Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol was an American artist, film director, producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression and celebrity culture that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with inspiring the used expression "15 minutes of fame".

In the late 1960s he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.

S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two elder brothers—Pavol, the eldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.

When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.

In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still


Sorocea is a Neotropical genus of woody plants in the family Moraceae. Its distribution ranges from Chiapas to southern Brazil, it is placed within the tribe Moreae, is related to the monotypic Bagassa. According to Kew, there are 22 accepted species: Sorocea affinis Hemsl. Sorocea angustifolia Al. Santos & Romaniuc Sorocea bonplandii W. C. Burger, Lanj. & de Boer Sorocea briquetii J. F. Macbr. Sorocea carautana M. D. M. Vianna, Carrijo & Romaniuc Sorocea duckei W. C. Burger Sorocea ganevii R. M. Castro Sorocea guilleminiana Gaudich. Sorocea hilarii Gaudich. Sorocea jaramilloi C. C. Berg Sorocea jureiana Romaniuc Sorocea klotzschiana Baill. Sorocea longipedicellata A. F. P. Machado, M. D. M. Vianna & Romaniuc Sorocea muriculata Miq. Sorocea pubivena Hemsl. Sorocea racemosa Gaudich. Sorocea ruminata C. C. Berg Sorocea sarcocarpa Lanj. & Wess. Boer Sorocea sprucei J. F. Macbr. Sorocea steinbachii C. C. Berg Sorocea subumbellata Cornejo Sorocea trophoides W. C. Burger

Harwich Dockyard

Harwich Dockyard was a Royal Navy Dockyard at Harwich in Essex, active in the 17th and early 18th century. Owing to its position on the East Coast of England, the yard was of strategic importance during the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Nonetheless, it remained involved in repairing and refitting the nation's warships, as well as building them: of the eighty ships built for the Royal Navy in Britain between 1660 and 1688, fourteen were built at Harwich Dockyard.. After the Royal Navy withdrew from the yard in 1713, shipbuilding continued on the site under private ownership; the present-day name for the site of the former Dockyard is'Harwich Navyard'. During the Hundred Years' War, Harwich was an important assembly point for the Navy. In 1405 a fort was built on the promontory at the north-easternmost part of the town. Over the following century the fort fell into disrepair, but during the Commonwealth period, the government took out a 99-year lease on the parcel of land on which the fort had stood in order to establish a naval dockyard there.

The yard was praised by General Monck for its efficiency in fitting out the fleet. Following the Restoration, in 1660, the yard was leased out to private ownership. In 1664, the yard was taken back under Crown control: a new resident Commissioner was appointed and Samuel Pepys, as Clerk of the Acts of the Navy, engaged his protégé Anthony Deane as Master Shipwright; the years of the Second Dutch War would prove to be the most prestigious for Harwich Dockyard. Not only was it kept busy repairing and refitting naval vessels on their way to and from the front line, but under Deane's skilled oversight it began to be active in shipbuilding. Despite its small size as a Royal Dockyard, Harwich developed a particular speciality for itself in constructing small and medium-sized fighting ships. In 1668, after peace had been restored, the dockyard was again run down: its officers were reassigned. During the Third Dutch War, the Dockyard was again put to work, but by this time its front-line role had been eclipsed by the Navy's new East-Coast dockyard at Sheerness.

Between 1673 and 1675 Anthony Deane built three more warships at Harwich Dockyard, this time as a private contractor. Again, once peace had been re-established, the yard was wound down; the following year, however, a new Master Shipwright was appointed and shipbuilding began again. In 1676, Silas Taylor wrote a description of the dockyard: it had wharves, built on reclaimed land, with strong cranes. There was a'Great Gate' over which were placed the Royal Arms, "carved and in colours", above which were the dials of an "excellent" pendulum clock, which struck the hours on a bell in a turret. Within the yard he noted that there were several storehouses, "launches" for building and launching ships, offices for the officers of the yard. Harwich ceased to operate as a Royal Dockyard in 1713, but was leased to a succession of private operators under whom naval and commercial shipbuilding continued; the last Royal Navy vessel to be built at Harwich was HMS Scarborough in 1812. The Navy maintained a small storage and refitting base on site until 1829.

One unusual structure surviving from the dockyard is a rare treadwheel crane of 1667, in use until the early twentieth century before being re-sited on Harwich Green in the 1930s. The dockyard bell, dating from 1666, is preserved on the original site, which still operates as a commercial port. During the First World War a flotilla, the Harwich Force, was based at the port. During the Second World War parts of Harwich were again requisitioned for naval use, ships were based at HMS Badger, a shore establishment on the site of what is now Harwich International Port. Badger was decommissioned in 1946, but the Royal Naval Auxiliary Service maintained a headquarters on its site until 1992; the Master Shipwright was the key official at the royal navy dockyards until the introduction of resident commissioners by the Navy Board after which he became deputy to the resident commissioner. 1652-1660, Major Nehemiah Bourne 1664-1668, Captain J