A chain store or retail chain is a retail outlet in which several locations share a brand, central management, standardized business practices. They have come to dominate the retail and dining markets, many service categories, in many parts of the world. A franchise retail establishment is one form of chain store. In 2004, the world's largest retail chain, became the world's largest corporation based on gross sales. In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established W. H. Smith as a news vending business in London that would become a national concern in the mid-19th century under the management of their grandson William Henry Smith; the firm took advantage of the railway boom by opening news-stands at railway stations beginning in 1848. The firm, now called WHSmith, had more than 1,400 locations as of 2017. In the U. S. chain stores began with the founding of The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company in 1859. The small chain sold tea and coffee in stores located in New York City and operated a national mail order business.
The firm grew to 70 stores by 1878 when George Huntington Hartford turned A&P into the country's first grocery chain. In 1900, it operated 200 stores. Isidore and Modeste Dewachter originated the idea of the chain department store in Belgium in 1868, ten years before A&P began offering more than coffee and tea, they started with four locations for Maisons Dewachter: La Louvière, Mons and the tiny crossroads village of Leuze. They incorporated as Dewachter frères on January 1, 1875; the brothers offered ready-to-wear clothing for men and children and specialty clothing such as riding apparel and beachwear. Isidore owned 51% of the company, while his brothers split the remaining 49%. Under Isidore's leadership, Maisons Dewachter would become one of the most recognized names in Belgium and France with stores in 20 cities and towns; some cities had multiple stores, such as France. Louis Dewachter became an internationally known landscape artist, painting under the pseudonym Louis Dewis. By the early 1920s, the U.
S. boasted three national chains: A&P, Woolworth's, United Cigar Stores. By the 1930s, chain stores had come of age, stopped increasing their total market share. Court decisions against the chains' price-cutting appeared as early as 1906, laws against chain stores began in the 1920s, along with legal countermeasures by chain-store groups. A chain store is characterised by the ownership or franchise relationship between the local business or outlet and a controlling business. While chains are "formula retail", a chain refers to ownership or franchise, whereas "formula retail" refers to the characteristics of the business. There is considerable overlap because key characteristic of a formula retail business is that it is controlled as a part of a business relationship, is part of a chain. Most codified municipal regulation relies on definitions of formula retail, in part because a restriction directed to "chains" may be deemed an impermissible restriction on interstate commerce, or as exceeding municipal zoning authority.
Non-codified restrictions will sometimes target "chains". Brick-and-mortar chain stores have been in decline as retail has shifted to online shopping, leading to high retail vacancy rates; the hundred-year-old Radio Shack chain went from 7,400 stores in 2001 to 400 stores in 2018. FYE is the last remaining music chain store in the United States and has shrunk from over 1000 at its height to 270 locations in 2018. In 2019, Payless ShoeSource stated that it would be closing all remaining 2,100 stores in the US. A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants in many different locations that are either under shared corporate ownership or franchising agreements; the restaurants within a chain are built to a standard format through architectural prototype development and offer a standard menu and/or services. Fast food restaurants are the most common, but sit-down restaurant chains exist. Restaurant chains are found near highways, shopping malls and tourist areas; the displacement of independent businesses by chains has sparked increased collaboration among independent businesses and communities to prevent chain proliferation.
These efforts include community-based organizing through Independent Business Alliances and "buy local" campaigns. In the U. S. trade organizations such as the American Booksellers Association and American Specialty Toy Retailers do national promotion and advocacy. NGOs like the New Rules Project and New Economics Foundation provide research and tools for pro-independent business education and policy while the American Independent Business Alliance provides direct assistance for community-level organizing. A variety of towns and cities in the United States whose residents wish to retain their distinctive character—such as San Francisco, they don't exclude the chain itself, only the standardized formula the chain uses, described as "formula businesses". For example, there could be a restaurant owned by McDonald's that sells hamburgers, but not the formula franchise operation with the golden arches and standardized menu and procedures; the reason these towns regulate chain stores is aesthetics and tourism.
