A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, washing laundry, or food preservation. An appliance is different from a plumbing fixture because it uses electricity or fuel, major appliances differ from small appliances because they are bigger and not portable. They are often considered fixtures and part of estate and as such they are often supplied to tenants as part of otherwise unfurnished rental properties. Major appliances may have electrical connections, connections to gas supplies, or special plumbing. This limits where they can be placed in a home, many major appliances are made of enamel-coated sheet steel which, in the middle 20th century, was usually white. The term white goods in contrast to brown goods, is used, primarily where British English is spoken. In the United States, the white goods can refer to linens. In New Zealand whiteware may be used, elsewhere a term from pottery, since major appliances in a home consume a significant amount of energy, they have become the objectives of programs to improve their energy efficiency in many countries.
Energy efficiency improvements may require changes in construction of the appliances, in the early days of electrification, many major consumer appliances were made by the same companies that made the generation and distribution equipment
A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical methods, i. e. without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements, chemical compounds, ions or alloys, Chemical substances are often called pure to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a substance is pure water, it has the same properties. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond, table salt, however, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids, gases, or plasma, Chemical substances may be combined or converted to others by means of chemical reactions. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, a chemical substance may well be defined as any material with a definite chemical composition in an introductory general chemistry textbook. According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a chemical element or a pure chemical compound.
But, there are exceptions to this definition, a substance can be defined as a form of matter that has both definite composition and distinct properties. The chemical substance index published by CAS includes several alloys of uncertain composition, in geology, substances of uniform composition are called minerals, while physical mixtures of several minerals are defined as rocks. Many minerals, mutually dissolve into solid solutions, such that a rock is a uniform substance despite being a mixture in stoichiometric terms. Feldspars are an example, anorthoclase is an alkali aluminium silicate. In law, chemical substances may include both pure substances and mixtures with a composition or manufacturing process. For example, the EU regulation REACH defines monoconstituent substances, multiconstituent substances and substances of unknown or variable composition, the latter two consist of multiple chemical substances, their identity can be established either by direct chemical analysis or reference to a single manufacturing process.
For example, charcoal is a complex, partially polymeric mixture that can be defined by its manufacturing process. Therefore, although the chemical identity is unknown, identification can be made to a sufficient accuracy. The CAS index includes mixtures, polymers almost always appear as mixtures of molecules of multiple molar masses, each of which could be considered a separate chemical substance. However, the polymer may be defined by a precursor or reaction
National Security Service (Uzbekistan)
The National Security Service is the national intelligence agency of the government of Uzbekistan. The SNB was a rival of the Interior Ministry until 2005, the SNB is described by Amnesty International and the Institute for War and Peace Reporting as a secret police force. Rustam Inoyatov has been the head of the SNB since 1995, the deputy director of the SNB was in 2005 appointed Minister of the Interior. A reorganisation of the security and counter-terrorism agencies in the aftermath of the Andijan massacre significantly increased the power, some analysts maintain that the SNB is under the control of the Tashkent clan, a powerful faction within the Uzbek elite. The U. S. Department of States 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Uzbekistan stated that SNB officials tortured and harassed citizens. On 13 May 2005 SNB troops, along with military and Interior Ministry forces, killed a number of protesters in Andijan. Estimates of those killed range widely, from the figure of 187 to upwards of 1,000.
The protests related to the arrest of a group of businessmen, and the massacre was preceded by disorder including, according to Pravda. The OpenNet Initiative reports that the SNB is extensively involved in Internet censorship, the OpenNet Initiative reports that the SNB, monitors the Uzbek sector of the Internet and stimulates ISPs and Internet cafés to practice self-censorship. Soviet-style censorship structures were replaced by monitoring sections that work under SNB’s guidance, there is no mandatory government prepublication review, but ISPs risk having their licenses revoked if they post inappropriate information. Occasionally, the SNB orders ISPs to block access to opposition or religious Web sites, a survey of internet filtering practices among Uzbek ISPs was conducted by ONI in January 2007. Respondents confirmed that they use filtering applications including SquidGuard and FortiGuard, the SNBs censorship is selective and often targets articles on government corruption, violations of human rights, and organized crime.
