Angelina Jolie

Angelina Jolie is an American actress and humanitarian. The recipient of such accolades as an Academy Award and three Golden Globe Awards, she has been named Hollywood's highest-paid actress multiple times. Jolie made her screen debut as a child alongside her father, Jon Voight, in Lookin' to Get Out, her film career began in earnest a decade with the low-budget production Cyborg 2, followed by her first leading role in a major film, Hackers, she starred in the critically acclaimed biographical cable films George Wallace and Gia, won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in the drama Girl, Interrupted. Her starring role as the video game heroine Lara Croft in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider established her as a leading Hollywood actress, she continued her action-star career with Mr. & Mrs. Smith and Salt, received critical acclaim for her performances in the dramas A Mighty Heart and Changeling, which earned her a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress, her biggest commercial success came with the fantasy picture Maleficent.

In the 2010s, Jolie expanded her career into directing and producing, with the war dramas In the Land of Blood and Honey and First They Killed My Father. In addition to her film career, Jolie is noted for her humanitarian efforts, for which she has received a Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award and made an honorary Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George, among other honors, she promotes various causes, including conservation and women's rights, is most noted for her advocacy on behalf of refugees as a Special Envoy for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. As a public figure, Jolie has been cited as one of the most influential and powerful people in the American entertainment industry. For a number of years, she was cited as the world's most beautiful woman by various media outlets, her personal life is the subject of wide publicity, she is divorced from Billy Bob Thornton and Brad Pitt. Born Angelina Jolie Voight in Los Angeles, she is the daughter of actors Jon Voight and Marcheline Bertrand.

She is the sister of actor James Haven, the niece of singer-songwriter Chip Taylor and geologist and volcanologist Barry Voight. Her godparents are actors Maximilian Schell. On her father's side, Jolie is of German and Slovak descent, on her mother's side, she is of French Canadian and German ancestry. Like her mother, Jolie has stated that she is part Iroquois, although her only known indigenous ancestors were 17th-century Hurons. After her parents' separation in 1976, Jolie and her brother lived with their mother, who had abandoned her acting ambitions to focus on raising her children, her mother did not require her to go to church. As a child, she watched films with her mother and it was this, rather than her father's successful career, that inspired her interest in acting, though at age five she had a bit part in Voight's Lookin' to Get Out; when Jolie was six years old and her live-in partner, filmmaker Bill Day, moved the family to Palisades, New York. Jolie decided she wanted to act and enrolled at the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute, where she trained for two years and appeared in several stage productions.

Jolie first attended Beverly Hills High School, where she felt isolated among the children of some of the area's affluent families because her mother survived on a more modest income. She was teased by other students, who targeted her for being thin and for wearing glasses and braces, her early attempts at modeling, at her mother's insistence, proved unsuccessful. She transferred to Moreno High School, an alternative school, where she became a "punk outsider," wearing all-black clothing, going out moshing, experimenting with knife play with her live-in boyfriend, she dropped out of her acting classes and aspired to become a funeral director, taking at-home courses to study embalming. At age 16, after the relationship had ended, Jolie graduated from high school and rented her own apartment, before returning to theater studies, though in 2004 she referred to this period with the observation, "I am still at heart—and always will be—just a punk kid with tattoos."As a teenager, Jolie found it difficult to connect with other people, as a result she self-harmed commenting, "For some reason, the ritual of having cut myself and feeling the pain, maybe feeling alive, feeling some kind of release, it was somehow therapeutic to me."

She struggled with insomnia and an eating disorder, began experimenting with drugs. Jolie suffered episodes of depression and twice planned to commit suicide—at age 19 and again at 22, when she attempted to hire a hitman to kill her; when she was 24, she experienced a nervous breakdown and was admitted for 72 hours to UCLA Medical Center's psychiatric ward. Two years after adopting her first child, Jolie found stability in her life stating, "I knew once I committed to Maddox, I would never be self-destructive again."Jolie has had a lifelong dysfunctional relationship with her father, which began when Voight left the family when his daughter was less than a year old. She has said that from on their time together was sporadic and carried out in front of the press, they reconciled when they appeared together in Lara

Venray sheep companies

The Venray sheep companies were a group of Dutch livestock merchant companies who dominated the European trade in sheep in the 19th century. With an area of 150 square kilometres, Venray, a municipality in the north of Limburg, is one of the largest municipalities in the Netherlands. More than half of the land used to be part of the Peel, an area of vital importance for the local farmers; the presence of wide areas of moorland led to the development of sheep farming and related cottage industries, such as the production of yarn and hats. Sheep produced an average of 2,5 kilograms of wool each per annum, were therefore a welcome source of secondary income, quite apart from the droppings that they left on the land. At that time sheep were not reared for their meat. However, the French soldiers who were stationed in Venray from 1794 to 1814 were enthusiastic mutton eaters, this gave the farmers cause to take another look at the economic value of their animals. Around 1809 some of the sheep farmers had the idea of driving their sheep to Paris, at that time the capital city of the empire to which they belonged, offering them for sale.

When it became known that this trade was profitable, others soon followed in the pioneers' footsteps. Five farmers pooled their interests and founded a partnership, "De Grote Compagnie", which set up an organized trade route between Venray and Paris, with fixed staging posts along the way; the drive on foot to the markets of Paris took two weeks on average, ran south of the Peel to Antwerp, through the lush pastures along the Schelde to northern France. The herds were collected together in the border village of Warcoing before undertaking the last stage of their journey to Paris; the partners only drove their own sheep, but within a few years there was a network of buyers in The Netherlands, Venray became the focus of a trade which saw tens of thousands of sheep being sent to France each year, not only by "De Grote Compagnie", but by five smaller enterprises. Under the Raets, Camps and Vorstermans families the business flourished to such a degree that in 1845 a second outlet market, was opened up, to which the sheep were transported from ports such as Harlingen, Medemblik and Vlissingen.