Proponents of formula restaurants and formula retail allege th
Meridian Mall, Dunedin
The Meridian Mall is a large shopping complex in Dunedin, New Zealand designed by ASA Crone Architects, an Australian development company. At 16,000 m2 it is the largest retail mall in the southern South Island, one of the largest in the South Island as a whole; the mall was constructed in 1995-1997 behind the former Arthur Barnett building in George Street, designed by Edmund Anscombe and completed in 1924. The new complex is a central retail hub, with H&J Smith as one of the two anchor tenants, it opened on 5 September 1997 with the final development costs close to NZ$50 million. Arthur Barnett sold the mall to ING Real Estate Australia for $52.65 million in April 2003, using the proceeds to retire debt. In 2010 it was purchased by Lend Lease Group for $185 million, along with three Dress Smart outlets in Auckland and Christchurch. In October 2011, Lend Lease sold the four shopping centres to its new Lend Lease Real Estate Partners New Zealand Fund for $NZ197 million; the mall contains 50 shops spread over three levels, including a large food court on the lower level.
Above these three levels is a multi-storey car park, the Arthur Barnett Corporate Offices, a doctor's office. The neon advertising sign for Arthur Barnett that sits atop the mall is a prominent feature on the Dunedin skyline. Named Can't Stop, it features a small man trying to control a large horse a Clydesdale, it was designed by the New Zealand artist Heber Thompson for the 1924 building. The historic neon sign was turned off in May 2016 "for maintenance" and is still inoperative as of February 2019. Lying south of the Meridian Mall is the independently operated Golden Centre, one of Dunedin's first shopping malls. Renovation and expansion of the Golden Centre during 2009 has resulted in the two malls being linked internally in November 2009; the three malls thus form one continuous complex occupying the entire two-hectare central city block, having a total floor area of over 28,000 m2. Beyond the Golden Centre Mall lies the Wall Street Mall, opened on March 21, 2009; the Wall Street development was delayed by the discovery on the site of one of Dunedin's earliest walkways, dating from the 1850s, less than a decade after the city was founded.
Official website Wall St Mall Portal Website Dunedin City Council Wall St Complex
A retail park or power center is an unenclosed shopping center with a typical range of 250,000 square feet to 600,000 square feet of gross leasable area that contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers with a common parking area shared among the retailers. It is to have more money spent on features and architecture than a traditional big box shopping center. In 1986, "280 Metro Center", an open-air, strip shopping complex composed of discount and warehouse retailers, opened in Colma, California in the United States. Northern Lights Shopping Center in Economy, which opened in 1962, could be considered an earlier example of a power center based on square footage and having multiple anchors, though it has become more of a traditional community-style strip mall since the early 2000s and is considered a dead mall due to its high vacancy rate. South Edmonton Common in Edmonton is the largest power centre in Canada and one of the largest open-air retail developments in North America.
Spread over 320 acres, South Edmonton Common has more than 2,300,000 sq ft of gross leasable area. In recent years, it has become quite common for an older shopping mall to be renovated as a power center, adding big-box stores, category killers and strip shopping center-type buildings to the parking and open areas, rather than to add anchors and new retail space to the existing mall facility. Puente Hills Mall and Del Amo Fashion Center in Southern California are good examples of this. Other examples are Seven Corners Shopping Center in suburban Washington, D. C. and Deerfoot Meadows in Calgary, Canada. Power centers are always located in suburban areas, but redevelopment has brought power centers to densely populated urban areas; some new power center developments have attempted to re-create the atmosphere of an old-town Main Street, with varying levels of success. In the United Kingdom, the retail park is a similar concept to the North American power center, they are found on the fringes of most large towns and cities in accessible locations and are aimed at households owning a car, though there are also bus services.
They are an alternative to busy city centres. Such developments have been encouraged by cheaper, more affordable land on the outskirts of towns and cities, with loose planning controls in a number of Enterprise Zones, making planning and development easy. In recent years, in many areas across the UK, planning controls have been tightened to preserve the countryside; this has made it more difficult for such developments to proceed, resulting in many smaller, more compact retail parks, sometimes consisting of only three or four stores being built on former brownfield sites. There are environmental disadvantages to large retail parks on the rural fringe, including the increased traffic and pollution that occurs during access. Retail parks host a range of chain stores, including furniture, clothes or footwear superstores, electrical stores and others - and the anchor tenant is a supermarket. Owing to their out-of-town sites, abundance of free parking and proximity to major roads, retail parks are easier to reach than central shopping areas, as a result town centres are less attractive to retailers.
