Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.

The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. 800 AD, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture in the 18th century BC, to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.

The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.

The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze; the use of steel has been based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. Early steel was made by smelting iron. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC the beginning of historiography with Herodotus. In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China.

The earliest-known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering. Meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Ir

Jamie Campbell (English footballer)

Jamie Campbell is an English former professional footballer who made nearly 300 appearances in the Football League. A defender or midfielder, Campbell played for Luton Town, Mansfield Town, Cambridge United, Brighton & Hove Albion and Exeter City, where he was Player of the Year in 2000–01, he moved into non-league football with clubs including Stevenage Borough, for whom he played on the losing side in the 2002 FA Trophy Final and Havant & Waterlooville is a British company operating an online marketplace for businesses and private clients that acts as a foreign exchange aggregator. The company has its headquarters in London, it is the first company to provide an online marketplace and booking platform of multiple non-bank, FCA regulated foreign currency exchange suppliers. was founded in February 2014 in London by Stevan Litobac. The initial idea for the company came from the personal pain of the co-founders when making international money transfers. Abrahams was studying in Australia and Litobac was travelling around Europe, they both observed hidden fees involved in international currency exchanges and the lack of competitive alternatives available. Both co-founders were, independently in need to make currency exchanges. After meeting through a website that matches technology and commercial talent, they saw an opportunity to build a disruptive marketplace, provide transparency and customer choice to the $21 trillion market of cross-border transactions.

The company set up a Tel Aviv office at its early stages. was present at the 2014 Finovate Europe, the world’s leading demo based conference for fintech companies. For the 2014 SWIFT Innotribe competition, after reaching Europe's final 15 out of a total of 280 companies, the company was chosen for the global final that included a total of nine startups. At its initial stages, was self-funded but on it received funding by angel investors, including Errol Damelin among others. A funding round was prepared for late 2015 to facilitate the company's further growth. is an online foreign exchange aggregator, which offers live exchange rates and gives its users the ability to book their transfers. Through its online marketplace,, the company offers real-time a foreign exchange price feed. Foreign exchange brokers offer live exchange prices live, taking into account competition prices, giving its clients the opportunity to achieve better rates.

The company states that brokers are required to be accredited as Authorised Payment Institutions by the Financial Services Authority and to have the ability to stream exchange rates live, in order to be included in the marketplace. Company co-founder Daniel Abrahams has stated his vision for the site to become the "Expedia of business foreign exchange". aims to give forex services, which are long available for larger companies, to small and medium-sized enterprises. The company has launched two sister websites: for holiday money and for emigration and overseas property. The minimum transfer amount in the marketplace is £5,000, while the company claims an average transfer size of £29,000. has handled transactions worth $500 million up to January 2015. website