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An anchor is a device made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα. Anchors can either be permanent. Permanent anchors are used in the creation of a mooring, are moved. Vessels carry one or more temporary anchors, which may be of different weights. A sea anchor is a drogue, not in contact with the seabed, it is used to control a drifting vessel, or to limit the speed of a sailing yacht running "under bare poles" in a storm. Anchors achieve holding power either by "hooking" into the seabed, or sheer mass, or a combination of the two. Permanent moorings use large masses resting on the seabed. Semi-permanent mooring anchors and large ship's anchors derive a significant portion of their holding power from their mass, while hooking or embedding in the bottom. Modern anchors for smaller vessels have metal flukes which hook on to rocks on the bottom or bury themselves in soft seabed.

The vessel is attached to a combination of these. The ratio of the length of rode to the water depth is known as the scope. A 10:1 scope gives the greatest holding power, but allows for much more drifting due to the longer amount of cable paid out. Anchoring with sufficient scope and/or heavy chain rode brings the direction of strain close to parallel with the seabed; this is important for light, modern anchors designed to bury in the bottom, where scopes of 5:1 to 7:1 are common, whereas heavy anchors and moorings can use a scope of 3:1, or less. Some modern anchors, such as the Ultra will hold with a scope of 3:1. Since all anchors that embed themselves in the bottom require the strain to be along the seabed, anchors can be broken out of the bottom by shortening the rope until the vessel is directly above the anchor. If necessary, motoring around the location of the anchor helps dislodge it. Anchors are sometimes fitted with a tripping line attached to the crown, by which they can be unhooked from rocks or coral.

The term aweigh is not resting on the bottom. This is linked to the term to weigh anchor, meaning to lift the anchor from the sea bed, allowing the ship or boat to move. An anchor is described as aweigh when it has been broken out of the bottom and is being hauled up to be stowed. Aweigh should not be confused with under way, which describes a vessel, not moored to a dock or anchored, whether or not the vessel is moving through the water; the earliest anchors were rocks, many rock anchors have been found dating from at least the Bronze Age. Pre-European Maori waka used one or more hollowed stones, tied with flax ropes, as anchors. Many modern moorings still rely on a large rock as the primary element of their design. However, using pure mass to resist the forces of a storm only works well as a permanent mooring; the ancient Greeks used baskets of stones, large sacks filled with sand, wooden logs filled with lead. According to Apollonius Rhodius and Stephen of Byzantium, anchors were formed of stone, Athenaeus states that they were sometimes made of wood.

Such anchors held the vessel by their weight and by their friction along the bottom. Iron was afterwards introduced for the construction of anchors, an improvement was made by forming them with teeth, or "flukes", to fasten themselves into the bottom; this is the iconic anchor shape most familiar to non-sailors. This form has been used since antiquity; the Roman Nemi ships of the 1st century AD used this form. The Viking Ladby ship used a fluked anchor of this type, made of iron; the Admiralty Pattern anchor, or "Admiralty" known as a "Fisherman", consists of a central shank with a ring or shackle for attaching the rode. At the other end of the shank there are two arms, carrying the flukes, while the stock is mounted to the shackle end, at ninety degrees to the arms; when the anchor lands on the bottom, it will fall over with the arms parallel to the seabed. As a strain comes onto the rode, the stock will dig into the bottom, canting the anchor until one of the flukes catches and digs into the bottom.

The Admiralty Anchor is a reinvention of a classical design, as seen in one of the Nemi ship anchors. This basic design remained unchanged for centuries, with the most significant changes being to the overall proportions, a move from stocks made of wood to iron stocks in the late 1830s and early 1840s. Since one fluke always protrudes up from the set anchor, there is a great tendency of the rode to foul the anchor as the vessel swings due to wind or current shifts; when this happens, the anchor may be pulled out of the bottom, in some cases may need to be hauled up to be re-set. In the mid-19th century, numerous modifications were attempted to alleviate these problems, as well as improve holding power, including one-armed mooring anchors; the most successful of these patent anch

