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Andean condor

The Andean condor is a South American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae and is the only member of the genus Vultur. Found in the Andes mountains and adjacent Pacific coasts of western South America, the Andean condor is the largest flying bird in the world by combined measurement of weight and wingspan, it has a maximum wingspan of 3.3 m exceeded only by the wingspans of four seabirds and water birds—the 3.5 m maximum of the wandering albatross, southern royal albatross, great white pelican and Dalmatian pelican. It is a large black vulture with a ruff of white feathers surrounding the base of the neck and in the male, large white patches on the wings; the head and neck are nearly featherless, are a dull red color, which may flush and therefore change color in response to the bird's emotional state. In the male, there is a wattle on the neck and a large, dark red comb or caruncle on the crown of the head. Unlike most birds of prey, the male is larger than the female; the condor is a scavenger, feeding on carrion.

It prefers large carcasses, such as those of cattle. It reaches sexual maturity at five or six years of age and nests at elevations of up to 5,000 m on inaccessible rock ledges. One or two eggs are laid, it is one of the world's longest-living birds, with a lifespan of over 70 years in some cases. The Andean condor is a national symbol of Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Peru and plays an important role in the folklore and mythology of the Andean regions; the Andean condor is considered near threatened by the IUCN. It is threatened by secondary poisoning from carcasses killed by hunters. Captive breeding programs have been instituted in several countries; the Andean condor was described by Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae and retains its original binomial name of Vultur gryphus. The Andean condor is sometimes called the Argentinean condor, Bolivian condor, Chilean condor, Colombian condor, Ecuadorian condor, or Peruvian condor after one of the nations to which it is native.

The generic term Vultur is directly taken from the Latin vultur or voltur, which means "vulture". Its specific epithet is derived from a variant of the Greek word γρυπός; the word condor. The exact taxonomic placement of the Andean condor and the remaining six species of New World vultures remains unclear. Although both are similar in appearance and have similar ecological roles, the New World and Old World vultures evolved from different ancestors in different parts of the world and are not related. Just how different the two families are is under debate, with some earlier authorities suggesting that the New World vultures are more related to storks. More recent authorities maintain their overall position in the order Falconiformes along with the Old World vultures or place them in their own order, Cathartiformes; the South American Classification Committee has removed the New World vultures from Ciconiiformes and instead described them as incertae sedis, but notes that a move to Falconiformes or Cathartiformes is possible.

The Andean condor is the only accepted living species of Vultur. Unlike the California condor, known from extensive fossil remains and some additional ones of congeners, the fossil record of the Andean condor recovered to date is scant. Presumed Plio-Pleistocene species of South American condors were recognized to be not different from the present species, although one known only from a few rather small bones found in a Pliocene deposit of Tarija Department, may have been a smaller palaeosubspecies, V. gryphus patruus. Although it is on average about seven to eight cm shorter from beak to tail than the California condor, the Andean condor is larger in wingspan, which ranges from 270 to 320 cm, it is typically heavier, reaching a weight of 11 to 15 kg for males and 8 to 11 kg for females. Overall length can range from 100 to 130 cm. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 75.7–85.2 cm, the tail is 33–38 cm and the tarsus is 11.5–12.5 cm. Measurements are taken from specimens reared in captivity.

The mean weight is 11.3 kg, with the males averaging about a kilogram more at 12.5 kg, the females a kilogram less at 10.1 kg. According to a published manual of avian body masses, the species possesses the heaviest average weight for any living flying bird or animal, ahead of competitors such as trumpeter swans and Dalmatian pelicans. However, another resources claims a mean species body mass of 10.3 kg for the Andean condor. The Andean condor is the largest living land bird capable of flight if measured in terms of average weight and wingspan, although male bustards of the largest species can weigh more at maximum; the mean wingspan is around 283 cm and the wings have the largest surface area of any extant bird. Among living bird species, only the great albatrosses and the two largest species of pelican exceed the Andean condor in average and maximal wingspan; the adult plumage is a uniform black, with the exception of a frill of white feathers nearly surrounding the base of the neck and in the male, large patches or bands of white on the wings which do not appear until the completion of the bird's first moulting.

