The ancient universities are British and Irish medieval universities and early modern universities founded before the year 1600. Four of these are located in Scotland, two in England, one in Ireland; the ancient universities in Britain and Ireland are amongst the oldest extant universities in the world. The surviving ancient universities in England and Ireland are, in order of formation: These universities find themselves governed in a quite different fashion to more recent additions; the ancient universities of Scotland share several distinctive features and are governed by arrangements laid down by the Universities Acts. In addition to these universities, a number of now-obsolete universities were founded during this period, including the University of Northampton, royal attempts to establish universities in Fraserburgh and Durham, plus the predecessor institutions to the University of Aberdeen founded in 1495 and 1593; the ancient universities are distinctive in awarding the Magister Artium/Master of Arts as an undergraduate academic degree.
This is known as the Oxbridge MA, Trinity MA, or the Scottish MA. The ancient universities in Scotland confer the MA degree at graduation with honours and a final mark; because they award the MA as an undergraduate Arts degree, the ancient universities award differing titles for their postgraduate master's degrees in the Arts and Humanities, such as the taught Master of Letters. Some confusion can arise as to whether such degrees are taught degrees or the most established two-year research degrees, although this is specified; as mentioned above, the Universities Acts created a distinctive system of governance for the ancient universities in Scotland, the process beginning with the 1858 Act and ending with the 1966 Act. Despite not being founded until after the first in these series of Acts, the University of Dundee shares all the features contained therein; as a result of these Acts, each of these universities is governed by a tripartite system of General Council, University Court, Academic Senate.
The chief executive and chief academic is the University Principal who holds the title of Vice-Chancellor as an honorific. The Chancellor is a titular non-resident head to each university and is elected for life by the respective General Council, although in actuality a good number of Chancellors resign before the end of their'term of office'; each has a Students' Representative Council as required by statute, although at the University of Aberdeen this has been renamed the Students' Association Council. Following the creation of the ancient universities, no more universities were created in Britain and Ireland until the 19th century. Which of these 19th-century institutions was the earliest post-ancient university is a matter of debate. In brief, the main university-level foundations after this time are: St David's College, Lampeter was established in 1822, University College London in 1826 King's College London in 1829 University of Durham in 1832. In addition the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow traces its origins back to the Andersonian Institute of 1796, but did not receive a Royal Charter until 1964.
The more recent red brick universities of the 19th century and early 20th century such as the University of Birmingham were soon to follow. Thereafter in the 1950s and 60s the "plate glass universities" were formed the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, granted polytechnics university status
Acacia ammophila is a tree or shrub belonging to the genus Acacia. It is native to Queensland. Acacia ammophila is a tree growing to 6 m, its dark grey bark is furrowed. The phyllodes are linear and 10–20 cm long by 2.5–6 mm wide and acute with a dense silvery appressed covering, sparse on the older phyllodes. There are numerous parallel obscure nerves; the inflorescences consist of 2–4-headed racemes with the raceme axes being 1–4 mm long and covered in dense hairs, on hairy peduncles which are 7–12 mm long. The golden heads are 5 mm in diameter; the flowers consist of five parts. The pods are up to 20 cm long by 4 -- 8 mm wide; the oblong, dark seeds are longitudinal with a minute aril. It has been found only in southern inland Queensland, from near Adavale and near Thargomindah on the slopes of red sand dunes and on alluvial soils in open shrubland, it was first described by Leslie Pedley in 1978. It has been listed as "vulnerable" under Australian environmental protection laws. List of Acacia species
The Endymion class was a class of six Royal Navy 40-gun fifth-rate frigates, with the prototype launched in 1797 and five amended versions built of fir launched from 1813 to 1814. In 1794, a frigate squadron under the command of Captain Sir John Borlase Warren captured the French 40-gun frigate Pomone. To her captors, the ship was armed with 26 × 24-pounder long guns, a main armament, uncommon for frigates in the 18th century. Furthermore, Pomone impressed the British with outstanding sailing qualities in every variation of the wind, being capable of sailing more than 13 knots. On 30 April 1795, the Admiralty ordered three frigates — with 36 guns, 38 guns and 40 guns — the first and third built to the lines of the captured French frigate and the second to a new design by the Surveyors; the 40-gun French design was copied from Pomone, in November 1795 the keel was laid down at the Rotherhithe shipyard of John Randall & Company for the new ship, which on 14 November 1795 was named as HMS Endymion.
