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Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interactions with many deities believed to be present in, in control of, the world. Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods to gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaohs, the rulers of Egypt, believed to possess divine powers by virtue of their positions, they acted as intermediaries between their people and the gods, were obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain Ma'at, the order of the cosmos. The state dedicated enormous resources to the construction of temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for help through prayer or compelling the gods to act through magic; these practices were distinct from, but linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The popular religious tradition grew more prominent over the course of Egyptian history as the status of the pharaoh declined.

Egyptian belief in the afterlife and the importance of funerary practices is evident in the great efforts made to ensure the survival of their souls after death - via the provision of tombs, grave goods and offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased. The religion lasted for more than 3,000 years; the details of religious belief changed over time as the importance of particular gods rose and declined, their intricate relationships shifted. At various times, certain gods became preeminent over the others, including the sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, the mother goddess Isis. For a brief period, in the theology promulgated by the pharaoh Akhenaten, a single god, the Aten, replaced the traditional pantheon. Ancient Egyptian religion and mythology left behind many writings and monuments, along with significant influences on ancient and modern cultures; the beliefs and rituals now referred to as "ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture. The Egyptian language possessed no single term corresponding to the modern European concept of religion.

Ancient Egyptian religion consisted of a vast and varying set of beliefs and practices, linked by their common focus on the interaction between the world of humans and the world of the divine. The characteristics of the gods who populated the divine realm were inextricably linked to the Egyptians' understanding of the properties of the world in which they lived; the Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces of themselves. These deified forces included animal characteristics, or abstract forces; the Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods, which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage; this polytheistic system was complex, as some deities were believed to exist in many different manifestations, some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities; the diverse pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or "demons" with limited or localized functions.

It could include gods adopted from foreign cultures, sometimes humans: deceased pharaohs were believed to be divine, distinguished commoners such as Imhotep became deified. The depictions of the gods in art were not meant as literal representations of how the gods might appear if they were visible, as the gods' true natures were believed to be mysterious. Instead, these depictions gave recognizable forms to the abstract deities by using symbolic imagery to indicate each god's role in nature; this iconography was not fixed, many of the gods could be depicted in more than one form. Many gods were associated with particular regions in Egypt. However, these associations changed over time, they did not mean that the god associated with a place had originated there. For instance, the god Montu was the original patron of the city of Thebes. Over the course of the Middle Kingdom, however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere; the national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way.

Deities had complex interrelationships, which reflected the interaction of the forces they represented. The Egyptians grouped gods together to reflect these relationships. One of the more common combinations was a family triad consisting of a father and child, who were worshipped together; some groups had wide-ranging importance. One such group, the Ennead, assembled nine deities into a theological system, involved in the mythological areas of creation and the afterlife; the relationships between deities could be expressed in the process of syncretism, in which two or more different gods were linked to form a composite deity. This process was a recognition of the presence of one god "in" another when the second god took on a role belonging to the first; these links between deities were fluid, did not represent the permanent merging of two gods into one. Sometimes, syncretism combined deities with similar characteristics. At other times it joined gods with different natures, as when Amun, the god of hidden power, was linked with Ra, the god of the sun.

The resulting god, Amun-Ra, thus united the power that lay behind all things with the greatest and most visible force in nature. Many deities could be given epithets that seem to indicate tha

API Standard 682

The American Petroleum Institute has 500 technical standards for processes and components. “Pumps - Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps” is the standard about end face mechanical seals. The purpose of API 682 is to assist in the selection and operation of end face mechanical seals in centrifugal pumps, it is based on the combined knowledge and experience of seal manufacturers, engineering companies and end users. API 682 is intended for use in the petroleum, natural gas and chemical industries but is referenced for other types of equipment and industries. By the late 1980s, mechanical seals had been accepted as the preferred method for sealing rotating pumps for many years. However, mechanical seal standards were buried in other standards such as DIN 24960, ANSI B73 and API 610. All of these standards were pump standards and any references to seals were directed at how mechanical seals would interact with pumps. API 610 is the API standard about centrifugal pumps and is intended for use in the petroleum, natural gas and chemical industries.

Although the 1st through 7th Editions of API 610 included specifications for mechanical seals, beginning with the 8th Edition, API 610 defers to API 682 for seal specifications. In the late 1980s a group of refinery equipment engineers and managers began to compare sealing solutions in refinery applications; this group, led by V. R. Dodd of Chevron, came up with a general plan and the American Petroleum Institute agreed to establish a standard for mechanical seals: API 682. A Task Force was formed in 1990 and the first meeting was held in January 1991; this Task Force was composed of fourteen members from various refineries and pump manufacturers. API 682, First Edition, was published in October 1994. One interesting aspect of API 682 is; that is, unless the user indicates otherwise, API 682 makes default choices for specifics such as: Seal type Rotating or stationary Seal arrangement Seal configuration/orientation Materials Piping plan … many others. Some statements within API 682 are normative, that is, whereas others are informative, that is, descriptive but not required.

