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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic, a name derived from the Greek: χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and from λίθος líthos, "stone" or Copper Age known as the Eneolithic or Aeneolithic is an archaeological period which researchers regard as part of the broader Neolithic. In the context of Eastern Europe, archaeologists prefer the term "Eneolithic" to "Chalcolithic" or other alternatives. In the Chalcolithic period, copper predominated in metalworking technology. Hence it was the period; the archaeological site of Belovode, on Rudnik mountain in Serbia, has the oldest securely-dated evidence of copper smelting, from 7000 BP. The Copper Age in the Ancient Near East began in the late 5th millennium BC and lasted for about a millennium before it gave rise to the Early Bronze Age; the transition from the European Copper Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about the same time, between the late 5th and the late 3rd millennia BC. The multiple names result from multiple recognitions of the period; the term Bronze Age meant that either copper or bronze was being used as the chief hard substance for the manufacture of tools and weapons.

Ancient writers, who provided the essential cultural references for educated people during the 19th century, used the same names for both. In 1881, John Evans recognized that use of copper preceded the use of bronze, distinguished between a transitional Copper Age and the Bronze Age proper, he did not include the transitional period in the three-age system of Early and Late Bronze Age, but placed it outside the tripartite system, at its beginning. He did not, present it as a fourth age but chose to retain the traditional tripartite system. In 1884, Gaetano Chierici following the lead of Evans, renamed it in Italian as the eneo-litica, or "bronze–stone" transition; the phrase was never intended to mean that the period was the only one in which both bronze and stone were used. The Copper Age features the use excluding bronze; the part -litica names the Stone Age as the point from which the transition began and is not another -lithic age. Subsequently, British scholars used either Evans's "Copper Age" or the term "Eneolithic", a translation of Chierici's eneo-litica.

After several years, a number of complaints appeared in the literature that "Eneolithic" seemed to the untrained eye to be produced from e-neolithic, "outside the Neolithic" not a definitive characterization of the Copper Age. Around 1900, many writers began to substitute Chalcolithic for Eneolithic, to avoid the false segmentation, it was that the misunderstanding began among those who did not know Italian. The Chalcolithic was seen as a new -lithic age, a part of the Stone Age in which copper was used, which may appear paradoxical. Today, Copper Age and Chalcolithic are used synonymously to mean Evans's original definition of Copper Age; the literature of European archaeology in general avoids the use of "Chalcolithic", whereas Middle Eastern archaeologists use it. "Chalcolithic" is not used by British prehistorians, who disagree as to whether it applies in the British context. The emergence of metallurgy may have occurred first in the Fertile Crescent; the earliest use of lead is documented here from the late Neolithic settlement of Yarim Tepe in Iraq, "The earliest lead finds in the ancient Near East are a 6th millennium BC bangle from Yarim Tepe in northern Iraq and a later conical lead piece from Halaf period Arpachiyah, near Mosul.

As native lead is rare, such artifacts raise the possibility that lead smelting may have begun before copper smelting." Copper smelting is documented at this site at about the same time period, although the use of lead seems to precede copper smelting. Early metallurgy is documented at the nearby site of Tell Maghzaliyah, which seems to be dated earlier, lacks pottery. Analysis of stone tool assemblages from sites on the Tehran Plain, in Iran, has illustrated the effects of the introduction of copper working technologies on the in-place systems of lithic craft specialists and raw materials. Networks of exchange and specialized processing and production that had evolved during the Neolithic seem to have collapsed by the Middle Chalcolithic and been replaced by the use of local materials by a household-based production of stone tools; the Timna Valley contains evidence of copper mining in 7000–5000 BC. The process of transition from Neolithic to Chalcolithic in the Middle East is characterized in archaeological stone tool assemblages by a decline in high quality raw material procurement and use.

