A medieval university was a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher education. The first Western European institutions considered universities were established in the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Portugal between the 11th and 15th centuries for the study of the Arts and the higher disciplines of Theology and Medicine. During the 14th century there was an increase in growth of colleges around Europe; these universities evolved from much older Christian cathedral schools and monastic schools, it is difficult to define the exact date when they became true universities, though the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe held by the Vatican are a useful guide. The word universitas applied only to the scholastic guilds—that is, the corporation of students and masters—within the studium, it was always modified, as universitas magistrorum, universitas scholarium, or universitas magistrorum et scholarium.
However in the late 14th century, the term began to appear by itself to mean a self-regulating community of teachers and scholars recognized and sanctioned by civil or ecclesiastical authority. From the early modern period onward, this Western-style organizational form spread from the medieval Latin west across the globe replacing all other higher-learning institutions and becoming the preeminent model for higher education everywhere; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. Prior to the establishment of universities, European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes. Evidence of these immediate forerunners of the university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD. With the increasing growth and urbanization of European society during the 12th and 13th centuries, a demand grew for professional clergy. Before the 12th century, the intellectual life of Western Europe had been relegated to monasteries, which were concerned with performing the liturgy and prayer.
Following the Gregorian Reform's emphasis on canon law and the study of the sacraments, bishops formed cathedral schools to train the clergy in Canon law, but in the more secular aspects of religious administration, including logic and disputation for use in preaching and theological discussion, accounting to control finances more effectively. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities. Learning became essential to advancing in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, teachers gained prestige. Demand outstripped the capacity of cathedral schools, each of, run by one teacher. In addition, tensions rose between the students of cathedral burghers in smaller towns; as a result, cathedral schools migrated to large cities, like Bologna and Paris. Some scholars such as Syed Farid Alatas have noted some parallels between Madrasahs and early European colleges and have thus inferred that the first universities in Europe were influenced by the Madrasahs in Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily.
Other scholars such as George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel, have questioned this, citing the lack of evidence for an actual transmission from the Islamic world to Christian Europe and highlighting the differences in the structure, procedures and legal status of the "Islamic college" versus the European university. Hastings Rashdall set out the modern understanding of the medieval origins of the universities, noting that the earliest universities emerged spontaneously as "a scholastic Guild, whether of Masters or Students... without any express authorization of King, Prince or Prelate."Among the earliest universities of this type were the University of Bologna, University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena, University of Palencia, University of Cambridge, University of Salamanca, University of Montpellier, University of Padua, University of Toulouse, University of Orleans, University of Siena, University of Valladolid University of Northampton, University of Coimbra, University of Pisa, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University, University of Vienna, Heidelberg University and the University of St Andrews begun as private corporations of teachers and their pupils.
In many cases universities petitioned secular power for privileges and this became a model. Emperor Frederick I in Authentica Habita gave the first privileges to students in Bologna. Another step was when Pope Alexander III in 1179 "forbidding masters of the church schools to take fees for granting the license to teach, obliging them to give license to properly qualified teachers". Hastings Rashdall considered that the integrity of a university was only preserved in such an internally regulated corporation, which protected the scholars from external intervention; this independently evolving organization was absent in the universities of southern Italy and Spain, which served the bureaucratic needs of monarchs—and were, according to Rashdall, their artificial creations. The University of Paris was form
The Third Avenue Bridge is a landmark structure of the city of Minneapolis, United States known as the St. Anthony Falls Bridge, it carries upper fringes of Saint Anthony Falls. The multi-arched bridge meets with Third Avenue in downtown Minneapolis at its south end, but curves as it crosses the river, connects with Central Avenue on its north end; the shallow "S" curve in the bridge was built to avoid fractures in the limestone bedrock that supports the bridge piers. The road is designated Minnesota State Highway 65. Construction began in 1914, it opened four years in 1918; the bridge, which uses Melan arches of an open spandrel design, has been modified since that time. The 2,223-foot crossing was designed by city engineer Frederick W. Cappelen, who created plans for other similar bridges in Minneapolis such as the Franklin Avenue Bridge, it cost US$862,254.00 at the time of construction. The bridge underwent a major overhaul in 1979–1980. Another restoration is planned to extend its life 50 years with a new deck, other improvements to barriers and lighting.
As the bridge is a contributing member of the St. Anthony Falls Historic District, a goal of the project is preserving its historic design elements; the three-year construction project is to begin in fall 2019 under the direction of general contractor Finley Engineering Group. List of crossings of the Upper Mississippi River Bridges 2005: Third Avenue Bridge - Saint Anthony Main. Third Avenue Bridge - Minneapolis Riverfront District Bridges 2005. Costello, Mary Charlotte. Climbing the Mississippi River Bridge by Bridge, Volume Two: Minnesota. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications. ISBN 0-9644518-2-4. Media related to Third Avenue Bridge at Wikimedia Commons
Harpa amouretta, common name the lesser harp, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Harpidae, the harp snails. As Harpa harpa, up to 7 cm, with 11–14 axial ribs and higher spire. Colour white with cream and pale brown banding. Columella with large, central purple blotch; the ovate shell is oblong. It is rather small and elongated; the whorls of the spire are mucronated. The body whorl has eleven or twelve narrow and elevated longitudinal ribs, the surface of which, of a yellow ground, is crossed transversely by a great number of fine blackish lines, which approach alternately, two by two; the intervals of the ribs are marked with thin and delicate longitudinal striae, with brown and whitish lines undulating in bars. Sometimes one or two whitish bands are observed upon the body whorl; the aperture is ovate, alike whitish, with several small brown bands upon the edge of the outer lip which, externally, is covered by the last rib. The columella is straight and is marked with small brown spots.
This marine species occurs in the Red Sea. There are insufficient records to support a continuous distribution across northern Australia. Shallow and deep sands. Röding, P. F. 1798. Museum Boltenianum sive. Hamburg: Trappii 199 pp. Link, H. F. 1807. Beschreibung der Naturalien Sammlung der Universität zu Rostock. Rostock: Alders Erben. Schumacher, C. F. 1817. Essai d'un Nouveau Systéme des Habitations des vers Testacés. Copenhagen: Schultz 287 pp. pls 1-22. Lamarck, J. B. P. A. de M. 1822. Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres. Paris: J. B. Lamarck Vol. 7 711 pp. Krauss, F. 1848. Die Südafrikanischen Mollusken. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Mollusken des Kap - und Natallandes und zur geographischen Verbreitung derselben. Stuttgart: Ebner & Seubert 140 pp. 6 pls. Adams, A. 1854. Descriptions of new species of shells, in the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 21: 173-176 Sowerby, G. B. II, 1860. Thesaurus monographs of genera of shells. London: Sowerby Vol. III. Maes, V.
O. 1967. The littoral marine mollusks of Cocos-Keeling Islands. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 119: 93-217 Wilson, B. R. & Gillett, K. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. Sydney: Reed Books 168 pp. Rehder, H. A. 1973. The family Harpidae of the world. Indo-Pacific Mollusca 3: 207-274 Kay, E. A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 4: Mollusca. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication Vol. 64 653 pp. Walls, J. G.. Conchs and harps. A survey of the molluscan families Strombidae and Harpidae. T. F. H. Publications Ltd, Hong Kong. Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, WA: Odyssey Publishing Vol. 2 370 pp. "Harpa amouretta". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019