Dutch sheep farmers were meanwhile unable to cope with the demand, so that increasing numbers of German sheep were being bought, when this source proved inadequate, representatives of the company travelled to the Ukraine and Iceland in circa 1875, in 1891 a trading office was opened in Buenos Aires, which arranged for the transport of not just live sheep, but deep-frozen meat to Europe. At the beginning of the 20th century, the meat trade in the slaughterhouses of Paris and Antwerp was dominated by Venray businesses, until the outbreak of World War II they were the most important producers of bacon and tinned ham in Poland and Canada. Although the smaller sheep companies folded one by one after 1900, "De Grote Compagnie" remained in existence until 1951, when representatives of the eleven participating families from a number of different countries held their final annual gathering in the high-class Swan Hotel in Venray, at the card table of which, 150 years earlier, their joint company had been founded.

In the intervening time this initiative had given rise to a host of independent companies. At this gathering the final collective bank balance, a sum of 5,000 guilders, was presented to the parochial church of Venray to finance a new choir stall, which since serves as a reminder of a unique example of Limburg enterprise. Jan Derix, Eisma Publishers, Leeuwarden/Mechelen

Peninsula House and Tebbutt's Observatory

Peninsula House and Tebbutt's Observatory is a heritage-listed residence and former observatory at Palmer Street, City of Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia. The observatory was built in 1845 by John Tebbutt, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The lower Hawkesbury was home to the Dharug people; the proximity to the Nepean River and South Creek qualifies it as a key area for food resources for indigenous groups. The Dharug and Darkinjung people called the river Deerubbin and it was a vital source of food and transport. Governor Arthur Phillip explored the local area in search of suitable agricultural land in 1789 and discovered and named the Hawkesbury River after Baron Hawkesbury; this region played a significant role in the early development of the colony with European settlers established here by 1794. Situated on fertile floodplains and well known for its abundant agriculture, Green Hills supported the colony through desperate times. However, frequent flooding meant that the farmers along the riverbanks were ruined.

The area on which the Peninsula House complex now stands is located on land first alienated for European purposes in a grant made by Francis Grose of thirty acres to Samuel Wilcox, who named it Wilcox Farm. It is that land clearance and agricultural activities as well as some building works took place during this period and during the subsequent of occupation; the former Wilcox farm was incorporated into a larger holding of 607 hectares known as Peninsula Farm in the early nineteenth century. Governor Lachlan Macquarie replaced Governor Bligh, assuming the office on 1 January 1810. Under his influence the colony prospered, his vision was for a free community. He implemented an unrivalled public works program, completing 265 public buildings, establishing new public amenities and improving existing services such as roads. Under his leadership Hawkesbury district thrived, he visited the district on his first tour and recorded in his journal on 6 December 1810: "After dinner I chrestened the new townships...

I gave the name of Windsor to the town intended to be erected in the district of the Green Hills...the township in the Richmond district I have named Richmond..." The district reminded Macquarie of those towns in England, whilst Castlereagh, Pitt Town and Wilberforce were named after English statesmen. These are referred to as Macquarie's Five Towns, their localities, chiefly Windsor and Richmond, became more permanent with streets, town square and public buildings. In 1842 John Tebbutt's father who had migrated as a free settler in 1801 to the Hawkesbury as a successful farmer, acquired land on this "peninsula" and built the Peninsula House in 1845. A two-storey wing was added at the rear. John Tebbutt was educated locally and developed an interest in astronomy, he was inspired by Edward Quaife, who encouraged him. He became passionately interested in mechanical objects and "celestial mechanisms" accumulating instruments and experience. Tebbutt bought his first instrument, a marine sextant, in 1853.

He achieved international fame when he was the first to discover the "Great Comet of 1861", announcing his discovery of one of the finest comets on record. In 1862 he refused the position of Government Astronomer for New South Wales because it meant leaving Windsor. In either 1863 or 1864, John Tebbutt erected a small round wooden observatory in the garden. A second circular structure was built in 1874 and in 1879 he built a second, larger circular observatory close to the old one. Tebbutt was a private astronomer and a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society who continued to make patient, reliable astronomical observations and published building an international reputation. From the observatories he watched various astronomical phenomena - lunar occultations of stars, Jupiter's satellites, minor planets, double stars, transits of Mercury and Venus - and his work won international acknowledgement. In 1872 he bought an 11.4 centimetres refracting telescope with which he observed the transit of Venus in 1874 and in 1886 imported a 200 millimetres Grubb refracting telescope and housed it in a substantial brick observatory building on his property at Windsor.

The telescope went to New Zealand but was returned to Australia at the time of the Australian Bicentenary and rehoused in its original location. Hawkesbury City Council now owns the telescope. Tebbutt spent his whole life at Windsor, he never left Australia, but published widely. Tebbutt's "Astronomical Memoirs" of 1908 listed his 371 publications in various learned journals, his image and the observatory was on the $100 note from 1984 to 1996. He had one son, he was buried in the Anglican cemetery in a vault that he designed himself. The funeral was one of the largest held at Windsor, his direct descendants owned and occupied the house until 2017. Peninsula House and the former observatory sit on a 3.23 hectares site located close to Windsor on high ground, when the river floods, becomes a secluded, unspoilt island, filled with native plants and fauna and protected from development. Peninsula House is a two-storey Georgian style house of sandstock brick; the main roof and verandah are slate, the latter supported on delicate cast iron columns, the centre bay marked with a simple pediment.

There are six-panel doors and windows are six pane double hung sashes with stone sills and were shuttered, whilst sandstone is used for the foundations, a stri