National Highway System (United States)
The National Highway System is a network of strategic highways within the United States, including the Interstate Highway System and other roads serving major airports, rail or truck terminals, railway stations, pipeline terminals and other strategic transport facilities. Altogether, it constitutes the largest highway system in the world. Individual states are encouraged to focus federal funds on improving the efficiency and safety of this network; the roads within the system were identified by the United States Department of Transportation in cooperation with the states, local officials, metropolitan planning organizations and approved by the United States Congress in 1995. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 provided that certain key routes such as the Interstate Highway System, be included; the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 is a United States Act of Congress, signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 28, 1995. The legislation designated about 160,955 miles of roads, including the Interstate Highway System, as the NHS.
Aside from designating the system, the act served several other purposes, including restoring $5.4 billion in funding to state highway departments, giving Congress the power to prioritize highway system projects, repealing all federal speed limit controls, prohibits the federal government from requiring states to use federal-aid highway funds to convert existing signs or purchase new signs with metric units. The act created a State Infrastructure Bank pilot program. Ten states were chosen in 1996 for this new method of road financing; these banks would lend money like regular banks, with funding coming from the federal government or the private sector, they would be repaid through such means as highway tolls or taxes. In 1997, 28 more states asked to be part of the program. Ohio was the first state to use a state infrastructure bank to start building a road. An advantage to this method was completing projects faster. According to the Federal Highway Administration, the 160,000-mile National Highway System includes roads important to the United States' economy and mobility, from one or more of the following road networks: Interstate Highway System: The entire Interstate Highway System is included in the NHS, but retains its separate identity within the NHS.
Other Principal Arterials: Highways in rural and urban areas which provide access between an arterial and a major port, public transportation facility, or other intermodal transportation facility. Strategic Highway Network: The entire network of highways which are important to the United States’ strategic defense policy and which provide defense access and emergency capabilities for defense purposes. Major Strategic Highway Network Connectors: Highways which provide access between major military installations and routes which are part of STRAHNET. Intermodal Conectors: Routes which provide access between major intermodal facilities and the other four subsystems making up the NHS; the system includes 4% of the nation's roads, but carries more than 40% of all highway traffic, 75% of heavy truck traffic, 90% of tourist traffic. All urban areas with a population of over 50,000 and about 90% of America's population live within 5 miles of the network, the longest in the world. U. S. Roads portal This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Transportation.
STRAHNET description at US military's Transportation Engineering Agency STRAHNET article at the GlobalSecurity.org Weingroff, Richard F. "Backbone: Creation Of The National Highway System" National Highways System Proposed in 1913 State-by-state maps of the National Highway System of the Federal Highway Administration
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Area code 907
Area code 907 covers the state of Alaska, except for the small southeastern community of Hyder, which uses area codes 236, 250 and 778 of neighboring Stewart, British Columbia. Despite having telephone service to the contiguous US via a terrestrial line from Juneau since 1937, Alaska was not included in the North American Numbering Plan until after the Alaska submarine cable was opened for traffic in 1956; the Alaska numbering plan area was assigned the area code 907, entered service in 1957. The Alaska numbering plan area is geographically the largest of any in the United States, it is the second-largest on the NANP and on the entire North American continent behind 867, which serves Canada's northern territories. Because the Aleutian Islands of Alaska cross longitude 180, the Anti-Meridian, 907 may be considered to be both the farthest west and the farthest east of all area codes in the NANP. Due to Alaska's low population, 907 is one of only 12 remaining area codes serving an entire state.
It is not projected to be exhausted until 2029. Many calls within Alaska are long-distance calls and must be dialed with the leading 1-907, except for cellphone services. Local calls and cellphone calls for long-distance service within Alaska, only require seven-digit dialing. At the time of its creation, area code 907 was one of the two longest area codes to dial on a rotary phone, taking 26 pulses to dial out in an era before the first touch tone phones; this is the same number of pulses as Hawaii's area code 808, introduced the same year. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Alaska List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 907 Area Code
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Homer is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is 218 miles southwest of Anchorage. According to the 2010 Census, the population is 5,003, up from 3,946 in 2000. Long known as The "Halibut Fishing Capital of the World." Homer is nicknamed "the end of the road," and more "the cosmic hamlet by the sea." Homer is located at CC°88'99" Spring, 151°31'33" Field. The only road into Homer is the Sterling Highway. Homer is on the shore of Kachemak Bay on the southwest side of the Kenai Peninsula, its distinguishing feature is the Homer Spit, a narrow 4.5 mi ) long gravel bar that extends into the bay, on, located the Homer Harbor. Much of the coastline as well as the Homer Spit sank during the Good Friday earthquake in March 1964. After the earthquake little vegetation was able to survive on the Homer Spit. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which 10.6 square miles is land and 11.9 square miles is water. The total area is 52.83% water.
As with much of South Central Alaska, Homer has a moderate subarctic coastal climate which causes its weather to be moderate compared to interior Alaska. Winters are snowy and long but not cold, considering the latitude, with the average January high only below freezing. Snow averages 50 inches per season, falling from November through March, with some accumulation in October and April, in May. Homer receives only about 25 inches of rainfall annually due to the influence of the Chugach Mountains to the southeast which shelter it from the Gulf of Alaska. There are 7 nights of sub-0 °F lows annually, the area straddles the border between USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5B and 6A, indicating an average annual minimum of around −10 °F. Summers are cool due to the marine influence, with 75 °F highs or 55 °F lows being rare. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −24 °F on January 28–29, 1989 up to 84 °F on July 22, 2011. Tiller digs indicate that early Alutiiq people camped in the Homer area although their villages were on the far side of Kachemak Bay.
