Agro Nocerino Sarnese
The Agro Nocerino Sarnese is a geographical region of the Province of Salerno, in Campania in southern Italy. It is a low-lying area bounded to the south by the Monti Lattari, to the east and north-east by the Monti Picentini and to the west by the plain of Vesuvius, it consists of sixteen comuni: Angri, Castel San Giorgio, Nocera Inferiore, Nocera Superiore, Roccapiemonte, San Marzano sul Sarno, San Valentino Torio, Santa Maria la Carità, Sant'Antonio Abate, Sant'Egidio del Monte Albino, Sarno and Siano. All are in the province of Salerno except Santa Maria la Carità and Sant'Antonio Abate, which are in the province of Naples; the Agro Nocerino Sarnese is the core area of production of the San Marzano tomato, which, as the Pomodoro San Marzano dell’Agro Sarnese-Nocerino, has DOP status. The Napoletana breed of domestic goat is distributed in the area. On 17 November 1999, a law was proposed to the XIII Legislature of the Republic which would make the Agro Nocerino Sarnese an Italian province.
The proposed province would have had an area of 185.14 square kilometres and a population of 271,017
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno. It lies at the mouth of a deep ravine, at the foot of Monte Cerreto, surrounded by dramatic cliffs and coastal scenery; the town of Amalfi was the capital of the maritime republic known as the Duchy of Amalfi, an important trading power in the Mediterranean between 839 and around 1200. In the 1920s and 1930s, Amalfi was a popular holiday destination for the British upper class and aristocracy. Amalfi is the main town of the coast on which it is located, named Costiera Amalfitana, is today an important tourist destination together with other towns on the same coast, such as Positano and others. Amalfi is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A patron saint of Amalfi is Saint Andrew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at Amalfi Cathedral. See Duchy of Amalfi Amalfi held importance as a maritime power, trading grain from its neighbours, salt from Sardinia and slaves from the interior, timber, in exchange for the gold dinars minted in Egypt and Syria, in order to buy the Byzantine silks that it resold in the West.
Grain-bearing Amalfi traders enjoyed privileged positions in the Islamic ports, Fernand Braudel notes. The Amalfi tables provided a maritime code, used by the Christian port cities. Merchants of Amalfi were using gold coins to purchase land in the 9th century, while most of Italy worked in a barter economy. In the 8th and 9th century, when Mediterranean trade revived it shared with Gaeta the Italian trade with the East, while Venice was in its infancy, in 848 its fleet went to the assistance of Pope Leo IV against the Saracens. An independent republic from the 7th century until 1075, Amalfi extracted itself from Byzantine vassalage in 839 and first elected a duke in 958. In spite of some devastating setbacks it had a population of some 70,000 to 80,000 reaching a peak about the turn of the millennium, during the reign of Duke Manso. Under his line of dukes, Amalfi remained independent, except for a brief period of Salernitan dependency under Guaimar IV. In 1073 the republic was granted many rights.
A prey to the Normans who encamped in the south of Italy, it became one of their principal posts. However, in 1131, it was reduced by King Roger II of Sicily, refused the keys to its citadel; the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair, fighting in favour of Pope Innocent II against Roger, who sided with the Antipope Anacletus, took him prisoner in 1133, assisted by forty-six Pisan ships. The Pisans, commercial rivals of the Amalfitani, sacked the city. In 1135 and 1137, it was taken by the Pisans and declined in importance, though its maritime code, known as the Tavole amalfitane, was recognized in the Mediterranean until 1570. A tsunami in 1343 destroyed the port and lower town, Amalfi never recovered to anything more than local importance. In medieval culture Amalfi was famous for its flourishing schools of mathematics. Flavio Gioia, traditionally considered the first to introduce the mariner's compass to Europe, is said to have been a native of Amalfi. Amalfi has a long history of catering for visitors, with two former monasteries being converted to hotels at a early date, the Luna Convento in the second decade of the 19th century and the Cappuccini Convento in the 1880s.
Celebrated visitors to Amalfi included the composer Richard Wagner and the playwright Henrik Ibsen, both of whom completed works whilst staying in Amalfi. Author Gore Vidal was a long time resident. Amalfi occupied a high position in medieval architecture. At the top of a staircase, Saint Andrew's Cathedral overlooks the heart of Amalfi; the cathedral dates back to the 11th century. The façade of the cathedral is Byzantine in style and is adorned with various paintings of saints, including a large fresco of Saint Andrew; the gold caisson ceiling has four large paintings by Andrea dell'Asta. They depict the flagellation of Saint Andrew, the miracle of Manna, the crucifixion of Saint Andrew and the Saint on the cross. From the left hand nave there is a flight of stairs; these stairs were built in 1203 for Cardinal Pietro Capuano, who, on 18 May 1208, brought Saint Andrew's remains to the cathedral from Constantinople. The bronze statue of Saint Andrew in the cathedral was sculpted by Michelangelo Naccherino, a pupil of Michelangelo.
