Angelica Kauffman

Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann known in English as Angelica Kauffman, was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. Remembered as a history painter, Kauffmann was a skilled portraitist and decoration painter, she was one of the two female founding members of the Royal Academy in London in 1768. Kauffman was born at Chur in Switzerland, her family moved to Morbegno in 1742 Como in Lombardy in 1752 at that time under Austrian rule. In 1757 she accompanied her father to Schwarzenberg in Vorarlberg/Austria where her father was working for the local bishop, her father, Joseph Johann Kauffmann, was a poor man but a skilled Austrian muralist and painter, traveling for his work. He trained Angelica and she worked as his assistant, moving through Switzerland and Italy. Angelica, a child prodigy acquired several languages from her mother, Cleophea Lutz, including German, Italian and English, she showed talent as a musician and was forced to choose between opera and art. She chose art as a Catholic priest told Kauffman that the opera was a dangerous place filled with "seedy people."

By her twelfth year she had become known with bishops and nobles being her sitters. In 1754, her mother died and her father decided to move to Milan. Visits to Italy of long duration followed, she became a member of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze in 1762. In 1763 she visited Rome, returning again in 1764. From Rome she passed to Venice, everywhere feted for her talents and charm. Writing from Rome in August 1764 to his friend Franke, Winckelmann refers to her popularity, she spoke Italian as well as German, he says, expressed herself with facility in French and English - one result of the last-named accomplishment being that she became a popular portraitist for British visitors to Rome. "She may be styled beautiful," he adds, "and in singing may vie with our best virtuosi". In 1765, her work appeared in England in an exhibition of the Free Society of Artists, she established herself as a leading artist. While in Venice, Kauffman was persuaded by Lady Wentworth, the wife of the British ambassador, to accompany her to London.

One of the first pieces she completed in London was a portrait of David Garrick, exhibited in the year of her arrival at "Mr Moreing's great room in Maiden Lane." The rank of Lady Wentworth opened society to her, she was everywhere well received, the royal family showing her great favor. Her firmest friend, was Sir Joshua Reynolds. In his pocket-book her name as "Miss Angelica" or "Miss Angel" appears frequently. Another instance of her intimacy with Reynolds is to be found in her variation of Guercino's Et in Arcadia ego, a subject which Reynolds repeated a few years in his portrait of Mrs Bouverie and Mrs Crewe. In 1767 Kauffman was seduced by an imposter going under the name Count Frederick de Horn, whom she married, but they were separated the following year, it was owing to Reynolds's good offices that she was among the signatories to the petition to the king for the establishment of the Royal Academy. In its first catalogue of 1769 she appears with "R. A." after her name. She spent several months in Ireland in 1771, as a guest of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, undertook a number of portrait commissions there.

Her notable Irish portraits include those of Philip Tisdall, the Attorney General for Ireland, his wife Mary, of Henry Loftus, 1st Earl of Ely and his family, including his niece Dorothea Monroe, the most admired Irish beauty of her time. It appears that among her circle of friends was Jean-Paul Marat living in London and practising medicine, with whom she may have had an affair, her friendship with Reynolds was criticized in 1775 by fellow Academician Nathaniel Hone, who courted controversy in 1775 when his satirical picture The Conjurer. It was seen to attack the fashion for Italian Renaissance art and to ridicule Sir Joshua Reynolds, leading the Royal Academy to reject the painting, it originally included a nude caricature of Kauffman in the top left corner, which he painted out after she complained to the academy. The combination of a little girl and an old man has been seen as symbolic of Kauffman and Reynolds's closeness, age difference, rumoured affair. From 1769 until 1782 Kauffman was an annual exhibitor with the Royal Academy, sending sometimes as many as seven pictures on classical or allegoric subjects.

One of the most notable was Leonardo expiring in the Arms of Francis the First. In 1773 she was appointed by the Academy with others to decorate St Paul's Cathedral, a scheme, never carried out, it was she who, with Biagio Rebecca, painted the Academy's old lecture room at Somerset House. While Kauffman produced many types of art, she identified herself as a history painter, an unusual designation for a woman artist in the 18th century. History painting was considered the most elite and lucrative category in academic painting during this time period and, under the direction of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the Royal Academy made a strong effort to promote it to a native audience more interested in commissioning and buying portraits and landscapes. Despite the popularity that Kauffman enjoyed in British society, her success there as an artist, she was disappointed by the relative a

Aliyah Khalaf Saleh

Aliyah Khalaf Saleh is a humanitarian, acknowledged folk heroine of Iraq. She was born near Tikrit to a Sunni family in 1956 in what was the Kingdom of Iraq. Married young at 13, she never had the opportunity to attend school, she lost a husband and nephew to ISIS terrorism. In 2014, after the Camp Speicher massacre, she rescued over 50 Iraqi cadets behind the lines, smuggled them to safety, she hid them in the women's quarters on her farm. Others dug holes in a forest. IS fighters were hunting for the recruits, so Alyah obtained university identity cards for some of them, giving them local names, she taught those who were Shia how to say their prayers like a Sunni to protect them from sectarian suspicions. Over five months, she smuggled them to safety in Kurdish-held Kirkuk, hiding them in trucks surrounded by female relatives. After her cover was blown, her entire family of 25 fled the ISIS, returning only after the group’s defeat; the highest Shi’a religious authorities bestowed on this Sunni woman the title of “Toa’a Al-‘Asr.”

Toa'a today is used to describe women. In July 2015, Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi presented her with Iraq’s Medal of the State, she won an International Women of Courage Award in 2018. In 2019, Iraqi Culture Minister Abdul Amir al-Hamdani has unveiled a bronze statue of hers


Dagga is a word used in certain areas of Southern Africa to describe cannabis. The term, dating to the 1660s, derives from the word dacha in the Khoekhoe language used to describe the drug as well as various species of Leonotis; the leaves of the Leonotis leonurus resemble the cannabis leaf and is known locally as wild dagga. The word has been spelled many different ways over time as various groups of people began using the term and some examples of these are: daggha, dacka, tagga, daga. According to the Oxford Dictionary, dagga was used by the Khoekhoe to describe the sensation of intoxication. Several different researchers over the years have proposed various hypotheses regarding the term's origins. While it's well known that the first written use of the term was in Jan van Riebeeck’s journal in 1658 and spelled daccha, it was most as a reference to the indigenous "wild dagga" that has a similar leaf shape with the jagged edges; the two plants have a different flower however and some scholars have questioned people's inability to tell them apart.

Another theory put forward by two scholars in 1963 proposed that the dutch word for tobacco, referred to as twak, was morphed over time into twaga and to toaga and into dagga. B. du Toit, in their book, Cannabis in Africa disagreed suggesting the Khoekhoe word daXa-b, is the root noun from which the word dagga was derived. Their word for green is!am and when added to daXa-b it resulted in amaXa-b namely green tobacco. This theory is supported by J. Branford who in their 1978 book, A Dictionary of South African English drew similar conclusions. In 1948 the National Party came to power and they, like their predecessors, continued the prohibition of the plant. Being an Afrikaans political party and given that the phonetic ‘ga’ expressed disgust in the language, they embraced the use of the word to extend criticism towards the drug and anyone that used it; this gave dagga an emotional stigma over time and as such, most pro-cannabis enthusiasts still refuse to use it. This has changed in more recent time as people involved in the anti-prohibition movement such as the Dagga Couple and the Dagga Party "reclaim" the word in an attempt to remind people of its history and meaning.

Cannabis in South Africa Online Etymology Dictionary: Dagga