A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops with interconnecting walkways indoors. In 2017, shopping malls accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. A shopping arcade is a type of shopping precinct that developed earlier and in which the connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and may be in the open air or covered by a ground-floor loggia. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or malls accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added; as a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather.
In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In Canada, "shopping centre" is used but conversationally, "mall" is used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100–110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burling
Muhlenbergia rigens known as deergrass, is a warm season perennial bunchgrass. It is found in sandy or well-drained soils below 7,000 feet in elevation in the Southwestern United States and parts of Mexico. Deergrass is characterized by dense, tufted basal foliage consisting of narrow pointed leaves that reach lengths of about 3 feet; the foliage ranges in color from light silver-green to purple. The spikelike stems are less than half an inch wide and 3–4 feet in length. During bloom, the numerous flowered panicles reach heights of five feet; the spikelets consist of a single awnless floret with a 3-nerved lemma. Deergrass is characteristic of tallgrass prairie of much of the Western United States; the native range of the grass extends north into Shasta County and south into New Mexico and Mexico. There it inhabits a wide range of ecotypes including grassland, chaparral, mixed conifer, oak woodland communities. Deergrass can grow in areas with periodic flooding, but cannot tolerate standing water and poorly drained soils.
It is shade-tolerant. The young shoots are browsed by a variety of animals; as such, is useful in an exposed garden setting for its deer resistance. It has been used for erosion prevention and streambank stabilization because of extensive root systems. Restoration efforts use deergrass to displace exotic invasive annuals that dominate some grassland ecosystems. Deergrass can be used to remediate overtilled, eroded agricultural land where it anchors and returns lost organic matter to the soil. Phytoremediative studies have been conducted to test the ability of deergrass to remove chemicals from agricultural runoff, its dense stands and extensive roots act as a biofilter effective for herbicide and particulate breakdown. Among the Zuni people, the grass is attached to the sticks of plume offerings to anthropic gods. Muhlenbergia rigens, can be established in late spring and early summer by broadcast seeding with irrigation. For best results, 50 seeds per square foot are planted lightly incorporated just below the soil surface with a culti-packer.
Establishment is most successful. Burning and reduced fertilization schemes to reduce the weed seed bank are recommended. Container planting is a effective way of establishing deergrass; the seed can be sown in flats in transplanted in the fall of the same year. In California, except in areas of heavy frost, Muhlenbegia rigens can be planted in winter and spring to take advantage of seasonal rainfall. Stand preparation should be the same as when broadcast-seeded. During transplant, plants should be spaced with a minimum of two feet between them. After establishment little management is required. Irrigation is unnecessary in normal rainfall years and fertilization is not recommended as it may increase weed competition. Burning or mowing can be used every few years to reduce accumulated dead matter; because Muhlenbergia rigens uses C4 carbon fixation, it gains an advantage in conditions of drought and high temperature. This characteristic, along with its attractiveness, has gained the plant recent attention as an ornamental in xeriscape gardens.
Studies have demonstrated a high tolerance to salt suggesting possible irrigation using low quality reclaimed waste-water sources at low cost. Muhlenbergia rigens is a cover for mule deer during fawning periods. Studies have equated reduced deer populations with overgrazed deergrass stands in and near cattle pasture. Young shoots and leaves are grazed by deer and cattle; the tall grass is an overwintering host for many species of ladybug. Deergrass seed provides food for many different bird species. Deergrass was important to many Native American tribes who used its long seedstalks as the principal material in coiled baskets. Deergrass underwent an early form of cultivation by many California tribes who burned areas to maintain stands of deergrass, induce the production of long straight stalks for use in basketry; each basket required over 3000 stalks, driving the need for cultivation It is believed that much of deergrass's current distribution is due to propagation by Native Americans. Jepson Manual Treatment - Muhlenbergia rigens USDA Plants Profile.
The Aero Memorial is a gilded bronze sculpture by Paul Manship, commissioned by the Association for Public Art. Aero Memorial is located in Philadelphia's Aviator Park, across from The Franklin Institute at 20th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway; the memorial is a tribute to those aviators who died in World War I, it was initiated by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania in 1917 with the help of the Fairmount Park Art Association. The Aero Club donated modest funds into the Fairmount Park Art Association in 1917 for the creation of the memorial, after years of fundraising, the Art Association was able to contact Paul Manship for the commission 1939; the idea for a celestial sphere was approved in 1944, the sculpture was completed in 1948. Aero Memorial was dedicated on June 1, 1950. Aero Memorial is one of 51 sculptures included in the Association for Public Art's Museum Without Walls interpretive audio program for Philadelphia's outdoor sculpture; the inscription reads: AERO MEMORIAL WORLD WAR I 1917–1918 JULIAN BIDDLE HOWARD FOULKE DAY ON DOWNS, JR. CHRISTIAN CLANZ WILLIAM BESSE KOEN TON WOODWARD List of public art in Philadelphia http://dcmemorials.com/index_indiv0006569.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20120330052140/http://www.visitphilly.com/music-art/philadelphia/aero-memorial/ Museum Without Walls audio
Fists in the Pocket is a 1965 Italian film directed by Marco Bellocchio. It was Bellocchio's debut film. Four siblings, a sister and three brothers, live with their blind mother in an Italian villa. Three of the siblings suffer from epilepsy. Augusto is the only provider for the family. One of the brothers, decides that Augusto would be free to live his life as he pleases if the mother and other siblings were gotten rid of, he connives to be allowed to drive his mother and the other siblings on their periodic trip to a cemetery. After he has left, Augusto reads the note that Alessandro left saying that he would kill all of them and himself. Alessandro intended to drive all of them off a cliff, but does not, they all return home safely. However, Alessandro takes his mother for a drive. Alessandro is not suspected. After his mother's funeral, he kills his epileptic brother Leone by having him drink an overdose of his medication; the sister, realizes that Alessandro killed Leone and their mother. In an interview, writer Rex Pickett described Fists in the Pocket as one of the films he "saw in film school that transformed" him.