In 1206, Saint Andrew's relics were brought to Amalfi from Constantinople by the Pietro Capuano following the Sack of Constantinople after the completion of the town's cathedral. The cathedral contains a tomb in its crypt that it maintains still holds a portion of the relics of the apostle. A golden reliquary which housed his skull and another one used for processions through Amalfi on holy days can be seen; the Chiostro del Paradiso was built by Filippo Augusta
Acerno, is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the region of Campania in south-western Italy. Acerno is a large village located 40 km north-east of the provincial capital of Salerno at 727 metres above sea level in the valley of the Tusciano, a river which rises on the slopes of Monte Polveracchio, it lies within the Parco regionale Monti Picentini, a regional park of the Monti Picentini group in the Southern Apennines. The neighbouring municipalities are Giffoni Valle Piana, Montecorvino Rovella, Senerchia, Bagnoli Irpino and Olevano sul Tusciano; the communal territory has an elevation varying between 1790 metres above sea level. Outside of the town itself it is uninhabited by humans: there are no satellite hamlets or scattered dwellings under permanent habitation, it is rich in flora, with forests of maple, chestnut, hazel and alder, while the fauna includes golden eagles, wild cats and wolves. The town therefore acts as a base for excursions to the mountains Monte Cervialto, Monte Polveracchio and Monte Acella the peaks reachable after hours of walking and climbing.
Although Acerno does attract tourists, the economy is based on agriculture: sheep and pig farming, cereal cultivation. Acerno was founded by refugees from Picentia, destroyed by the Romans after the Second Punic War; the earliest known documentary reference however, preserved in the archives of the abbey of Cava de’ Tirreni, dates from 1027 and refers to fruit growing in a place called Acerno. The origins of the name are uncertain, but a plausible derivation is from acer, the Latin for the maple tree: this was the view of Girolamo Olivieri, bishop of Cerno from 1525 to 1539, who reported to the Holy See that ‘the town is called Acerno from the multitude of maples.’ The comune was the centre of a feud for a long time amongst noble families and throughout the Middle Ages passed hands many times during the Kingdom of Naples. Around 1150, Guido da Acerno inherited the comune from his father Tommaso. On 17 August 1254, Pope Innocent IV granted Philip d'Acerno possession of Acerno and various feudal estates.
In 1272 Charles I of Anjou granted Acerno to his eldest son Charles, Prince of Salerno. In 1298 it fell under the ownership of Roger of Lauria and was owned by William Vaccaro, Roberto Grillo, Francesco Guindazzo and Antonio de Muro. In 1453 a university for Acerno and Calabritto was built. In 1469, Troiano Santomango became lord of Acerno and Muro, on 11 September 1500 reached a financial agreement with other feudal lords over taxes; the territory was inherited by his son, Camillo Colonna Marcello, who after his father's death in 1534 owned the land until his death on 10 December 1558. He was succeeded by his son Pompeo, who in 1577 sold the land for 30,500 ducats to Diomedes, Marquis of Castiglione. Diomedes died on 2 October 1596 and was succeeded by his son Ascanio, who died on 12 August 1605 and was succeeded by his son, Fulvio. In 1619 he loaned the lands under Royal Assent and after a series of owners, including Pompeo Colonna, in 1665 the estate fell into the hands of Antonio Tocco. Tocco died on 5 March 1678 and was succeeded by his nephew Charles, who sold Acerno to Nicola Gascon, Knight of the Order of Alcantara.
The Gascon family ran Acerno throughout much of the 18th century until 1777 when it was ceded to the Royal Court when Marquis Giuseppe Gascon, the last owner died without legitimate heirs. Girola Mascaro, President of the Royal House of Salermo was granted power of the territory in 1781 but with the end of feudalism in 1806, he was the last feudal lord of Acerno; the Bishopric of Acerno dates back to 12th century. The first bishop was named Pisano, appointed in 1136, followed by Peter, who took part in the Lateran Council in 1179. Acerno lost its own bishopric in 1818 and today has been merged into the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno in its present form since 30 September 1986. During World War II, the Anglo-American air forces bombed Acerno, the first time in September, 1943, destroying part of the bishop's palace, the church of S. Maria degli Angeli as well as numerous blocks. On 16 September 1943 five German soldiers invaded the garden of Canon Carmine Sansone, while they were busy gathering the fruit from the trees, were killed with precision fire from a rifle by the priest.