Cole Hauser

Cole Kenneth Hauser is an American actor. He is best known for his roles in the films School Ties and Confused, Good Will Hunting, Pitch Black, Hart's War, Tears of the Sun, 2 Fast 2 Furious, The Cave, The Break-Up, A Good Day to Die Hard, Olympus Has Fallen, Transcendence, he starred as Officer Randy Willitz on the police crime drama series High Incident and Ethan Kelly on the police drama Rogue. He stars as Rip Wheeler on the Paramount Network western drama series Yellowstone. Cole Kenneth Hauser was born on March 22, 1975, in Santa Barbara, the son of Cass Warner, who founded the film production company Warner Brothers, actor Wings Hauser, his paternal grandfather was Academy Award-winning screenwriter Dwight Hauser. One of Cole's maternal great-grandfathers was film mogul Harry Warner, a founding partner of Warner Bros. and his maternal grandfather was Milton Sperling, a Hollywood screenwriter and independent film producer. Hauser's maternal grandmother, Betty Mae Warner, a painter, political activist and gallery owner, was married to Stanley Sheinbaum, a noted political activist, philanthropist, a former Los Angeles Police Department commissioner.

Hauser is of Irish and German descent on his father's side and Jewish on his mother's. Hauser's parents divorced in 1977. According to him, at fifteen, he first met his father after the relocation-induced years of separation, his father taught him about auditioning. Prior to that, his mother had moved Hauser and his half brother and sisters from Santa Barbara to Oregon to Florida and back to Santa Barbara within a 12-year-span. At the time, he participated in sports, but half-heartedly pursued school, he was admitted to the short-listed circle of talent at a talent summer camp in New England won the leading role of the stage play named Dark of the Moon, which earned him standing ovations for his performance. At 16 years old he decided to leave high school to try to break into acting. Hauser made his film debut in School Ties, which starred many young and up-and-coming actors such as Brendan Fraser, Matt Damon, Chris O'Donnell and Ben Affleck. A role in Richard Linklater's Dazed and Confused starring Affleck came along subsequently.

In 1995, Hauser played the role of the leader of the campus neo-Nazi skinheads in the John Singleton film Higher Learning. Hauser would re-team with Affleck and Damon when they appeared together in Good Will Hunting. In 2000 he played William J. Johns in Pitch Black and voiced the character in the prequel video game. In 2002, he played a racist American prisoner-of-war in Hart's War with Bruce Willis and Colin Farrell. In 2003, he played a Navy SEAL in Tears of the Sun alongside Bruce Willis, he appeared as a mob boss in 2 Fast 2 Furious. He has since had several leading roles in Hollywood films, including the Mel Gibson-produced Paparazzi and The Cave. In 2007, he starred with Anthony Anderson in the FOX series K-Ville; the show was canceled after ten episodes. That same year, Hauser starred in The Stone Angel adapted from a novel by Margaret Laurence; the film played in various festival circles and had a limited release in Canadian theaters in May 2008. During that same year, Cole filmed other indie productions such as Like Dandelion Dust from a novel by Karen Kingsbury, Tyler Perry's The Family That Preys and the CBS television pilot The Tower.

Hauser's wife is former actress and photographer Cynthia Daniel, who played Elizabeth Wakefield in the TV series adaptation of Francine Pascal's hit novel series Sweet Valley High alongside her twin sister Brittany Daniel. Hauser and Daniel have three children: son Ryland. Cole Hauser on IMDb Cole Hauser at AllMovie Article from

Udell, Iowa

Udell is a city in Appanoose County, United States. The population was 47 at the 2010 census. Udell was founded in 1895, it was named for a pioneer settler. Udell is located at 40°46′48″N 92°44′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.32 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 47 people, 21 households, 13 families living in the city; the population density was 146.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26 housing units at an average density of 81.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.7% White, 2.1% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 21 households of which 19.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.46. The median age in the city was 41.5 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 57.4% male and 42.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 58 people, 21 households, 17 families living in the city; the population density was 183.0 people per square mile. There were 24 housing units at an average density of 75.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.38% White, 3.45% Asian, 5.17% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.45% of the population. There were 21 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.0% were non-families. 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.18. In the city, the population was spread out with 34.5% under the age of 18, 3.4% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,688, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,294. There were 16.7% of families and 15.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including 16.7% of under eighteens and none of those over 64