This dramatic shift is seen throughout the region, including Iran. Here, analysis of six archaeological sites determined a marked downward trend in not only material quality, but in aesthetic variation in the lithic artefacts. Fazeli et al. use these results as evidence of the loss of craft specialisation caused by increased use of copper tools. An archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of coppermaking from 7,500 years ago; the find in June 2010 extends the known record of copper smelting by about 800 years, suggests that copper smelting may have been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. In Serbia, a copper axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates use of metal in Europe b

Flareup (film)

Flareup is a 1969 American thriller film directed by James Neilson and written by Mark Rodgers. The film stars James Stacy, Luke Askew, Don Chastain, Ron Rifkin and Jean Byron; the film was released on November 1969, by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Michele is a Vegas dancer who is, as the saying goes, red hot: maybe too hot, for in this film, she learns that somebody wants her dead, she gets help from the cops, but along the way the killer stays on her trail, she learns it may be a man she knows. It features Welch dancing to the song Suzie Q, which became a hit song by Creedence Clearwater Revival. Raquel Welch as Michele James Stacy as Joe Brodnek Luke Askew as Alan Moris Don Chastain as Lieutenant Manion Ron Rifkin as Sailor Jean Byron as Jerri Benton Pat Delaney as Iris Sandra Giles as Nikki Kay Peters as Lee Joe Billings as Lloyd Seibert Carol-Jean Thompson as Jackie Mary Wilcox as Tora Carl Byrd as Sgt. Newcomb Steve Conte as Lt. Franklin Tom Fadden as Mr. Willows Michael Rougas as Dr. Connors David Moses as Technician Will J. White as Sgt.

Stafford Douglas Rowe as Gas Station Attendant Gordon Jump as Security Guard Ike Williams as Policeman The film was based on an original screenplay. It was the first film from the GMF Pictures Corporation, a film arm from the Getty Oil Interests, it was run by Ronald. GMF stood for Getty-McDonald-Fromkess, Getty's partners being Ronald McDonald, a tax and business specialist, Leon Fromkess, a film producer. Filming finished in June. List of American films of 1969 Flareup on IMDb Flareup at Rotten Tomatoes Review of the film at New York Times Review of film at Shock Cinema Review of film at Cinema Retro

Beals Becker

David Beals Becker was an outfielder in Major League Baseball from 1908 to 1915. Becker was born in El Dorado, Kansas in 1886, he attended Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri and is the only Wentworth graduate to play major league baseball. At Wentworth, Becker was a member of the Bugle Corps, he played left end for the football team, was center on the basketball team, pitched and played the outfield on the baseball nine. Becker was the recipient of Wentworth's Champion Athlete Award in 1903, his last year. From 1908 to 1915, Becker played for the Pittsburgh Pirates, the Boston Doves, the New York Giants, the Cincinnati Reds, the Philadelphia Phillies. Upset by hometown heckling, Becker played better on the road, he was a fair fielder and, as a left-handed batter who had trouble with southpaw pitching, he was platooned to face right-handers. Becker made a name for himself in the major leagues as a hard-hitting outfielder, who four times placed in the top ten in home runs in the National League during the "deadball era."

In 1909, he was second in the league with 6 homers. In 1910, Becker became the first player to hit two pinch-hit home runs in one season. On June 9, 1913, he tied a 20th century major league record with two inside-the-park home runs in one game, his best all-around year was 1914, when he hit.325, second in the league, with 9 home runs and 66 runs batted in for the Phillies. He played in three World Series, two with the Giants in 1911 and 1912, one with the Phillies in 1915. In 876 games over eight seasons, Becker posted a.276 batting average with 368 runs, 114 doubles, 43 triples, 45 home runs, 296 runs batted in, 129 stolen bases, 241 bases on balls.335 on-base percentage and.397 slugging percentage. He finished his career with a.954 fielding percentage playing at all three outfield positions. After his major league career ended, Becker bounced around the minor leagues for a number of years and was a member of the minor league champion Kansas City Blues in 1923, he died in Huntington Park, California in 1943 at the age of 57.

On episode #1309, of PBS's Antiques Roadshow, a man who claimed to be Becker's great-great nephew brought two photographs and a uniform belonging to Becker to the show for appraisal. The items were valued at US$50,000. Baseball Reference Retrosheet