The Germans shelled the house of the canon, the priest escaped but his niece died in the event. The town was damaged in the 1980 Irpinia earthquake; the Cathedral of San Donato, built in 1444, has been rebuilt several times. The interior has four paintings depicting the four Evangelists, the work of an artist called Pallas in 1797; the church of Our Lady of Grace, has an altar in polychrome marble, with the portrait of Our Lady of Grace crowned in the centre. There is the remains of the castle that belonged to Roger of Lauria. Pietro Vezzi and physician of the Schola Medica Salernitana. Thomas II, Bishop of Nocera in Apulia in 1328. Sichelman, a tenth-century figure mentioned in the Chronicon Salernitanum, he invented a stone-throwing siege engine for Gisulf I of Salerno. Giovanni Freda, president of the High Court. Vitale Luppo, conductor. Giacinto Maselli, distinguished scholar and poet. Andrea Angelo Zottoli and Jesuit missionary, was born in Acerno in 1826 and died in Shanghai in 1902, his major work is the Cursus litteraturae sinicae, including translation into Latin of the greatest works in prose and poetry in Chinese literature.
February is the month of the Picentine Carnival. 7 August is the feast day of the patron saint: Donatus, Bishop of Arezzo, martyred (according to t
Altavilla Silentina is a town and comune located in the province of Salerno, some 100 km south of Naples, Italy. Altavilla Silentina is spread on two ridges of a hill, it is shielded on the northeastern side by the Alburni Mountains and on the West looks at the plain of the Sele River and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The panorama includes the island of Capri, the mountains of the Amalfi Coast and the Gulf of Salerno in its northern part; the river Calore Salernitano touches much of its western boundaries. The territory of Altavilla was populated since the 7th century BCE as demonstrated by archaeological finds on the territory, in the locality of San Lorenzo. In the nearby rural territory of Altavilla Silentina, by the Sele River, it is thought to have taken place the final battle where Spartacus and 60,000 fellow slaves who rebelled against the Roman Republic were defeated by the Roman general Pompey in 71 BCE. A district of a nearby town is today called Pompeo; the history of the modern Altavilla began around the year 1080 when the Normans with Robert Guiscard erected the Norman Castle that dominates the town and the Church of St. Giles.
The town was built on triangular shape fortified with walls and three main gates: St. Blaise's Gate, Susa's Gate, Carina's Gate; the current name, derives from that of Guiscard's family, the Hauteville. In 1246, having sided with the town of Capaccio and other local barons against the emperor Frederick II, Altavilla was razed to the ground; the breach was opened in a section of the old town that still today bears the nickname of muro rutto. The city was newly built because of its strategic position dominating the plain of Sele River and was designed in a quadrangular shape, with the addition of a New Gate called "Portanova". During the 15th century the Franciscans arrived in Altavilla and built a two-storey convent with a center cloister, around it they built a Church dedicated to St. Francis of Assisi, a refectory, a library and a parlor; the Franciscan remained in Altavilla until 1860, when with the Unification of Italy, many religious convent were confiscated. On September 9, 1862, with a resolution of the town hall, Altavilla took the second name of'Silentina' because located between the rivers Sele and Alento, in order to be recognized among the 5 other towns that in Italy bear the first name of Altavilla.
In World War II, it was the seat of clashes between Allied troops. The oldest church is the Church of Saint Giles, founded by the Normans, it is situated on the high part of the middle ages section of the town. After the Irpinia earthquake of November 23, 1980, the church has not been used for religious celebrations; the Church of St. Blaise is located on the lower part of the medieval quarter of town, gives the name to the Gate of St. Blaise, the entrance of the medieval village; the main parish of Altavilla is located in the center of the old town, facing the Piazza Antico Sedile, the "town hall" of the medieval Altavilla. The church was built in 1796 as written on the main inscription above St. Antoninus niche. Other churches include: Convent of St. Francis Congrega of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Our Lady of Mount Virgin Our Lady Assunta in St. Blaise Our Lady of Snow Newly built Church in Cerrocupo Media related to Altavilla Silentina at Wikimedia Commons Web portal of Altavilla Silentina
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
Autostrada A3 (Italy)
The Autostrada A3 is a motorway in Southern Italy, which runs from Naples to Salerno, in the region Campania. Until 2017 the route was much longer. Due to sections not being constructed to anywhere near Motorway standard and to the notoriously poor conditions of maintenance, to the difficult terrain along some of the route, the motorway has been taken as a symbol of the backwardness and economical problems of southern Italy. Italian historian Leandra D'Antone has defined it "a true Italian shame"; the European Union declines to classify the road as a “motorway” due to the decades-long roadwork restrictions on a modern road and seeks recompense for its financial contributions. On 22 December 2016 the Salerno-Reggio Calabria freeway was declared'complete', 55 years after the first works started, with the opening of Larìa tunnel in Cosenza. In a ceremony held in Reggio Calabria, prime minister Paolo Gentiloni begged pardon "for the delay" and the road name was changed from "A3 Salerno-to-Reggio Calabria" to "A2 Autostrada del Mediterraneo".