Amanaki Mafi

Amanaki Lelei Mafi is a Tongan-born, Japanese professional rugby union player who plays as a number 8 for the Japanese Sunwolves, Japan national rugby union team and the Bath Rugby Union team for a short period of time. Mafi represented Tonga U20 in the 2009 Junior World Cup, before moving to Hanazono University in Japan in 2010. After a breakout first season in the Top League for NTT Communications Shining Arcs, Mafi was named in both the Tonga and Japan squad for the 2014 November tests, he opted to play for Japan though, made an immediate impact, noted as'pretty special' by coach Eddie Jones. He was sidelined for eight months with a career-threatening dislocated hip injury but recovered just in time to make it back into the 2015 Rugby World Cup squad, where he again impressed. Following the 2015–16 Top League season, he moved to England to join for Bath on a short-term loan deal where he was described as a'sensation', However his stay was ended early in controversial circumstances following an altercation with the club's medical officer.

Mafi made four appearances for Japan, including scoring two tries, at the 2015 Rugby World Cup and played an important role in the team's historical 34-32 win over the Springboks by providing the winning pass that secured the biggest upset of the tournament. Before his 2014 call up for the Brave Blossoms for his senior international debut against Romania he played in Japan's Kansai Collegiate Rugby Championships. In 2016, Mafi joined Bath Rugby Team on a short term contract and made immediate impact with four tries in his first four matches. In August 2016 Mafi signed to join the Melbourne Rebels to train for the 2017 Super Rugby season, he is playing for the Rebels until the end of the season to return and play in the Japan team. On November 19, 2016 Mafi won the Man of the Match award in Japan's 33-30 loss to Wales at the Principality Stadium in the Under Armour Autumn Series. In May 30, 2017 Amanaki was named to be in the Brave Blossoms Rugby Union team that represents Japan in international rugby union competitions.

As of 15 July 2018


The SAAB 21 was a Swedish fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Swedish aviation company SAAB. It used a unorthodox and visually distinctive combination of a twin boom fuselage and a pusher configuration, giving the aircraft a unique appearance. Work on the development of the 21 commenced at SAAB following a decision by the Swedish Air Force to embark on a large-scale expansion programme in preparation to fears that the nation might get dragged into the Second World War; the company designed a monoplane twin-boom aircraft, powered by a single Daimler-Benz DB 605B engine, positioned within the rear of the fuselage, directly behind the pilot, that drove a rear-facing propeller known as a pusher configuration. This arrangement allowed armaments to be contained within the aircraft's nose section as well as providing the pilot with a high degree of external visibility. To safely enable the pilot to bail out without striking the propeller behind him, it was decided to adopt an ejection seat.

On 30 July 1943, the 21 performed its maiden flight. It was followed by the improved J 21A-2, which featured a heavier armament arrangement, the B 21A-3, a dedicated fighter-bomber mode of the type. In response to interest from the Swedish Air Force in adopting a jet-powered fighter, SAAB developed a conversion of the aircraft, using the British de Havilland Goblin as its powerplant; the jet-powered model of the aircraft was designated as the 21R. During the mid-1950s, less than ten years after its introduction, the 21 was withdrawn from service, having been replaced by a new generation of jet-powered fighters such as the de Havilland Vampire and the Saab 29 Tunnan. In the run up to and during the early stages of the Second World War, the nation of Sweden was concerned that its neutrality in the conflict and its independence as a country could soon come under threat by one or more European nations becoming directly belligerent towards it; as an emergency measure enacted with the aim of increasing both combat preparedness and deterrence against would-be aggressors, the Swedish Air Force embarked upon a major expansion programme during the period of 1939–1941, which included the procurement of foreign-sourced aircraft as well as the indigenous development of new first-rate designs.

However, as a consequence of the raging war across Europe, there were only a few nations that were willing to supply fighter aircraft to a small neutral country, while Sweden's own domestic production capability had been deemed to be insufficient until at least 1943. As a stop-gap measure, between February 1940 and September 1941, Sweden received a total of 72 Fiat CR.42 biplane from Italy, which the service designated as the J 11. However, the value of biplanes was diminishing in the face of capable monoplane fighters. Meanwhile, Swedish aviation company SAAB had commenced original design studies into possible options for the development of a new fighter aircraft. Many of these options had been based around the use of a British Bristol Taurus engine and, unlike its previous designs, some of the studies explored were unconventional. One of the studied configurations was of a monoplane twin-boom aircraft, upon which the Taurus engine was positioned within the rear of the center fuselage, directly behind the pilot, to drive a rear-facing propeller mounted upon the rear of the fuselage, known as a pusher configuration.