The head and neck have few feathers. The head and neck are meticulously kept clean by the bird, their baldness is

Intertrial priming

In cognitive psychology, intertrial priming is an accumulation of the priming effect over multiple trials, where "priming" is the effect of the exposure to one stimulus on subsequently presented stimuli. Intertrial priming occurs when a target feature is repeated from one trial to the next, results in speeded response times to the target. A target is the stimulus. For example, intertrial priming occurs when the task is to respond to either a red or a green target, the response time to a red target is faster if the preceding trial has a red target. Visual attention is influenced by top bottom up attentional processes. Top-down attention is allocated based on an observer's current knowledge about the stimuli. Participants in an experiment might be instructed to search for, respond to a target object presented in a display, a different colour than the other objects presented simultaneously. Top down knowledge of the dimension of the target can speed response times to target identification. Bottom-up attention is involuntarily and automatically directed towards salient features in the environment such as a bright colour among dull colours.

In experimental settings, the more different a stimulus is from other stimuli in a visual display, the more salient it is. Bottom-up attention is not guided by observers' goals or knowledge, only by the physical properties of the stimuli. Many studies employ various methods involving intertrial priming to assess the contribution of top down versus bottom up processes in guiding attention in visual search tasks. There are factors in visual search tasks that the top down versus bottom up dichotomy does not take into consideration. Not all selection biases can be explained by physical observer goals. Studies that have found that stimuli that are salient and are connected with rewards and can draw a participants' attention if this choice doesn't match their selection goals. An alternative framework has been proposed where past selection history, current goals and physical salience are integrated in a model of attentional control. Intertrial priming is an important aspect to consider in designing an experiment as it can influence the results if it is not considered/controlled.

Intertrial priming is measured using a visual search task. A typical visual search task involves participants searching for, responding to, a target amongst a group of non-target items. Intertrial priming performance is measured by recording participants' reaction times to identify a target and comparing these times across trials. Different trial designs and visual search tasks can be employed to measure intertrial priming. Studies compare blocked and mixed visual search trials to measure intertrial priming. Blocked trials are multiple, successively presented visual search trials that include the same target, mixed trials are a randomised series of trials, each trial consisting of different targets. For example, a blocked trial condition may include searching for a green circle in trial 1, in multiple successive preceding trials, whereas a mixed trial condition may include searching a for a green circle in trial 1, but a red circle in the proceeding trials. Blocking trials can control for effects of variability in targets.

When a target with the same defining feature is repeated across trials, participants reaction times are faster than when the target is not the same across trials. This repetition effect is cumulative; as the number of target repetitions increases, up to a certain point, participants reaction times are faster each time they are exposed to the same target in repeated trials. In mixed and blocked trials there can be a disparity in intertrial priming that results in faster reaction times in the blocked trials. Reaction times may be faster in blocked trials because participants are required to respond to targets that differ in only one dimension from non-targets. A cue is a presentation of a stimulus prior to a trial to inform the participant of an upcoming target feature. For example, a blue circle may be shown before a trial to signify a blue circle will be the target in the upcoming trial. Target relevant cues may be presented to participants to decrease their reaction time to the target in the display.

These cues may be invalid. Valid cues predict the target stimulus but invalid cues do not. For example, if the target in an upcoming trial is a blue circle, a blue circle presented as a cue would be valid, but if a red circle was presented as a cue it would be invalid, as it doesn't predict the blue circle target stimulus. Reaction times to valid cues are faster than reaction times to invalid cues; this phenomenon is known as a cueing effect. When a valid cue has a low probability of correct target prediction, there can still be a reliable cueing effect for valid cues, faster reaction times to valid cues than invalid cues; this suggests that the cueing effect is not affected by the predictive nature of the cue, may not be due to top-down control. If top-down control is involved in the response selection invalid trials should have a faster response than valid trials because participants are aware that the likelihood of being presented with a valid trial is low. Pop-out search tasks include a target that differs in one dimension from a group of homogeneous non-target items.

