Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels, formed in the earlier stage of vasculogenesis. Angiogenesis continues the growth of the vasculature by processes of splitting. Vasculogenesis is the embryonic formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, from neovascularization, although discussions are not always precise; the first vessels in the developing embryo form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease. Angiogenesis is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue. However, it is a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of cancer; the essential role of angiogenesis in tumor growth was first proposed in 1971 by Judah Folkman, who described tumors as "hot and bloody," illustrating that, at least for many tumor types, flush perfusion and hyperemia are characteristic.
Sprouting angiogenesis was the first identified form of angiogenesis and because of this, it is much more understood than intussusceptive angiogenesis. It occurs in several well-characterized stages; the initial signal comes from tissue areas. The hypoxia, noted in these areas causes the tissues to demand the presence of nutrients and oxygen that will allow the tissue to carry out metabolic activities; because of this, parenchymal cells will secrete vascular endothelial growth factor, a proangiogenic growth factor. These biological signals activate receptors on endothelial cells present in pre-existing blood vessels. Second, the activated endothelial cells known as tip cells, begin to release enzymes called proteases that degrade the basement membrane to allow endothelial cells to escape from the original vessel walls; the endothelial cells proliferate into the surrounding matrix and form solid sprouts connecting neighboring vessels. The cells that are proliferating are known as stalk cells; the proliferation of these cells allows.
As sprouts extend toward the source of the angiogenic stimulus, endothelial cells migrate in tandem, using adhesion molecules called integrins. These sprouts form loops to become a full-fledged vessel lumen as cells migrate to the site of angiogenesis. Sprouting occurs at a rate of several millimeters per day, enables new vessels to grow across gaps in the vasculature, it is markedly different from splitting angiogenesis because it forms new vessels as opposed to splitting existing vessels. Intussusceptive angiogenesis known as splitting angiogenesis, is the formation of a new blood vessel by splitting an existing blood vessel into two. Intussusception was first observed in neonatal rats. In this type of vessel formation, the capillary wall extends into the lumen to split a single vessel in two. There are four phases of intussusceptive angiogenesis. First, the two opposing capillary walls establish a zone of contact. Second, the endothelial cell junctions are reorganized and the vessel bilayer is perforated to allow growth factors and cells to penetrate into the lumen.
Third, a core is formed between the 2 new vessels at the zone of contact, filled with pericytes and myofibroblasts. These cells begin laying collagen fibers into the core to provide an extracellular matrix for growth of the vessel lumen; the core is fleshed out with no alterations to the basic structure. Intussusception is important, it allows a vast increase in the number of capillaries without a corresponding increase in the number of endothelial cells. This is important in embryonic development as there are not enough resources to create a rich microvasculature with new cells every time a new vessel develops. Mechanical stimulation of angiogenesis is not well characterized. There is a significant amount of controversy with regard to shear stress acting on capillaries to cause angiogenesis, although current knowledge suggests that increased muscle contractions may increase angiogenesis; this may be due to an increase in the production of nitric oxide during exercise. Nitric oxide results in vasodilation of blood vessels.
Chemical stimulation of angiogenesis is performed by various angiogenic proteins e.g. integrins and prostaglandins, including several growth factors e.g. VEGF, FGF; the fibroblast growth factor family with its prototype members FGF-1 and FGF-2 consists to date of at least 22 known members. Most are single-chain peptides of 16-18 kDa and display high affinity to heparin and heparan sulfate. In general, FGFs stimulate a variety of cellular functions by binding to cell surface FGF-receptors in the presence of heparin proteoglycans; the FGF-receptor family is composed of seven members, all the receptor proteins are single-chain receptor tyrosine kinases that become activated through autophosphorylation induced by a mechanism of FGF-mediated receptor dimerization. Receptor activation gives rise to a signal transduction cascade that leads to gene activation and diverse biological responses, including cell differentiation and matrix dissolution, thus initiating a process of mitogenic activity critical for the growth of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.