Strip mall Types of retail outlets SmartCentres – includes photos of its developments
A health club is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise. Most health clubs have a main workout area, which consists of free weights including dumbbells and barbells and the stands and benches used with these items and exercise machines, which use gears and other mechanisms to guide the user's exercise; this area includes mirrors so that exercisers can monitor and maintain correct posture during their workout. A gym that predominantly or consists of free weights, as opposed to exercise machines, is sometimes referred to as a black-iron gym, after the traditional color of weight plates. A cardio theater or cardio area includes many types of cardiovascular training-related equipment such as rowing machines, stationary exercise bikes, elliptical trainers and treadmills; these areas include a number of audio-visual displays TVs in order to keep exercisers entertained during long cardio workout sessions. Some gyms provide newspapers and magazines for users of the cardio theatre to read while working out.
Most 2010-era health clubs offer group exercise classes that are conducted by certified fitness instructors or trainers. Many types of group exercise classes exist, but these include classes based on aerobics, boxing or martial arts, high intensity training, step yoga, regular yoga and hot yoga, muscle training and self-defense classes such as Krav Maga and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Health clubs with swimming pools offer aqua aerobics classes; the instructors must gain certification in order to teach these classes and ensure participant safety. Some health clubs offer sports facilities such as a swimming pools, squash courts, indoor running tracks, ice rinks, or boxing areas. In some cases, additional fees are charged for the use of these facilities. Most health clubs employ personal trainers who are accessible to members for training/fitness/nutrition/health advice and consultation. Personal trainers can devise a customized fitness routine, sometimes including a nutrition plan, to help clients achieve their goals.
They can monitor and train with members. More than not, access to personal trainers involves an additional hourly fee. Newer health clubs include health-shops selling equipment, snack bars, child-care facilities, member lounges and cafes; some clubs have a sauna, steam room, or swimming pool or alternative medicine wellness facilities or offices to be present. Health clubs charge a fee to allow visitors to use the equipment and other provided services. In the 2010s, some clubs have is eco-friendly health clubs which incorporate principles of "green living" in its fitness regimen, into the design of the centre or both. Health clubs offer many services and as a result, the monthly membership prices can vary greatly. A recent study of American clubs found that the monthly cost of membership ranged from US$15 per month at basic chain clubs that offer limited amenities to over US$200 per month at spa-oriented clubs that cater to families and to those seeking social activities in addition to a workout.
In addition, some clubs - such as many local YMCAs - offer per-use punchcards or one-time fees for those seeking to use the club on an as-needed basis. These one-time fees are referred to as day passes. Costs can vary through the purchase of a higher-level membership, such as a Founders or a Life membership; such memberships have a high up-front cost but a lower monthly rate, making them beneficial to those who use the club and hold their memberships for years. Health clubs in North America offer a number of facilities and services with different price points for different levels of services; some services have differently-priced levels or tiers, such as regular, pro and gold facilities or packages. Some of the health and fitness facilities use cardio equipment, fitness screening, resistance-building equipment, pro shops, artificial sun-beds, health spas and saunas; the membership plans vary from as low as $20 per month, for value-priced gyms to as high as $700 per month. These health clubs in the United States, are equipped with a range of facilities and provide personal trainer support.
An early public gymnasium started in Paris in 1847. However, the history of health clubs for the general public can be traced back to Santa Monica, California in 1947. Jack Lalanne created the first American fitness club 1936 in California. Country club Outdoor fitness Spa Sports centre Carroll, L. "Choosing a health club", MSNBC Health, December 19, 2003. Accessed February 23, 2008. Media related to Health clubs at Wikimedia Commons
Orlando is a city in the U. S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County. Located in Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,509,831, according to U. S. Census Bureau figures released in July 2017; these figures make it the 23rd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States, the third-largest metropolitan area in Florida. As of 2015, Orlando had an estimated city-proper population of 280,257, making it the 73rd-largest city in the United States, the fourth-largest city in Florida, the state's largest inland city; the City of Orlando is nicknamed "The City Beautiful," and its symbol is the fountain at Lake Eola. Orlando is known as "The Theme Park Capital of the World" and in 2016 its tourist attractions and events drew more than 72 million visitors; the Orlando International Airport is the thirteenth-busiest airport in the United States and the 29th-busiest in the world.