A dimension is a categorical feature of a stimulus such as its shape or its orientation. Res

Through the Looking Glass (Angel)

"Through the Looking Glass" is episode 21 of season 2 in the television show Angel. Written and directed by Tim Minear, it was broadcast on May 15, 2001 on the WB network, it is the second episode in a three-part arc. In "Through the Looking Glass", Angel and the others are still trapped in the Pylea dimension. Cordelia finds herself appointed ruling princess of Pylea by an order of priests and ordered to mate with a human-like creature called the Groosalugg, while Angel seeks to help Lorne the Host bond with his estranged family, which takes a turn when Angel saves a runaway human slave, named Winifred "Fred" Burkle, the same L. A. librarian, sucked into Pylea five years earlier. Wesley and Gunn manage to escape from the castle only to end up as captives of human Pylean rebels plotting to overthrow the monarchy. Angel and Gunn are shocked to see Cordelia has been crowned princess of Pylea, she jokingly demands their heads be cut off, but restates herself. After she dismisses the guards, Cordelia recounts.

Lorne confirms. Lorne takes Angel to his family's house. Angel, made the special guest of their upcoming village feast, tells stories to the people of Pylea while Lorne is ignored. Landok offers Angel the honor of "swinging the crebbil in the Bach-nal," and Angel agrees to take part - before he learns it means beheading a human so the people of Pylea can feast on it. Winifred "Fred" Burkle is brought forth; the two are able to make an escape when Lorne begins causing severe pain to the Pyleans. While perusing the castle library, Wesley discovers "the cursed one" will have to perform something called a "com-shuk" with a Groosalugg, he considers asking the priests to translate the book, until he realizes it is part of a trilogy marked with three animals - wolf and hart - linking the priests to the evil law firm back in Los Angeles. Silas, one of the priests, arrives to inform Cordelia that the Groosalugg has been summoned and that the "com-shuk" is a mating ritual. Wesley and Cordelia try to escape through a sewer tunnel, but Cordelia is caught by the priests and dragged back to her throne.

Guarded, Cordelia worries about mating with the demon, until Silas introduces the Groosalugg, a handsome and muscular young male. Fred leads Angel to a cave. Fred talks nervously. Angel realizes she is the girl from Cordy's vision, she doesn't believe him when he tells her of her life in LA and how she got to Pylea because it's been so long, she's doesn't want to believe. Angel is attacked by guards as he tries to lead Fred to the castle, when he tries to shift into his vampire face, instead he becomes pure demon and brutally rips through the guard's body with his super-sized teeth; the other runs and Angel takes off as well. Wesley and Gunn wander lost, it takes a while. A short distance away, Fred coats her hand in blood and is able to lure Angel away from his friends with the smell. Demon Angel sees his reflection in water at Fred's cave and is motivated to switch back to human form. Gunn and Wesley are tied up by rebels who want to send a message to the castle. Gunn and Wesley try to convince the rebels that they know the princess and suggest they use them to contact her.

The rebels agree. Fred comforts Angel as he painfully deals with the aftermath of being controlled by the demon inside of him, he concludes that his friends saw what he was and now he can never go back to them. The Groosalugg tells Cordelia that his human qualities make him unappealing to his people, so he battled with demons to end his existence, but after defeating them earned the name for bravery and strength. Lorne is brought before Cordelia for judgment and he is sentenced to death, but Cordelia pardons him and kicks him out so she can be alone with her future mate. Cordelia explains to the Groosalugg that she is not a princess, but he doesn't believe her because of what he was told. Silas tells his fellow priests that the princess has requested paper so she can write proclamations and do good for Pylea, he doesn't like the fact. Cordelia's proclamation writing is interrupted by Silas who brings forth a large platter and orders Groosalugg out of the room, he tells her she and Groosalugg are just tools and she will do what she is told.

Cordelia refuses to accept that, until she is shocked into silence as Silas reveals Lorne's head displayed on the platter. Makeup Artist Dayne Johnson says that this episode was one of the most time-consuming for the makeup department; the full-body green makeup used to transform Andy Hallett into a Pylean took three hours, the dozens of Pylean extras required 14 makeup artists beginning at 2:30am. Series creator Joss Whedon appears in this episode playing Lorne's Pylean brother, "Numfar". Whedon wanted his appearance to be a big surprise, so had his make-up done in another make-up trailer; when Andy Hallett, the actor who played Lorne, saw Whedon doing a "Dance of Joy" at rehearsal, he thought the unknown actor was "trash". Angel tells children stories of his adventures in "To Shanshu in L. A." such as when he cut Lindsey's hand off. Landok asks Angel to tell a story about the events of "I Fall to Pieces". After learning of the mating ritual, Cordelia tells Wesley, "I want you to find me a dimension where some demon doe