"Les Écorchés" is the seventh episode of the second season of the HBO science-fiction thriller television series Westworld. The episode aired on June 3, 2018, it was directed by Nicole Kassell. In the present and Charlotte discover Bernard is a host. Charlotte interrogates Bernard about Dolores' attack on the Mesa. In flashbacks, Bernard explores the virtual space within the Cradle. Ford reveals that the control unit Bernard retrieved from the bunker contained a copy of Ford's persona and memories; as Ford and Bernard talk, Bernard realizes the purpose of the Delos parks has been to create copies of the guests' minds. Delos obtained fidelity but had been unable to put these into hosts as the hosts degenerate as happened to James Delos. Furthermore, Bernard learns that he was tested the same way by Dolores, who knew Arnold best, before Ford accepted him as an "original work" and released him into the world. Lastly, Ford tells Bernard, he forces Bernard out of the Elsie reports that the disruption of the system has cleared.
Bernard is instructed by a vision of Ford to follow his orders. Meanwhile, Angela destroys it, killing herself in the process; the Horde fight Coughlin's mercenaries as Teddy search for Peter. They find him with Charlotte, she is forced to reveal to Ashley that the data includes an encryption key for "the Project" as Dolores captures them. She remarks. Charlotte and Stubbs flee when his team arrive. Teddy beats Coughlin to death. Peter recovers his memories long enough to tell Dolores that he says goodbye. Dolores removes his control unit. In the park and the Ghost Nation warriors chase Maeve and her daughter to a homestead, while a raiding party shepherds William and his gang there. William mistakes her for another trick by Ford. Lawrence stops her, he critically wounds William but is prevented from killing him by the arrival of Delos forces called by Lee. They kill wound Maeve, whom Lee instructs them to save. Maeve is powerless to stop Akecheta from capturing her daughter. Ford leads Bernard to the control center where he witnesses the remains of the Delos forces being wiped out by the Horde.
Bernard turns off all of the security systems. Dolores tells her that the humans are using her daughter to control her. Maeve refuses her offer of a mercy killing and warns her that her manipulation of Teddy makes her no better than the humans. Returning to the present, Charlotte and Stubbs find Bernard having difficulty separating his real memories from those implanted, he is able to tell. The title of the episode is a reference to Écorché, a style of artwork that depicts the human body without skin; this allows the artist to develop an understanding of the musculoskeletal system and create more realistic artwork. "Les Écorchés" was watched by 1.39 million viewers on its initial viewing, received a 0.5 18–49 rating, marking an improvement from the previous week which had a series low viewership of 1.11 million. The episode received positive reviews from critics. At Rotten Tomatoes, the episode has an 86% approval rating with an average score of 8.74/10 from 28 reviews, with the critical consensus stating, "Bloody and action-packed'Les Écorchés' marks the return of a major character -- though the shows' unruly timelines continue to render its compelling ensemble somewhat hollow."
Émile Allais was a champion alpine ski racer from France. Born in Megève, he was a dominant racer in the late 1930s and is considered to have been the first great French alpine skier. Allais won the bronze medal in the combined, the only alpine medal event at the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch, Germany; these Olympics were the first to award medals in alpine skiing. The previous year, he had won the silver medal in the downhill and combined at the 1935 world championships. In 1937 he was a triple world champion at Chamonix, winning all three events; the following year at Engelberg, Switzerland, he won the combined, took silver in the downhill and slalom. He created the École Française de Ski which taught innovative methods of Anton Seelos, characterised by parallel turns, controlling the speed by sideslipping, turning by ruade, i.e. kicking the backs of the skis up and pivoting on the tips while rotating the body in the direction of the turn. It is now the biggest Ski school in the world in terms of numbers of ski teachers, is present in every single French ski resort, abroad.
After a spell in North and South America Allais held the post of technical director at Courchevel from 1954 to 1964, where he introduced many ideas from the U. S. regarding slope preparation and piste security. He worked as a technical consultant for other resorts, notably La Plagne and Flaine. One of the Saulire couloirs at Courchevel is named after Allais; as a consultant to Skis Rossignol, Allais helped to design the laminated-wood Olympic 41 ski, the first aluminum skis to win major ski races, the Métallais and Allais 60. The Olympic 41 served as the basis of Rossignol's successful Strato. In December 2005, 93-year-old Allais made the trip to the French Senate in Paris where he was honoured, along with a number of other ski instructors, his life has been all about skiing. Allais fought in World War II on skis, courted his wife at a ski meet, he turned 100 in February 2012. Allais died after an illness in a hospital in Sallanches in the French Alps on 17 October 2012. Émile Allais at the International Ski Federation