As one of the world's most visited tourist destinations, Orlando's famous attractions form the backbone of its tourism industry. The two most significant of these attractions are Walt Disney World, opened by the Walt Disney Company in 1971, located 21 miles southwest of Downtown Orlando in Bay Lake. With the exception of Walt Disney World, most major attractions are located along International Drive with one of these attractions being the Orlando Eye; the city is one of the busiest American cities for conferences and conventions. Like other major cities in the Sun Belt, Orlando grew from the 1980s up into the first decade of the 21st century. Orlando is home to the University of Central Florida, the largest university campus in the United States in terms of enrollment as of 2015. In 2010, Orlando was listed as a "Gamma−" level global city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. Orlando ranks as the fourth-most popular American city based on where people want to live according to a 2009 Pew Research Center study.
Fort Gatlin, as the Orlando area was once known, was established at what is now just south of the city limits by the 4th U. S. Artillery under the command of Ltc. Alexander C. W. Fanning on November 9, 1838, during the construction of a series of fortified encampments across Florida during the Second Seminole War; the fort and surrounding area were named for Dr. John S. Gatlin, an Army physician, killed in Dade's Massacre on December 28, 1835; the site of construction for Fort Gatlin, a defensible position with fresh water between three small lakes, was chosen because the location was on a main trail and is less than 250 yards from a nearby Council Oak tree where Native Americans had traditionally met. King Phillip and Coacoochee frequented this area and the tree was alleged to be the place where the previous 1835 ambush that had killed over 100 soldiers had been planned; when the U. S. military abandoned the fort in 1839, the surrounding community was built up by settlers. Prior to being known by its current name, Orlando was once known as Jernigan.
This name originates from the first permanent settlers and Aaron Jernigan, cattlemen who acquired land two miles northwest of Fort Gatlin along the west end of Lake Holden in July 1843 by the terms of the Armed Occupation Act. Aaron Jernigan became Orange County's first State Representative in 1845 but his pleas for additional military protection went unanswered. Fort Gatlin was reoccupied by the military for a few weeks during October and November 1849 and subsequently a volunteer militia was left to defend the settlement. A historical marker indicates that by 1850 the Jernigan homestead served as the nucleus of a village named Jernigan. According to an account written years by his daughter, at that time, about 80 settlers were forced to shelter for about a year in "a stockade that Aaron Jernigan built on the north side of Lake Conway". One of the county's first records, a grand jury's report, mentions a stockade where it states homesteaders were "driven from their homes and forced to huddle together in hasty defences."
Aaron Jernigan led a local volunteer militia during 1852. A Post Office opened at Jernigan in 1850. Jernigan appears on an 1855 map of Florida and by 1856 the area had become the county seat of Orange County. In 1857, the Post Office was removed from Jernigan, opened under the name of Orlando at a new location in present-day downtown Orlando. During the American Civil War, the Post Office closed, but reopened in 1866; the move is believed to be sparked, in part, by Aaron Jernigan's fall from grace after he was relieved of his militia command by military officials in 1856. His behavior was so notorious that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis wrote, "It is said they are more dreadful than the Indians." In 1859, Jernigan and his sons were accused of committing a murder at the town's post office. They were transported to Ocala, but escaped. There are at least five stories as to; the most common stories are that the name Orlando originated from the tale of a man who died in 1835 during a attack by Native Americans in the area during the Second Seminole War.
Several of the stories relay an oral history of the marker for a person named Orlando, the double entendre, "Here lies Orlando." One variant includes a man named Orlando, passing by on his way to Tampa with a herd of oxen and was buried in a marked grave. At a meeting in 1857, debate had grown concerning the name of the town. Pioneer William B. Hull recalled
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade