known as a shooting/falling star, meteorites that survive atmospheric entry and impact vary greatly in size. For geologists, a bolide is a large enough to create a crater. Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transit the atmosphere or impact the Earth are called meteorite falls, all others are known as meteorite finds. As of April 2016, there were about 1,140 witnessed falls that have specimens in the worlds collections, there are more than 38,660 well-documented meteorite finds. Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure and isotopic composition, meteorites smaller than 2 mm are classified as micrometeorites. Extraterrestrial meteorites are such objects that have impacted other celestial bodies and they have been found on the Moon and Mars.
Meteorites are always named for the places they were found, usually a town or geographic feature. In cases where many meteorites were found in one place, the name may be followed by a number or letter, the name designated by the Meteoritical Society is used by scientists and most collectors. Most meteoroids disintegrate when entering the Earths atmosphere, five to ten a year are observed to fall and are subsequently recovered and made known to scientists. Few meteorites are large enough to create large impact craters, they typically arrive at the surface at their terminal velocity and, at most, create a small pit. Large meteoroids may strike the ground with a significant fraction of their escape velocity, the kind of crater will depend on the size, degree of fragmentation, and incoming angle of the impactor. The force of such collisions has the potential to cause widespread destruction, the most frequent hypervelocity cratering events on the Earth are caused by iron meteoroids, which are most easily able to transit the atmosphere intact.
In contrast, even relatively large stony or icy bodies like small comets or asteroids, up to millions of tons, are disrupted in the atmosphere, and do not make impact craters. Although such disruption events are uncommon, they can cause a concussion to occur. Very large stony objects, hundreds of meters in diameter or more, weighing tens of millions of tons or more, can reach the surface and cause large craters, such events are generally so energetic that the impactor is completely destroyed, leaving no meteorites. Several phenomena are well documented during witnessed meteorite falls too small to produce hypervelocity craters, various colors have been reported, including yellow and red. Flashes and bursts of light can occur as the object breaks up, explosions and rumblings are often heard during meteorite falls, which can be caused by sonic booms as well as shock waves resulting from major fragmentation events
Klazomenai or Clazomenae was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia and a member of the Ionian League. It was one of the first cities to issue silver coinage and its ruins are now located in the modern town Urla near Izmir in Izmir Province, Turkey. Klazomenai is located in modern Urla on the western coast of Anatolia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of İzmir and this can be shown by the island of Karantina, located to the north of the settlement area-which became settled at certain points in the history of Klazomenai. A silver coin minted in Klazomenai shows the head of Apollo, according to myth, swans drew the chariot in which Apollo every year flew south from his winter home in the land of the Hyperboreans. But Klazomenai was home to numbers of swans. The swan on the obverse is both an attribute of Apollo and a pun on the name Klazomenai, though not in existence before the arrival of the Ionians in Asia, its original founders were largely settlers from Phlius and Cleonae. This island was connected with the mainland by Alexander the Great by means of a pier, Clazomenae was attacked by the Lydian king Alyattes II in the 6th century.
During the 5th century it was for some subject to the Athenians. After a brief resistance, however, it acknowledged the Athenian supremacy. In 387 BC Klazomenai and other cities in Asia were taken over by Persia, the philosopher Anaxagoras, often styled Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, was born in Clazomenae, as was the earlier philosopher Hermotimus of Clazomenae. Under the Romans, Clazomenae was included in the province of Asia, Clazomenae early became a Christian bishopric. Its bishop, Eusebius took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431, Macarius, participated in the Council of Constantinople, which is seen within the Catholic Church as the eighth ecumenical council. Although still documented at the end of the 14th century, it is no longer a residential bishopric, Clazomenae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. One possible explanation for this is that these sites were used by different social groups within society, the city was famous for production and exports of olive oil and its painted terracotta sarcophagi, which are the finest monuments of Ionian painting in the 6th century BC.
A large painted terracotta sarcophagus and lid, together weighing about 2 tonnes, were discovered in the vicinity of Klazomenai in the nineteenth century. An ancient Greek work dating to about 500 BC, the funerary objects depict war scenes and it was prized for its variety of garum. The olive oil obtained turned out to be quite a success in terms as well. The reconstructed olive oil press is located on the mainland site of Klazomenai
The Troad or Troas /ˈtroʊəs/ is the historical name of the Biga Peninsula in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey. This region now is part of the province of Turkey. The Troad gets its name from the Hittites name for the region, according to Trevor Bryce, Hittite texts indicate a number of Ahhiyawan raids on Wilusa during the 13th century BC, which may have resulted in the overthrow of king Walmu. Bryce said that archeological surveys conducted by John Bintliff in the 1970s showed that a kingdom that held sway over northwestern Anatolia was based at Wilusa. Greek settlements flourished in Troas during the Archaic and Classical ages, the region was part of the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia of the Achaemenid Empire. The Attalid kings of Pergamon ceded the territory of the Troad to the Roman Republic, under the Byzantine Empire, it was included in the thema of the Aegean Islands. Following its conquest by the Ottoman Empire, the Troad formed part of the sanjak of Biga, the apostles Paul and Silas first visited Troas during their journey from Galatia to Macedonia.
Paul referred to Troas when he asked his fellow worker Timothy out of Ephesus, to bring the cloak he had left there, a journey of about 500 kilometres. The changes from the story, being recounted as they to we in Acts 16 and Acts 20, Acts of Apostles Alexandria Troas List of traditional Greek place names Trevor R. Bryce. Chapter 14, The Trojan War, Myth or Reality in The Kingdom of the Hittites, ISBN 0-19-924010-8 Along the Troad Coast travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99. 86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Suns mass consists of hydrogen, the rest is mostly helium, with smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, neon. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class and it formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into a disk that became the Solar System. The central mass became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core and it is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun is roughly middle-aged, it has not changed dramatically for more than four billion years and it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large enough to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and probably Earth. The enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of the solar calendar, which is the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun developed from Old English sunne and may be related to south, all Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is ultimately a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not common in general English language use, the adjectival form is the related word solar. The term sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet. A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian sol is 24 hours,39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds.
From at least the 4th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Sun was worshipped as the god Ra, portrayed as a falcon-headed divinity surmounted by the solar disk, and surrounded by a serpent. In the New Empire period, the Sun became identified with the dung beetle, in the form of the Sun disc Aten, the Sun had a brief resurgence during the Amarna Period when it again became the preeminent, if not only, divinity for the Pharaoh Akhenaton. The Sun is viewed as a goddess in Germanic paganism, Sól/Sunna, in ancient Roman culture, Sunday was the day of the Sun god. It was adopted as the Sabbath day by Christians who did not have a Jewish background, the symbol of light was a pagan device adopted by Christians, and perhaps the most important one that did not come from Jewish traditions