She was launched on 29 March 1797 and towed to Deptford Dockyard, where she was commissioned in April 1797 and completed on 12 June 1797. Endymion was not an exact copy of Pomone, being built to British design standards with stronger construction. Endymion sailed better than Pomone, reaching 14.4 knots, the highest recorded speed during the Age of Sail. Reclassified as a 48-gun fourth-rate frigate in February 1817 as 50-gun, as 44-gun in February 1839, Endymion's fine qualities were such that she continued to be praised for nearly half a century, she was broken up at Plymouth Dockyard in June 1868. Early in 1812, war with the United States seemed inevitable. To cope with the heavy American 24-pounder frigates of the Constitution-type, the Admiralty decided to build a batch of new 24-pounder frigates. During the long war with France, the standard British frigate was of about 1,000 tons and armed with a main battery of only 18-pounders, no match for the big US ships; the only proven design for a suitable 24-pounder frigate was that of Endymion, in May 1812 two ships were ordered from Wigram, Wells & Green of Blackwall Yard, who were to construct all five ships built.
They differed from the prototype by being constructed of "fir" rather than oak, mounted an extra pair of 24-pounder guns on the upper deck forward. All would be reclassified as 50-gun fourth-rate frigates in February 1817; the first pair were ordered on 4 May 1812 as Tagus and Eridanus of the 18-pounder armed Leda class, but were renamed on 7 January 1813 as Severn and Liffey. The War of 1812 broke out in June, on 26 December two further ships were ordered, becoming Glasgow and Liverpool; the final ship was Forth, ordered on 7 January 1813. These five new ships were of a modified design, having ports for 28 instead of 26 × 24-pounders and were built of softwood, to speed up the construction; the ships were launched from June 1813 to February 1814. There were small variations in the dimensions of the different ships: Length on gundeck: 159 feet 2 inches Beam: 41 feet 11 inches Tonnage: 1246 to 1277 tons Established armament: 28 × 24-pounders, 20 × 32-pounder carronades, 2 × 9-pounder chase guns Complement: 340 men Rated: 40-gun fifth-rates, rerated as 50-gun fourth-rates in 1817
Year 1315 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. May 9 – Eudes IV succeeds Hugh V as Duke of Burgundy. August – Louis X is crowned King of France at Reims. August 13 – Louis X of France marries Clemence d'Anjou. August 29 -- Battle of Montecatini: Pisa defeats the forces of Naples. September – Battle of Moiry Pass: Edward Bruce, with a Scots-Irish army, defeats a garrison of Hiberno-Norman troops of the Lordship of Ireland at Armagh, as part of his attempt to revive the High Kingship of Ireland. October 25 – Banastre Rebellion: Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea and William Bradshaw attack Liverpool Castle. November 15 – Battle of Morgarten: The Swiss defeat Leopold of Austria on the shore of the Ägerisee, ensuring independence for the Swiss Confederation. Louis X of France abolishes slavery within the Kingdom of France. Hōjō Mototoki becomes Kamakura shōgun of Japan. John XIII Glykys becomes Patriarch of Constantinople. Flushing, Netherlands is granted city rights. Witzlaw III, prince of Rügen, builds Hejehdbhdd castle at Barth.
Emir Ismael Abu-I-Walid orders the Jews of Granada to don the yellow badge. Dassel, Germany is granted city rights; the Kos Fortress is erected by the Knights Hospitallers in Greece. The Arsenian schism ends. History of Sudan: A Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascends the throne of Dongola as king. Estimation: Cairo, capital of Mamluk Egypt becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Hangzhou in Mongolian China; the Borough of Liverpool, along with Liverpool Castle, is granted to Robert de Holland. The Great Famine of 1315–1317 begins. April 5 – James III of Majorca May 20 – Bonne of Luxembourg, Queen of John II of France February or March – Margaret of Villehardouin, Lady of Akova March 10 – Agnes Blannbekin, Austrian Beguine mystic May 9 – Hugh V, Duke of Burgundy June 29 – Ramon Llull, Spanish philosopher August 12 – Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, English nobleman August 15 or April 30 – Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France August 29 Charles of Taranto Peter Tempesta, Count of Eboli
Do as I Say: Profiles in Liberal Hypocrisy is a book written by author Peter Schweizer and published by Doubleday in 2005. The book profiles contradictions and hypocritical behaviors of several famous individuals in the United States who are liberals. People profiled in the book include Ted Kennedy, Nancy Pelosi and Hillary Clinton, Ralph Nader, Al Franken, Cornel West, Michael Moore, George Soros, Noam Chomsky, Barbra Streisand and Gloria Steinem. Schweizer contends that many liberals publicly promote liberal values regarding the environment, affirmative action, racism and finance, but practice the opposite in their private and professional lives. Notable issues that Schweizer addresses in the work are Noam Chomsky's acceptance of money from prominent institutions whose policies he opposes, living in an expensive home, his visitation of socialist states such as Cuba. Chomsky considers himself an anarchist, not a liberal. Schweizer, in the rest of the work, makes similarly-toned accusations against individuals the book focuses on surrounding political issues such as environmentalism and taxation.