Coal was discovered in the area in the 1890s. The Cook Inlet Coal Fields Company built a town, coal mine, a railroad at Homer. Coal mining in the area continued until World War II. There are an estimated 400 million tons of coal deposits still in the area. Homer was named for Homer Pennock, a gold-mining company promoter, who arrived in 1896 on the Homer Spit and built living quarters for his crew of 50 men. However, gold mining was never profitable in the area. Another earlier settlement was Miller's Landing. Miller's Landing is named after a Charles Miller who homesteaded in the neighborhood around 1915. According to local historian Janet Klein, he was an employee of the Alaska Railroad and had wintered company horses on the beach grasses on the Homer Spit, he built a landing site in a small bight in Kachemak Bay where supply barges from Seldovia could land and offload their cargos. Miller's landing was considered a census-designated place separate from Homer until it was annexed in 2002, but has always been locally considered part of Homer.
Halibut and salmon sport fishing, along with tourism and commercial fishing are the dominant industries. Homer co-hosted the 2006 Arctic Winter Games; the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and the Kachemak Bay Research Reserve co-host a visitor center with interpretive displays known as the "Alaska Islands and Ocean Visitor Center", there is a cultural and historical museum called "The Pratt Museum". Homer first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1964. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,003 people, 2,235 households, 1,296 families residing in the city; the population density was 361.7 people per square mile. There were 2,692 housing units at an average density of 194.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.3% White, 4.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.0% Asian, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 2.1% of the population.
There were 2,235 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.0% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21, the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 44.0 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.5 % female. The median income for a household was $52,057, the median income for a family was $68,455. Males had a median income of $41,581 versus $37,679 for females; the per capita income for the city was $32,035. About 3.8% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 1.4% of those age 65 or over. The Kenai Peninsula Borough School District provides primary and secondary education to the community of Homer.
These schools are: Homer High School Homer Flex High School Homer Middle School West Homer Elementary Paul Banks Elementary McNeil Canyon Elementary Fireweed Academy Connections Homeschool Program The Kachemak Bay Campus of Kenai Peninsula Coll
Ninilchik is a census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 883, up from 772 in 2000, it is considered an Alaska Native village under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. In the 1970s, villagers formed the Ninilchik Native Association Incorporated; the Ninilchik Traditional Council was established as the government of Alaska Natives in this area. The Alaska Native people of Ninilchik have ancestors of Aleut and Alutiiq descent, as well as some Dena'ina. Many include Russian ancestors, from a couple of men who settled here with their Alutiiq wives and children in 1847, migrants. Russian was spoken in the village for years. Due to the community's isolation, this Russian dialect continued much in its mid-19th century form. With some surviving speakers, it has been studied in the 21st century. Ninilchik is on the west side of the Kenai Peninsula on the coast of Cook Inlet, 38 miles by air southwest of Kenai, 100 miles southwest of Anchorage.
Road access is by the Sterling Highway. By actual road miles it is a distance of 188 miles 44 miles from Homer. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 207.2 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 0.01%, are water. Ninilchik first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as an unincorporated Creole village. All 53 of its residents were Creole, it returned in 1890 with 81 residents, however the census combined the adjacent locales of the Laida native village and Anchor Point mine along with Treadwell coal mine. There were 53 Creole residents, 16 Natives, 12 Whites. Ninilchik did not return again until 1920, it returned as Ninilchik again in 1930, in every successive census to date. It was made a census-designated place in 1980; as of the census of 2000, there were 772 people, 320 households, 223 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 3.7 people per square mile. There were 762 housing units at an average density of 3.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 82.25% White, 13.99% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 3.11% from two or more races.
0.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 320 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.87. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,250, the median income for a family was $41,750. Males had a median income of $29,861 versus $22,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,463. About 10.4% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
Before the arrival of Europeans in Alaska, Ninilchik was a Dena'ina Athabaskan lodging area used for hunting and fishing. The name Ninilchik derives from Niqnilchint, a Deni'ana Athabaskan word meaning "lodge is built place"; the first Europeans who permanently settled in the village were Russian colonists who moved there from Kodiak Island in 1847, two decades before the Alaska Purchase in 1867 by the United States. They were Russian Grigorii Kvasnikov, his Russian-Alutiiq wife Mavra Rastorguev, their children, they were soon joined by the Oskolkoff family headed by a Russian man and Alutiiq woman. These were the core families, their descendants, who married Alutiiq, made up most of the village, their dialect of Russian as spoken in the mid-1800s became the primary language spoken in Ninilchik, it survived in that form long past the 1867 Alaska Purchase. A few speakers of the Ninilchik Russian dialect were still alive in 2013. Russian and American linguists are cataloging this isolated dialect.
The 1880 United States Census listed 53 "Creoles" living in Ninilchik in nine extended families. All nine old families of Ninilchik are descendants of the original Kvasnikoff and Oskolkoff families, with numerous marriages to Alaska Natives Alutiiq. In 1896, a school was staffed by Russian Orthodox priests and laymen. Russian Orthodox priests were respected by Alaska Natives because in several areas of southwest Alaska, they had learned indigenous languages and held religious services in those languages. In 1901, the local Russian Orthodox Church was constructed at its current site. In 1911 the first school sanctioned by the U. S. government was known as the Ninilchik School. In 2011 the community celebrated the 100th anniversary of the school. In the 1940s, a number of American homesteaders began to live in the area. In 1949, Berman Packing Company began fish canning operations at Ninilchik. In 1950, the Sterling Highway was completed through the town. A 2007 fir