The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, ancient Iran, Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula. The ancient Near East is studied in the fields of Near Eastern ancient history; the history of the ancient Near East begins with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, though the date it ends varies. The term covers the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in the region, until either the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC, that by the Macedonian Empire in the 4th century BC, or the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD; the ancient Near East is considered one of the cradles of civilization. It was here that intensive year-round agriculture was first practiced, leading to the rise of the first dense urban settlements and the development of many familiar institutions of civilization, such as social stratification, centralized government and empires, organized religion and organized warfare.
It saw the creation of the first writing system, the first alphabet, the first currency in history, law codes, early advances that laid the foundations of astronomy and mathematics, the invention of the wheel. During the period, states became large, until the region became controlled by militaristic empires that had conquered a number of different cultures; the phrase "ancient Near East" denotes the 19th-century distinction between Near East and Far East as global regions of interest to the British Empire. The distinction began during the Crimean War; the last major exclusive partition of the east between these two terms was current in diplomacy in the late 19th century, with the Hamidian Massacres of the Armenians and Assyrians by the Ottoman Empire in 1894–1896 and the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. The two theatres were described by the statesmen and advisors of the British Empire as "the Near East" and "the Far East". Shortly after, they were to share the stage with Middle East, which came to prevail in the 20th century and continues in modern times.
As Near East had meant the lands of the Ottoman Empire at its maximum extent, on the fall of that empire, the use of Near East in diplomacy was reduced in favor of the Middle East. Meanwhile, the ancient Near East had become distinct; the Ottoman rule over the Near East ranged from Vienna to the tip of the Arabian Peninsula, from Egypt to the borders of Iraq. The 19th-century archaeologists added Iran to their definition, never under the Ottomans, but they excluded all of Europe and Egypt, which had parts in the empire. Ancient Near East periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks, or eras, of the Near East; the result is a descriptive abstraction that provides a useful handle on Near East periods of time with stable characteristics. Paleolithic Epipaleolithic and mesolithic Kebaran culture Natufian culture Pre-pottery Neolithic A Pre-pottery Neolithic B Pre-pottery Neolithic C Pottery Neolithic The Uruk period existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period.
Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization; the late Uruk period saw the gradual emergence of the cuneiform script and corresponds to the Early Bronze Age. Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world, it lasted from the first settlement of Eridu in the Ubaid period through the Uruk period and the Dynastic periods until the rise of Assyria and Babylon in the late 3rd millennium BC and early 2nd millennium BC respectively. The Akkadian Empire, founded by Sargon the Great, lasted from the 24th to the 21st century BC, was regarded by many as the world's first empire; the Akkadians fragmented into Assyria and Babylonia. Ancient Elam lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province. In the Old Elamite period, c. 3200 BC, it consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered on Anshan, from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered on Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.
Elam was absorbed into the Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC. The Proto-Elamite civilization existed from c. 3200 BC to 2700 BC, when Susa, the capital of the Elamites, began to receive influence from the cultures of the Iranian plateau. In archaeological terms, this corresponds to the late Banesh period; this civilization is recognized as the oldest in Iran and was contemporary with its neighbour, the Sumerian civilization. The Proto-Elamite script is an Early Bronze Age writing system in use for the ancient Elamite language before the introduction of Elamite Cuneiform; the Amorites were a nomadic Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. In the earliest Sumerian sources, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites is associated with the West, including S
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Jessica Trengove is an Australian long-distance runner who competes in distances from 5000 metres up to the marathon. She represented Australia at the 2012 London Olympics and 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics in the marathon. Nicknamed Trenny, Trengove was born on 15 August 1987 in Naracoorte, South Australia, she attended Naracoorte Primary School before going to Naracoorte High School and boarding school Annesley College, having moved to Adelaide to attend the school at the start of year 10. She attended the University of South Australia from 2006 to 2009 where she earned a Bachelor of Physiotherapy, she participated in netball from the age of nine to the age of twenty-one. She played netball for Contax in 2008, she played basketball, competing in the South Australia 12–19 State Country U18s. As of 2012, she lives in Adelaide where she is a physiotherapist, pilates instructor, her brother is Port Adelaide Football Club player Jack Trengove, has been influential in her running career by creating a sense of competition in her family.
The family competition included Trengove's sister Abbie, who represented their state in rowing. Jess is an ambassador for Jodi Lee Foundation and Bupa. Trengove weighs 52 kilograms, her running career started. In 2000, she was selected for the South Australia representative cross country team; as of 2008, she was coached by Adam Didyk. Prior to, coached by Roger Pedrick, she competed in the City to Bay Run in 2010. That year, she competed at the Nanning, China hosted World Half Marathon Championships, she ran her first marathon in March 2012, where she set an Olympic A qualifying time of 2 hours, 31 minutes. In 2012, her training regime included running up to 160 kilometres a week. On her light training days, she ran 12 kilometres. Trengove was selected to represent Australia at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the women's marathon, she was the third South Australian athletics competitor to qualify for the Games, prepared for them by training in Adelaide. She finished the Olympic marathon in 39th place with a time of 2:31:17, 8 minutes and 10 seconds behind the first-place finisher Tiki Gelana.
At the 2014 Commonwealth Games, she won the bronze medal, running a personal best of 2:30:12. She came 22nd in the same event at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics in a time of 2:31:44, she finished ninth in the 2017 IAAF World Championships marathon in a time of 2:28:59. This was the best performance by an Australian woman in a World Championship; as of January 2019, her personal best times are: Long Jump: 3.68m, Adelaide, 1998 1,500 metres: 4:26.9, Adelaide, 2013. 5,000 metres: 15:35, November 2016. 10,000 metres: 32:17, April 2015. Half marathon: 1:10:59, February 2018. Marathon: 2:25:59, Toronto, 21 October 2018, her results include: 1st, 2:27:45, 2015 Melbourne Marathon 24th, 1:14:21, IAAF / SINOPEC World Half Marathon Championships, Nanning, 16 October 2010 14th, Nagoya International Women's Marathon, Nagoya, 11 March 2012 71st, IAAF World Cross Country Championships, Punta Umbría, 20 March 2011 Winner, 2011 City2Surf, Sydney, 2011 In 2016, Trengove won the People's Choice Award at the Advertiser/Channel 7 Sport Star of the Year awards.