After the book's publication, Chomsky talked to Schweizer about his creation of a trust fund for his daughters and grandchildren. In Schweizer's follow up discussion with Chomsky, Schweizer reveals that though Chomsky abhors corporations and refers to them as "fascist", Chomsky's own retirement fund is invested in large capitalization NYSE companies and the TIAA-CREF stock fund. Schweizer points out: A look at the stock fund portfolio reveals that it invests in all sorts of businesses that Chomsky says he finds abhorrent: oil companies, military contractors, you name it. In addition, during his publicity tours, Schweizer spoke of Arianna Huffington's use of private jets for transportation and excessive energy consumption, despite her public pro-environmentalist stance. Schweizer's book was well-received, showing up on New York Times bestsellers list in early 2006 and garnering praise from pundits such as Bill O'Reilly. A television station in San Francisco, KGO-TV, reviewed Schweizer's claims against Nancy Pelosi.
It found Schweizer's allegation that the workers at Pelosi's vineyard were not union workers to be true. The station reported that the 1975 California Agricultural Labor Relations Act prevents Pelosi from assisting her workers in forming a union; the investigating reporter claimed that Pelosi paid her workers more than the largest union winery in the region. Schweitzer responded, “It's not my responsibility to go and find out how every single particular circumstance is handled on the Pelosi vineyard.”. Al Franken wrote to the conservative publication National Review to dispute Schweizer's claims that he does not hire minorities, he gave several examples of minority employees who have worked on his radio and television shows
A skid block is a common term for a mandatory attachment to the underside of a racing car. Applied to Formula One cars in 1994, it has been used in other categories including Formula 3000 and Formula Three, it is a flat rectangle made of a wood composite, designed to impose a minimum ground clearance and to limit the use of ground effects to enhance handling. According to the technical specifications governing F1, a rectangular skid block must be fitted beneath the central plane of the car; this skid block may comprise more than one piece but must: extend longitudinally from a point lying 330mm behind the front wheel centre line to the centre line of the rear wheels be made from a homogeneous material have a width of 300mm with a tolerance of +/- 2mm. have a thickness of 10mm with a tolerance of +/- 1mm. have a uniform thickness when new. Be fixed symmetrically about the centre line of the car in such a way that no air may pass between it and the surface formed by the parts lying on the reference plane.
The skid block was introduced as part of the safety changes. The block is made of a material called Jabroc. Jabroc is built in a composite process. Veneers are layered and a high strength resin is used in each layer, they are pressurized and pressed, brought to a certain and consistent material density. As a result, each Jabroc skid plank is all but identical in terms of material density; the plank does not in itself restrict airflow under the car. It is used as a gauge; the closer the car is to the ground, the more efficient the front wing and rear diffuser. The higher the down force levels, the faster a driver may corner. Cornering loads can push the car down much lower to the road, which can be dangerous and so the skid block was introduced to counteract this; the thickness of the plank is one of the parc ferme tests. If it is found to be worn beyond the allowed limit the car is disqualified. Michael Schumacher in a Benetton was disqualified for an excessively worn plank in the 1994 Belgian Grand Prix.
Schumacher spun out across the curb at Pouhon corner. Although the curb carved a pattern out into the plank, it was deemed by the FIA to have not been the cause for the excessive wear. Jarno Trulli in a Jordan was disqualified for plank wear after the 2001 United States Grand Prix but the Jordan team appealed the decision to the FIA International Court of Appeal because a steward was absent when the original decision was made, Trulli's 4th place finish was allowed to stand. Andre Lotterer, Benoit Treluyer and Marcel Fässler, driving the #7 Audi Sport Team Joest R18 e-tron, were excluded from the 2016 6 Hours of Silverstone after finishing in first place. Post-race scrutineering determined that the skid block was less than the 20 mm dictated by FIA World Endurance Championship rules; the ruling was a blow to Audi's hopes in the first round of the WEC season, handing victory to the defending champion Porsche team. The team chose not to appeal