According to aviation author Bo Widfeldt, this unorthodox design made use of many features that were new to Saab, but possessed several advantages over contemporary fighter aircraft that incentivised their pursuit, such as the ability to centralise a high amount of armaments upon the aircraft's nose section, a high degree of pilot visibility, serviceability improvements. While the design study was completed and showed promise, it remained dormant until 1941; that year, in response to pressure to provide a strong air defence component and faced with the prospect of improved imported designs being unavailable due to the war, Sweden decided to undertake an indigenous rearmament programme, which included the development and production of an advanced fighter aircraft. Accordingly, SAAB began studying the means to construct their radical proposal, a prospect which posed several problems that needed to be adequately addressed before proceeding to production. One early problem presented was the ability of the pilot to safely bail out without striking the propeller, behind his position.

Many different solutions were examined, such as jettisoning either the propeller or the whole engine section via explosive charges prior to bailing out, before it was decided to adopt an ejection seat. It was a new technology, the 21 became one of the first service aircraft in the world to be fitted with an ejector seat; the SAAB 21 had an estimated top speed of 300 MPH, which required a powerful engine to generate sufficient thrust. Early on, it was decided to substitute the Taurus engine for the American Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp radial engine. However, Svenska Flygmotor AB was asked to provide an alternative to the Twin Wasp. According, a localised version of Germany's new Daimler-Benz DB 605B inline engine, capable of producing 1,475 hp, was selected. A total of three prototypes were completed to support the programme.

Monica McKelvey Johnson

Monica McKelvey Johnson, born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, is an artist and activist living in Brooklyn, NY. McKelvey Johnson has received degrees from San Francisco State University, CUNY Hunter College’s Integrated Media Arts Program, she studied painting at the Pratt Institute in New York City. McKelvey Johnson was represented by The Jack Fischer Gallery in San Francisco and exhibited her artwork, including drawings, gouache, in the show “STICK'EM UP! STAY DOWN! GROW UP!”. The exhibition was illustrative, she creates and sells textile art. She authored the web comic The Adventures of Dorrit Little which explores the plight of a graduate student with heavy debt who questions the wisdom of her education decisions and the value of her multiple degrees. Much of the protagonist’s perspective and questions are based on McKelvey Johnson’s own experience with student debt; the comic is based loosely on Charles Dickens’ novel Little Dorrit, which confronts issues around debt, seeks to create greater transparency around student debt.

For the publication Food Equality in our City, McKelvey Johnson created a comic strip representing interviews with Poughkeepsie residents who had experienced food insecurity. Her comics zine Riding for Two describes the need for greater awareness of the needs of pregnant people on public transit; as a volunteer at the all-volunteer Interference Archive, McKelvey Johnson has co-organized several exhibitions—including Our Comics, Ourselves: Identity and Representation in Comic Art, which has toured to George Mason University, the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center on the University of Connecticut, Storrs Campus, the University of Connecticut at Waterbury, as well as Take Back the Fight: Resisting Sexual Violence from the Ground Up; the catalog for Our Comics, edited with Jan Descartes and Ethan Heitner, includes writing from comics artists including Sophie Yanow, Sabrina Jones, William H. Foster III, Paul Buhle, Jan Descartes, Sandy Jimenez, Nils Hanczar, John Jennings, Leela Corman, Elvis B. Jay Odjick, A. K. Summers.

She has worked as a Production Manager for Creative Time and as Manager of Exhibitions at the Alliance for Young Artists & Writers and archiving winning artwork from the Scholastic Art and Writing Awards. McKelvey Johnson writes about comics for The Comics Journal, she has written about student debt and arts education for The Hunts Point Express. McKelvey Johnson founded the student debtor support group EDU Debtors Union in 2011, to advocate for union representation for student debtors She has spoken about student debt at the Left Forum, at NYU’s Winning the Crisis: Debt * Narrative * Movements * Counter-Archives conference, March 21 and 22, 2012, at the Station Indepdendent Projects gallery, her activism on student debt was combined with her artistic work in Faces of Debt, an interactive installation which encouraged participants to speak up about their own student debt experiences. Artist's Website