Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance, with the main contributor and commercial marketer being Google. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The current stable version is Android 10, released on September 3, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, licensed under the Apache License. This has allowed variants of Android to be developed on a range of other electronics, such as game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and others, each with a specialized user interface; some well known derivatives include Android TV for televisions and Wear OS for wearables, both developed by Google. Android's source code has been used as the basis of different ecosystems, most notably that of Google, associated with a suite of proprietary software called Google Mobile Services, that comes pre-installed on said devices.
This includes core apps such as Gmail, the digital distribution platform Google Play and associated Google Play Services development platform, apps such as the Google Chrome web browser. These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google. Other competing Android ecosystems include Amazon.com's Fire OS, or LineageOS. Software distribution is offered through proprietary application stores like Google Play Store or Samsung Galaxy Store, or open source platforms like Aptoide or F-Droid, which use software packages in the APK format. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of January 2020, the Google Play Store features over 2.9 million apps. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut", "Eclair", "Froyo", in that order. During its announcement of Android KitKat in 2013, Google e
By the Hand of the Father is a collection of songs from the play By the Hand of the Father, by Alejandro Escovedo, released in 2002. All tracks composed by Alejandro Escovedo. – 3:36 "Dos Hermanos/Two Brothers" – 2:35 "Ballad of the Sun and the Moon" – 5:37 "Mexico Americano" – 2:52 "Seven Years" –:46 "Rosalie" – 5:36 "Hard Road" – 4:23 "59 Years" – 2:05 "Inside This Dance" – 4:51 "Cancion Mixteca" – 5:05 "With These Hands" - 4:43 "Silence" - 6:40 "And Yet/Theme" - 4:38 Elliott Baribeault - Bass, Bajo Sexto, Backup Vocal Alejandro Escovedo - Guitar, Liner Notes Pete Escovedo - Percussion Quetzal Flores - Bajo Sexto Rosie Flores - Vocals Larry Hirsch - Engineer, Mixing Otoño Lujan - Accordion Rocío Marron - Violin Hector Muñoz - Percussion Doug Pettibone - Electric Guitar, Steel Guitar, Slide Guitar, Hi String Guitar Rubén Ramos - Vocals, Voiceover César Rosas - Vocals J. Steven Soles - Bass, Vocals, Producer Gabriel Tenorio - Electric Guitar, Hi String Guitar, Requinto
Dave Lucas is an American poet and essayist. He is the current Poet Laureate of the state of Ohio. Lucas was raised in Cleveland, Ohio, he earned his B. A. at John Carroll University, M. F. A. in Creative Writing at the University of Virginia, M. A. and Ph. D. in English Language and Literature at the University of Michigan. Lucas’s first poetry collection, was published in 2011 by University of Georgia Press and was awarded the 2012 Ohioana Book Award for Poetry. Shortly after publication, former U. S. Poet Laureate Rita Dove named him as one of thirteen “young poets to watch.” His poetry has been anthologized in The Bedford Introduction to Literature and Best New Poets 2005. He has reviewed books for The Plain Dealer and his essays have appeared in Granta and Virginia Quarterly Review, among other publications. Lucas has taught at Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic's Program in Medical Humanities, the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, the John Carroll Young Writers Workshop, the Sweet Briar Creative Writing Conference.
In 2012, Lucas co-founded Brews and Prose, a monthly literary series hosted at Market Garden Brewery. He served as the program’s Creative Director from its inception through 2017. In January 2018, Ohio Governor John Kasich named Lucas the state’s second poet laureate, succeeding Amit Majmudar. Lucas was recommended for the two-year position after a statewide nominating process by the Ohio Poet Laureate Selection Committee. Ohio Poet Laureate, 2018 – Present Cleveland Arts Prize Emerging Artist Award, 2016 Ohioana Book Award for Poetry, 2012 Discovery/The Nation, the Joan Leiman Jacobson Poetry Prize, 2005 Weather, Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-8203-3882-8