Usually, it affects URL-specific pages instead of top-level domain names, Uzbek ISPs block entire Web sites or individual pages upon SNBs unofficial requests. Accessing a blocked page redirects the user to an engine or to an error message such as You are not authorized to view this page. The retransmission of blocked channels is prohibited, the SNB is known to have special purpose units Alfa and Scorpion under its direct command. The Border Service and Customs Service of Uzbekistan answer to the SNB since being placed under its control in 2005, with corruption in the Country being the highest, the organization fully separated itself from the Nation but stays under mafia control
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26,1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and that evening at 7,32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, the week before the unions formal dissolution,11 republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the CIS and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist. The Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR signalled the end of the Cold War, on the other hand, only the Baltic states have joined NATO and the European Union. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11,1985, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo. His initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economy, the reforms began with personnel changes of senior Brezhnev-era officials who would impede political and economic change.
On April 23,1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, into the Politburo as full members. He kept the power ministries happy by promoting KGB Head Viktor Chebrikov from candidate to full member and this liberalisation, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union. Under Gorbachevs leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1989 introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, in May 1985, Gorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism. Prices of vodka and beer were raised in order to make these drinks more expensive and a disincentive to consumers, unlike most forms of rationing intended to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness. Gorbachevs plan included billboards promoting sobriety, increased penalties for public drunkenness, Gorbachev soon faced the same adverse economic reaction to his prohibition as did the last Tsar.
The disincentivization of alcohol consumption was a blow to the state budget according to Alexander Yakovlev. Alcohol production migrated to the market, or through moonshining as some made bathtub vodka with homegrown potatoes. The purpose of these reforms, was to prop up the centrally planned economy, unlike reforms. The latter, disparaged as Mr Nyet in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs, gromyko was relegated to the largely ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, as he was considered an old thinker. In the fall of 1985, Gorbachev continued to bring younger, at the next Central Committee meeting on October 15, Tikhonov retired from the Politburo and Talyzin became a candidate. Finally, on December 23,1985, Gorbachev appointed Yeltsin First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party replacing Viktor Grishin, Gorbachev continued to press for greater liberalization. The CTAG Helsinki-86 was founded in July 1986 in the Latvian port town of Liepāja by three workers, Linards Grantiņš, Raimonds Bitenieks, and Mārtiņš Bariss and its name refers to the human-rights statements of the Helsinki Accords
A wheelchair, often abbreviated to just chair, is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. Wheelchairs come in a variety of formats to meet the specific needs of their users. They may include specialized seating adaptions, individualized controls, and may be specific to particular activities, as seen with sports wheelchairs and beach wheelchairs. The earliest records of wheeled furniture are an inscription found on a slate in China. The first records of wheeled seats being used for transporting disabled people date to three centuries in China, the Chinese used early wheelbarrows to move people as well as heavy objects. A distinction between the two functions was not made for several hundred years, around 525 CE, when images of wheeled chairs made specifically to carry people begin to occur in Chinese art. Later records show the use of technology in Europe by the Renaissance. The invalid carriage or Bath chair brought the technology into more common use from around 1760, in 1887, wheelchairs were introduced to Atlantic City so invalid tourists could rent them to enjoy the Boardwalk.
Soon, many healthy tourists rented the decorated rolling chairs and servants to them as a show of decadence. In 1933 Harry Jennings and his disabled friend Herbert Everest, both engineers, invented the first lightweight, collapsible wheelchair. Everest had previously broken his back in a mining accident and Jennings saw the business potential of the invention and went on to become the first mass-market manufacturers of wheelchairs. Their x-brace design is still in use, albeit with updated materials. There are a variety of types of wheelchair, differing by propulsion method, mechanisms of control. Some wheelchairs are designed for everyday use, others for single activities. The iBot is perhaps the best known example of this in recent years, a self-propelled manual wheelchair incorporates a frame, one or two footplates and four wheels, usually two caster wheels at the front and two large wheels at the back. There will generally be a seat cushion. As this causes friction and heat build-up, particularly on long downslopes, everyday manual wheelchairs come in two major varieties, folding or rigid.
Folding chairs are generally low-end designs, whose predominant advantage is being able to fold, however this is largely an advantage for part-time users who may need to store the wheelchair more often than use it
The Fergana Valley is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan. Divided into three republics of the former Soviet Union, the valley is ethnically diverse and in the early 21st century was the scene of ethnic conflict, the valleys history stretches back over 2300 years, when its population was conquered by Greco-Bactrian invaders from the west. Chinese chroniclers date its towns to more than 2,100 years ago and it was home to Babur, founder of the Mughal Dynasty, tying the region to modern Afghanistan and South Asia. The Russian Empire conquered the valley at the end of the 19th century and its three Soviet republics gained independence in 1991. The area largely remains Muslim, populated by ethnic Uzbek, historically there have been substantial numbers of Russian, Kipchaks, Bukharan Jews and Romani minorities. Mass cotton cultivation, introduced by the Soviets, remains central to the economy, along with a range of grains, fruits. There is a history of stock breeding, and a growing mining sector, including deposits of coal, sulfur, rock-salt, naphtha.