FGF-1, unique among all 22 members of the FGF family, can bind to all seven FGF-receptor subtypes, making it the broadest-acting member of the FGF family, a potent mitogen for the diverse cell types needed to mount an ang
Paul-Christian Rieber is a Norwegian business leader and former president of the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise. He lives in Norway. Paul-Chr. Rieber has since 1990 lead the billion-dollar company GC Rieber, a family-owned company with over 100 family members as shareholders. GC Rieber operates, amongst other things, within the fields of shipping, marine oils, salt and property. Paul-Chr. Rieber has been an elected representative in the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise for many years, most as the leader of their Forum for family businesses and active owners, until he was elected as the new president of the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise on 10 June 2008. On 24 April 2010, Rieber withdrew as president of NHO, following a scandal in which a company where he was chair had evaded paying customs for several hundred million Norwegian krone on fish oil imports from Morocco, he holds a degree from the Norwegian School of Economics. Paul Christian Rieber company information
Tolmie Peak is a 5,920+ -foot peak in the Mount Rainier area of the Cascade Range, in the U. S. state of Washington. It is located 2 miles northwest of Mowich Lake, in the northwest part of Mount Rainier National Park. Streams that drain the slopes of Tolmie Peak, including Tolmie Creek and Ranger Creek, join the Carbon River, which flows into the Puyallup River and Puget Sound. Just south of Tolmie Peak, in a basin carved by glaciers, lies Eunice Lake. To the northwest is Howard Peak. Tolmie Peak is named for William Fraser Tolmie. In August 1833, employed by Hudson's Bay Company and stationed at the newly built Fort Nisqually, Tolmie made the first recorded exploration of the Mount Rainier area. Unable to summit Rainier itself and two Indian guides and Nuckalkat, summited one of the snowy peaks near the Mowich River headwaters. Although Tolmie Peak is named for this event, it is not known which peak was climbed. Eunice Lake "Tolmie Peak". SummitPost.org
Bernard K. Passman was a sculptor and jeweller, founder of a black coral jewelry company and brand, Passman. Passman founded his company in 1975 on Grand Cayman, he created black coral and gold sculptures for the White House, the British Royal Family, various museums. Examples of his work include the Cayman Islands's gift of a 97-piece set of sterling silver and black coral tableware for Prince Charles and Lady Diana's wedding in 1981. Other well-known works are his statues of Charlie Chaplin. Passman died in 2007 aged 91, his company was acquired the same year by Cayman Islands-based Active Capital Ltd. This is a private equity firm belonging to the family. There were Bernard K. Passman galleries and retail outlets in Charlotte Amalie, United States Virgin Islands, George Town, Cayman Islands, Las Vegas, Beverly Hills, etc. In May 2013 the galleries and business faced closure after the CEO of the past owner of Passman, GEM Manufacturing LLC pleaded guilty to illegally importing a batch of black coral.
In 2014 the production of the Passman collection was renewed using sustainably harvested black coral when Glyptica, Inc. under Tchavdar Tchouchev, has acquired the license. Passman Jewelry, current official site
"One Step Further", written by Simon Jefferis, was the United Kingdom's entry at the Eurovision Song Contest 1982, performed by the duo Bardo, comprising Sally Ann Triplett and Stephen Fischer. Bardo were chosen to perform at the 1982 Eurovision Song Contest in Harrogate by winning the UK national final, A Song for Europe. On the day of the main contest, bookmakers Ladbrokes rated the song as the favourite to win at odds of 5–2. Commentator Terry Wogan thought the song would be the "outright winner". DJ and well-known Eurovision fan John Peel stated in an interview that "One Step Further" was his favourite Eurovision song of all time. At Harrogate, the song was performed fourth on the night. At the end of judging that evening, "One Step Further" finished in seventh place with 76 points. Luxembourg and Austria both awarded Bardo the maximum 12 points that night. At the night of the contest itself, the orchestra played the tune in a retro style; the single version and subsequent live versions used many electronic musical instruments popular in the early 1980s and had more of a contemporary feel than many Eurovision entries.
Despite containing a grammatical error, the BBC did not request that'proper' English was performed at the contest as they had with previous examples of bad grammar in UK entries. After Eurovision, the song reached No. 2 on the UK Singles Chart. No further UK Eurovision entries would chart so until 1996; the song was the 75th-best-selling single of 1982 in the UK, achieving a Silver disc for sales of over 250,000. The song was featured in episode one of the second series of Peter Kay's Car Share, first broadcast on BBC One on 11 April 2017
Parrot Records was an American record label, a division of London Records, which started in 1964. The label licensed recordings made by Decca Records, for release in the United States and Canada, most notably by the Zombies, Tom Jones, Engelbert Humperdinck, Jonathan King, Hedgehoppers Anonymous, Savoy Brown and Alan Price. Other artists included Love Sculpture and Bobby "Boris" Pickett. Parrot's biggest hit was "She's A Lady" by Tom Jones, peaking at #2 on the Billboard charts in early 1971; the label lasted until 1979. After Parrot became defunct, its artists were moved to the London label; the Parrot catalogue is managed by Polydor, a unit of Universal Music Group in the US. List of record labels List of recordings on the Parrot label Parrot Records from BSN Pubs