The first stretch of the road to be completed was the Naples-Pompeii section, finished on 22 June 1929. The connection onward to Salerno was completed on 16 July 1961. In 1964 the Italian government decided to build a motorway which connected the rest of Italy to Calabria, so far considered a kind of "Third Island", due to the nature of its terrain, which made it problematic to reach the region; the new motorway was built in a total of 8 years, the works being delivered on 13 June 1974. The road built by 1974 is more similar to a sub-standard freeway than to the other autostrade in Italy. Queues became a common feature in summer. To solve the situation, the Italian government funded renovation works in 1997; as of 2010, many of them are still ongoing, despite it being announced in 1993 that the works would be completed by 2003. The EU antifraud investigation of works undertaken between 2007 and 2010 together with the repayment of over €300m to the EU in July 2012 have delayed completion of the upgrade works further.
The cost of the upgrade was projected to reach over €10bn by the time it was completed envisaged as by 2018. The section from Salerno to Reggio Calabria alone, 442 km long, would cost €10bn with the rest spent on widening/upgrades completed between Naples and Salerno. €7.443 Bn had been spent up to 2011 on parts of the 442 km section between Salerno and Reggio Calabria. Most of the works were completed by 2015; the entire road was constructed as a substandard freeway by the mid 1970s and an upgrade program from Naples to Reggio Calabria started in the early 1990s. The section with three lanes in each direction has a length of 105 km, between Naples and RA02 which goes towards Potenza; the section from the interchange with the A1 motorway in Naples to the Pompeii exit, built during the 1920s, originated as a local turnpike, was retrofitted to motorway standard. Many of the junctions along the original A3 route completed in the 1970s had tight corners and limited deceleration fields. Hard shoulders only appeared along the route as part of the post 1990 upgrades, with only occasional emergency bays at infrequent locations on the sections that have not been upgraded yet.
Much of the route is congested where upgraded. The concession of the Northern part was owned by Autostrade Meridionali, a company listing in Borsa Italiana and a subsidiary of Autostrade per l'Italia, which in turn a subsidiary of Atlantia; the southern segment is maintained by ANAS, the state agency for public routes. Located in a mountainous area, it is prone to high levels of traffic and is known for the bad state of maintenance compared to other Italian motorways. ANAS has been upgrading this section during the last three decades; the motorway underwent heavy modernisation, in many cases a new parallel motorway was built alongside the original A3 and involved in most cases a complete rebuilding or replacement of the road where the alignment was retained. By August 2014, works on 391 km of the road were completed. 16 more km of rebuilding/modernization was due to be completed. A number of new junctions were to be constructed, in some cases to service certain towns with no direct access at present.
In May 2015 prime minister Renzi indicated that the upgrade programme would be terminated by 2016. By March 2016 68 km remained to be done. Plans to upgrade 58 km were abandoned and changed from Motorway Construction projects to "Maintenance" Sections to be'maintained' in future rather than upgraded to Motorway standard are: Morano Calabro - Firmo, from km 185 + 000 to km 206 + 500: 21 km *Former Macrolotto 3.4 Cosenza - Altilia, from km 259 + 700 to km 286: 26 km *Former Macrolottos 4.1 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 Pizzo Calabro - S. Onofrio, from km 337 + 800 to km 348 + 600: 11 km *Former Macrolotto 5 Maintenance will involve pavement and structural renewal and is projected to cost €1bn between 2016 and 2021 instead of the €3bn that ANAS projected as the cost of upgrading the 3 remaining sections; these total 58 km of the new length of 435 km from Salerno to Campo Calabria and do not include the final 10 km from Campo Calabria t
Aquara is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. The town, located on a hill in the middle of Cilento and part of its national park, lies below the Alburni mountains, it is 9 km far from Ottati and Castel San Lorenzo, 13 from Roccadaspide, 14 from Castelcivita and 17 from its caves, 78 from Salerno. The municipality borders with Bellosguardo, Castel San Lorenzo, Felitto and Roccadaspide, it counts the hamlet of Mainardi and the localities of Casalicchio, Madonna del Piano and Ponte Calore. The last one is administratively shared with Castel San Lorenzo and located by the river Calore Lucano, that constitutes the western boundary of Aquara's municipal territory. Aquara has Roman origins, such as testified by some ruins of a Roman villa in Madonna del Piano, it was first mentioned in the 11th century, counts among his vassals, Guglielmo Sanseverino and Ettore Fieramosca. Saint Lucidus of Aquara, Benedectine monk and patron saint Ettore Fieramosca and vassal of Aquara Cilentan dialect Castelcivita Caves Official website Aquara on tuttaitalia.it