The Fergana Valley is a depression in Central Asia, between the mountain systems of the Tien-Shan in the north and the Gissar-Alai in the south. The valley is approximately 300 kilometres long and up to 70 kilometres wide and its position makes it a separate geographic zone. The valley owes its fertility to two rivers, the Naryn and the Kara Darya, which unite in the valley, near Namangan, numerous other tributaries of these rivers exist in the valley including the Sokh River. This expanse of quicksand, covering an area of 1,900 km2, under the influence of south-west winds, some of the sediments are marine carbonates and clays. The faults are upthrusts and overthrusts, anticlines associated with these faults form traps for petroleum and natural gas, which has been discovered in 52 small fields. The climate of this valley is dry and warm, in March the temperature reaches 20 °C, and rapidly rises to 35 °C in June and August. During the five months following April precipitation is rare, but increases in frequency starting in October and frost, down to -20 °C occurs in December and January.
The independent and warlike Sogdiana formed a border region insulating the Achaemenid Persians from the nomadic Scythians to the north and it was ruled by Seleucids before secession of Bactria. After 250 BC, the city remained in contact with the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom centered on Bactria. Several statuettes and representations of Greek soldiers have been north of the Tien Shan, on the doorstep to China. Of the Greco-Bactrians, the Greek historian Strabo too writes that, they extended their empire even as far as the Seres, after 155 BC, the Yuezhi were pushed into Fergana by neighbors from the north and east
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furnitures functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose and it can be made from many materials, including metal and wood. Furniture can be using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as stumps and moss. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood, early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne. The first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt.
This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory. The evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing, the furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century, the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles. The first three-quarters of the century are often seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures, the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide. Thus fourniture in French means supplies or provisions, the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture likely dates to the beginning of human civilisation.
Early humans are likely to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, during the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones. The earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, a similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BC. The inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were already common artefacts of that age, a range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland. Each house shows a degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards and beds to shelves, stone seats
Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a country in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstans recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires, ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the countrys 5.7 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is closely related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains widely spoken and is the official language, the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. Kyrgyz is believed to have derived from the Turkic word for forty, in reference to the forty clans of Manas. Literally, Kyrgyz means We are forty, at the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia and parts of Russia and China.
King, Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan, the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A. D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range, in the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian population is confirmed on the hand by the recent genetic studies. Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a route for traders, merchants. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty. In the late century, the majority part of what is today Kyrgyzstan was ceded to Russia through two treaties between China and Russia. The territory, known in Russian as Kirghizia, was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876.
The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against Tsarist authority, in addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Soviet power was established in the region in 1919. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a republic of the Soviet Union
Khanate of Kokand
The Khanate of Kokand was a Central Asian state that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan. The name of the city and the khanate may be spelled as Khoqand in modern scholarly literature and he built a citadel as his capital in the small town of Kokand, thus starting the Khanate of Kokand. His son, Abd al-Karim, and grandson, Narbuta Beg, enlarged the citadel, Narbuta Beg’s son Alim was both ruthless and efficient. He hired an army of Tajik highlanders, and conquered the western half of the Fergana Valley, including Khujand. He was assassinated by his brother Omar in 1809, omar’s son, Mohammed Ali, ascended to the throne in 1821 at the age of 12. During his reign, the Khanate of Kokand reached its greatest territorial extent, the Kokand Khanate housed the Khojas of Kashgar like Jahangir Khoja. Following this, Madali Khan, who had received Conolly in Kokand, the Emir, encouraged by the conspiratorial efforts of several influential figures in Kokand, invaded the khanate in 1842.
Shortly thereafter he executed Madali Khan, his brother, and Omar Khans widow, Madali Khan’s cousin, Shir Ali, was installed as the Khan of Kokand in June 1842. Over the next two decades, the khanate was weakened by a civil war, which was further exacerbated by Bukharan and Russian incursions. Shir Ali’s son, Khudayar Khan, ruled from 1845 to 1858, in the meantime, Russia was continuing its advance, on June 28,1865 Tashkent was taken by the Russian troops of General Chernyayev, the loss of Khujand followed in 1867. In 1868, a treaty turned Kokand into a Russian vassal state, the now powerless Khudayar Khan spent his energies improving his lavish palace. Western visitors were impressed by the city of 80,000 people, insurrections against Russian rule and Khudayar’s oppressive taxes forced him into exile in 1875. He was succeeded by his son, Nasir ad-din Abdul Karim Khan, whose anti-Russian stance provoked the annexation of Kokand by Generals Konstantin von Kaufman, in March 1876, Tsar Alexander II stated that he had been forced to.
