Airon-Saint-Vaast is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. A small village situated some 19 miles south of Boulogne-sur-Mer, on the D143E1 road The church, built in 1877, in Neo-Gothic style; the chapel de Bavemont, built in 1809. This is where Saint Josse is said to have restored the sight of a little girl, on his return from a pilgrimage to Rome in 665. In memory of this, a pilgrimage takes place at Whitsuntide; the chateau and its park. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE Airon-Saint-Vaast on the Quid website
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne-sur-Mer to Cologne created a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century. Saxon colonization into the region from the fifth to the eighth centuries extended the linguistic border somewhat south and west so that by the ninth century most inhabitants north of the line between Béthune and Berck spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke Picard, a variety of Romance dialects; this linguistic border is still evident today in the patronyms of the region. Beginning in the ninth century, the linguistic border began a steady move to north and the east, by the end of the 15th century Romance dialects had displaced those of Dutch.
Pas-de-Calais is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Calaisis English, Boulonnais and Artois, this last part of the Spanish Netherlands; some of the costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, eight kilometres from Arras, commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge assault during the Battle of Arras and is Canada's most important memorial in Europe to its fallen soldiers. Pas-de-Calais was the target of Operation Fortitude during World War II, an Allied plan to deceive the Germans that the invasion of Europe at D-Day was to occur here, rather than in Normandy. Pas-de-Calais is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Nord and Somme, the English Channel, the North Sea, it shares a nominal border with the English county of Kent halfway through the Channel Tunnel. Its principal towns are, on the coast, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples, in Artois, Lens, Liévin and Saint-Omer.
The principal rivers are the following: Authie Canche Ternoise Liane Sensée Scarpe Deûle Lys Aa The economy of the department was long dependent on mining the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in 1849. However, since World War II, the economy has become more diversified; the inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens. Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, yet it has no large cities. Calais has only about 80,000 inhabitants, followed by Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens and Liévin; the remaining population is concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.2 million. The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite populated, with many villages and small towns. Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I, its population rebounded after both world wars.
However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population. In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.05%. There are two public universities in the department. Although it is one of the most populous departments of France, Pas-de-Calais did not contain a university until 1991 when the French government created two universities: ULCO on the western part of the department, Université d'Artois on the eastern part. Cantons of the Pas-de-Calais department Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Arrondissements of the Pas-de-Calais department Battle of Vimy Ridge 7 Valleys Pas de Calais A whole wiki about the Pas-de-Calais Prefecture website General Council website Official Tourist website Short regional tourism guide Coats of arms of the municipalities in Pas-de-Calais
Aix-Noulette is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. A farming and light industrial village situated some 5 miles west of Lens at the junction of the D937 and D165 roads. Junction 6.1 of the A26 autoroute is within the borders of the commune. The church of St. Germain, dating from the 13th century; the feudal motte. Remains of a medieval castle; the three Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemeteries. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department The Église Saint-Germain d’Aix-Noulette has Georges Saupique statues of St Barbara and St Nicholas. INSEE commune file Aix-Noulette Communal Cemetery Extension - CWGC cemetery Bois de Noulette British Cemetery - CWGC cemetery Tranchee de Mecknes Cemetery - CWGC cemetery Aix-Noulette on the Quid website Website of the Communaupole de Lens-Liévin
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Agnières is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. A small farming village located 10 miles northwest of Arras, by the banks of the river Scarpe, at the D49 and D75E road junction; the church of St. Leger, dating from the twelfth century. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Agnières on the Quid website
Adinfer is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. A farming village located at the D4, D7 and D35 road junction; the church of St. Nicholas, dating from the twentieth century, built after the village was destroyed in World War I. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Official website of the commune Adinfer on the Quid website
Alembon is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. A farming village located on the D191 road; the church, dating from the fifteenth century. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Alembon on the Quid website