In particular, many of the illustrations are informative. This distinction has not always been apparent to the reader. Subsequent editions of API 682 have been published; the current edition is 4th Edition. The first edition of API 682 was new although parts of it were extracted from the pump standard API 610 and existing API standard paragraphs; the mission statement for the 1st Edition was: This standard is designed to default to the equipment types most supplied that have a high probability of meeting the objective of at least three years of uninterrupted service while complying with emissions regulations. Although this mission statement no longer appears in the standard, it remains the basic principle driving the work of the API 682 Task Force and its relevance remains the same for the 4th Edition as it did for the 1st. In addition to providing requirements for mechanical seals, the 1st Edition of API 682 provided a guide on how to select the correct seal for a number of common refinery applications.

In order to provide this seal selection guide, it was necessary to categorize applications into a number of services: Non-hydrocarbon water sour water caustics/amines acids Non-flashing hydrocarbon Flashing hydrocarbon. It was necessary to categorize the many different type seals that were used in these services. Three seal types were designated: Type A – O-ring pusher Type B – O-ring metal bellows Type C – flexible gasket metal bellows. Prior to API 682, 1st Edition, multiple seals were designated as being either “tandem” or “double” seals; as a result, there was some confusion on. The task force decided to use a more descriptive designation and chose to define dual seal arrangements. A dual seal would be two sets of sealing faces used in the same seal chamber; the fluid between these two sets of sealing faces could be either unpressurized. Three standard arrangements were defined: Arrangement 1 is a single seal Arrangement 2 is a dual unpressurized seal Arrangement 3 is a dual pressurized seal.

API 682 1st Edition did not include dry gas barrier seals. After having defined the services, seal types, seal arrangements, a series of flowcharts were created to help in selecting a seal type, special materials or design requirements, supporting piping plans. API 682 seals were to have a high probability of three years of reliable service. In order to prove this, seal performance testing on process fluids under representative pressures and temperatures was required; these performance tests are called “Qualification Tests”. The general idea of the qualification test was to prove; the goal of the qualification test was to simulate a long-term steady state run followed by a process upset. The simulated process upset consisted of pressure changes, temperature changes and included loss of flush; the results of these tests were made available to the purchaser for evaluation. There was no acceptance criteria presented in API 682 1st Edition. In addition to the qualification test of the design, every API 682 seal, whether new or repaired, is to be pressure tested with air before being shipped to the end user.

One of the major criticisms of API 682 1st Edition was that all the seals were “heavy duty” and therefore expensive with no alternatives for easy services. To some degree, this was intentional and was done in order to reduce inventory, promote familiarity with a limited numbe

Joseph H. Patterson

Joseph Heste Patterson was an American naval officer who competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics. He went by "Pat" Patterson while in the Navy. A native of Oklahoma City, Patterson graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1936. While at the Naval Academy, he competed for the track team; that same year, he finished second in the 400 m hurdles at the US Olympic trials for the 1936 Games in Berlin. At the Berlin Games, he finished fourth in 400 m hurdles event, losing out on the bronze medal to Miguel White of the Philippines by 0.2 seconds. He married Elizabeth "Betty" Greenlee in 1938. After the Olympics, Patterson served aboard the USS Louisville cruiser as an ensign, he would serve from May 1936 to May 1938. After transferring to the submarine fleet, Patterson completed training at the submarine school in New London, Connecticut before being assigned to the USS Squalus in October 1938. Patterson lost his life aboard the Squalus on May 23, 1939 when the main induction valve failed to close off the Isles of Shoals.

This caused the aft torpedo room, both engine rooms, the crew's quarters to be flooded. He was one of 26 men to drown and the only officer to die in the accident; the rest of the surviving crew was rescued by the USS Falcon led by Lieutenant Commander Charles "Swede" Momsen and the Squalus was refloated where Patterson and his dead crewmates were recovered. Patterson is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, he was posthumously promoted to Lieutenant. Evans, Hilary. "Joe Patterson". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Subvert.com memorial to the Squalus. Maas, Peter; the Terrible Hours: The man behind the greatest submarine rescue in history. New York: HarperTouch. Pp. 15–16. Wallechinsky and Jaime Loucky. "Track & Field: 400-Meter Hurdles". In The Complete Book of the Olympics: 2008 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. P. 163