Yield to the wishes of the Kokandi people to become Russian subjects, the Khanate of Kokand was declared abolished, and incorporated into the Fergana Province of Russian Turkestan. Nasir ad-din Abdul Karim Khan fled to India through the Pamirs and he died in 1893 in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan. His family is now inhabitant in Mir Tayyab Ghari, the Khans of Kokand had a connection with the Timurid Empire. From the time of the last Timurids to that of the first Khans of Kokand there was a period of more than two hundred years, the Khans genealogy was connected with Babur through a legendary figure, Altun Bishik. In the legend, a baby of Baburs family was left in a bishik when Babur fled prosecution, the child was named Altun Bishik, after its imperial cradle, and in the legend he lived from 918-952 AH / 1512-1545 AD
Andijan Region is a region of Uzbekistan, located in the eastern part of the Fergana Valley in far eastern Uzbekistan. It borders with Kyrgyzstan, Fergana Region and Namangan Region and it covers an area of 4,200 km2. The population is estimated to be around 2,756,400 thus making Andijan Region the most densely populated region of Uzbekistan, the name Andijan has originated form of the Persian word of اندکان Andakan. The traditional etymology connects the name with the Turk, ethnonim Gandhi, Andijan Region is divided into 14 administrative districts. The capital is the city of Andijan, the climate is a typically continental climate with extreme differences between winter and summer temperatures. Natural resources include deposits of petroleum, natural gas, ozokerite, as with other regions of Uzbekistan, it is famous for its very sweet melons and watermelons, but cultivation of crops can be accomplished exclusively on irrigated lands. Main agriculture includes cotton, viticulture, cattle raising, industry includes metal processing, chemical industry, light industry, food processing.
The first automobile plant in Central Asia was opened in Asaka in Andijan Region by the Uzbek-Korean joint venture, UzDaewoo, which produces Nexia and Tico cars
Electronics is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements, the science of electronics is considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible, until 1950 this field was called radio technology because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes. Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control and this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a circuit board. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits, some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc.
Components are often categorized as active or passive, vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components. They were almost solely responsible for the revolution of the first half of the Twentieth Century. They took electronics from parlor tricks and gave us radio, phonographs, long distance telephony and they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid state devices have all but completely taken over, vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors, thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and components can be divided into two groups and digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types, most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits.
Analog circuits use a range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits. The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a circuit can be defined as anything from a single component, analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, one rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance and this type of circuit is usually called mixed signal rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation, an example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit
Sufism or Taṣawwuf, which is often defined as Islamic mysticism, the inward dimension of Islam, or the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam, is a mystical trend in Islam characterized. These orders meet for sessions in meeting places known as zawiyas, khanqahs. They strive for ihsan as detailed in a hadith, Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, if you cant see Him, Rumi stated, The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr. Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God. The orders largely follow one of the four madhhabs of Sunni Islam, classical Sufis were characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers. According to William Chittick, In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, Muslims have used the Arabic word taṣawwuf to identify the practice of Sufis. In this view, it is necessary to be a Muslim to be a true Sufi.
However, Islamic scholars themselves are not by any means in agreement about the meaning of the word sufi, Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to Sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Tasawwuf as a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else, two origins of the word sufi have been suggested. Commonly, the root of the word is traced to ṣafā. Another origin is ṣūf, wool in Arabic, referring to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore, the two were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari, who said, The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity. Scholars generally agree that ṣūf or wool is probably the word of Sufi. This term was given to them because they wore woollen garments, the term labisal-suf meant he clad himself in wool and applied to a person who renounced the world and became an ascetic. Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah and these men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis.
Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds. Sufi orders are based on the bayah that was given to the Prophet Muhammad by his Sahaba, by pledging allegiance to the Prophet Muhammad, the Sahaba had committed themselves to the service of God. According to Islamic belief, by pledging allegiance to Prophet Muhammad and it is through the Prophet Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about and connect with God. Such a concept may be understood by the hadith, which Sufis regard to be authentic, in which Prophet Muhammad said, I am the city of knowledge, eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri refer to Ali as having a very high ranking in Tasawwuf