In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons. Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos; this may be due to ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food food energy in the form of carbohydrate and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life and longevity; some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains are vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted.
Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public assumptions about which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect. Raw foodism is another contemporary trend; these diets may require tuning or supplementation such as vitamins to meet ordinary nutritional needs. A particular diet may be chosen to seek weight gain. Changing a subject's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body; some foods are recommended, or altered, for conformity to the requirements of a particular diet. These diets are recommended in conjunction with exercise. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful to health, while others may be beneficial and can thus be coined as healthy diets; the terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management" are related, as the two promote healthy weight management.
Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems, will provide the body with the right balance of vitamins and other nutrients. An eating disorder is a mental disorder, it is defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either excessive diet. A healthy diet may maintain optimal health. In developed countries, affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and inappropriate food choices. Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, limiting alcohol intake; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an evidence-based information source that policy makers and health professionals use to advise the general public about healthy nutrition. Diet food Dieting Dessert crop Nutrition psychology The dictionary definition of diet at Wiktionary
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting. Such comminution is an important unit operation in many processes. There are many different types of many types of materials processed in them. Mills were powered by hand, working animal, wind or water. Today they are powered by electricity; the grinding of solid materials occurs through mechanical forces that break up the structure by overcoming the interior bonding forces. After the grinding the state of the solid is changed: the grain size, the grain size disposition and the grain shape. Milling refers to the process of breaking down, sizing, or classifying aggregate material. For instance rock crushing or grinding to produce uniform aggregate size for construction purposes, or separation of rock, soil or aggregate material for the purposes of structural fill or land reclamation activities. Aggregate milling processes are used to remove or separate contamination or moisture from aggregate or soil and to produce "dry fills" prior to transport or structural filling.
Grinding may serve the following purposes in engineering: increase of the surface area of a solid manufacturing of a solid with a desired grain size pulping of resources In spite of a great number of studies in the field of fracture schemes there is no formula known which connects the technical grinding work with grinding results. To calculate the needed grinding work against the grain size changing three semi-empirical models are used; these can be related to the Hukki relationship between particle size and the energy required to break the particles. In stirred mills, the Hukki relationship does not apply and instead, experimentation has to be performed to determine any relationship. Kick for d > 50 mm W K = c k Bond for 50 mm > d > 0.05 mm W B = c B Von Rittinger for d < 0.05 mm W R = c R with W as grinding work in kJ/kg, c as grinding coefficient, dA as grain size of the source material and dE as grain size of the ground material. A reliable value for the grain sizes dA and dE is d80; this value signifies.
The Bond's grinding coefficient for different materials can be found in various literature. To calculate the KICK's and Rittinger's coefficients following formulas can be used c K = 1.151 c B − 0.5 c R = 0.5 c B 0.5 with the limits of Bond's range: upper dBU = 50 mm and lower dBL = 0.05 mm. To evaluate the grinding results the grain size disposition of the source material and of the ground material is needed. Grinding degree is the ratio of the sizes from the grain disposition. There are several definitions for this characteristic value: Grinding degree referring to grain size d80 Z d = d 80, 1 d 80, 2 Instead of the value of d80 d50 or other grain diameter can be used. Grinding degree referring to specific surface Z S = S v, 2 S v, 1 = S m, 2 S m, 1 The specific surface area referring to volume Sv and the specific surface area referring to mass Sm can be found out through experiments. Pretended grinding degree Z a = d 1 a The discharge die gap a of the grinding machine is used for the ground solid matter in this formula.
In materials processing a grinder is a machine for producing fine particle size reduction through attrition and compressive forces at the grain size level. See crusher for mechanisms producing larger particles. In general, grinding processes require a large amount of energy. A typical type of fine grinder is the ball mill. A inclined or horizontal rotating cylinder is filled with balls stone or metal, which grind material to the necessary fineness by friction and impact with the tumblin
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies; the basic ingredients of beer are a fermentable starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is flavoured with hops. Less used starch sources include millet and cassava. Secondary sources, such as maize, rice, or sugar, may be used, sometimes to reduce cost, or to add a feature, such as adding wheat to aid in retaining the foamy head of the beer; the proportion of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.
Steps in the brewing process include malting, mashing, boiling, conditioning and packaging. There are three main fermentation methods, warm and spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an closed fermenting vessel. There are several additional brewing methods, such as barrel aging, double dropping, Yorkshire Square. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Descriptions of various beer recipes can be found in cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia the brewer's craft was the only profession which derived social sanction and divine protection from female deities/goddesses, specifically: Ninkasi, who covered the production of beer, used in a metonymic way to refer to beer, Siduri, who covered the enjoyment of beer. In pre-industrial times, in developing countries, women are the main brewers; as any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like beverages were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal.
Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran. This discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread; the invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. The earliest chemically confirmed barley beer to date was discovered at Godin Tepe in the central Zagros Mountains of Iran, where fragments of a jug, at least 5,000 years old was found to be coated with beerstone, a by-product of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 5,000 years ago, was brewed on a domestic scale.
Ale produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century; the development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion litres are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion in 2006. The basic ingredients of beer are water. A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary saccharide, such as maize, rice, or sugar being termed an adjunct when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley.
Less used starch sources include millet and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, agave in Mexico, among others. The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. WaterBeer is composed of water. Regions have water with different mineral components. For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to making stout, such as Guinness; the waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation. Starch source The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer; the most common starch source used in bee
A gristmill grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings. The term can refer to the building that holds it; the Greek geographer Strabo reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC. The early mills had horizontal paddle wheels, an arrangement which became known as the "Norse wheel", as many were found in Scandinavia; the paddle wheel was attached to a shaft which was, in turn, attached to the centre of the millstone called the "runner stone". The turning force produced by the water on the paddles was transferred directly to the runner stone, causing it to grind against a stationary "bed", a stone of a similar size and shape; this simple arrangement required no gears, but had the disadvantage that the speed of rotation of the stone was dependent on the volume and flow of water available and was, only suitable for use in mountainous regions with fast-flowing streams. This dependence on the volume and speed of flow of the water meant that the speed of rotation of the stone was variable and the optimum grinding speed could not always be maintained.
Vertical wheels were in use in the Roman Empire by the end of the first century BC, these were described by Vitruvius. The peak of Roman technology is the Barbegal aqueduct and mill where water with a 19-metre fall drove sixteen water wheels, giving a grinding capacity estimated at 2.4 to 3.2 tonnes per hour. Water mills seem to have remained in use during the post-Roman period, by 1000 AD, mills in Europe were more than a few miles apart. In England, the Domesday survey of 1086 gives a precise count of England's water-powered flour mills: there were 5,624, or about one for every 300 inhabitants, this was typical throughout western and southern Europe. From this time onward, water wheels began to be used for purposes other than grist milling. In England, the number of mills in operation followed population growth, peaked at around 17,000 by 1300. Limited extant examples of gristmills can be found in Europe from the High Middle Ages. An extant well-preserved waterwheel and gristmill on the Ebro River in Spain is associated with the Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, built by the Cistercian monks in 1202.
The Cistercians were known for their use of this technology in Western Europe in the period 1100 to 1350. Geared gristmills were built in the medieval Near East and North Africa, which were used for grinding grain and other seeds to produce meals. Gristmills in the Islamic world were powered by both wind; the first wind-powered gristmills were built in the 9th and 10th centuries in what are now Afghanistan and Iran. Although the terms "gristmill" or "corn mill" can refer to any mill that grinds grain, the terms were used for a local mill where farmers brought their own grain and received back ground meal or flour, minus a percentage called the "miller's toll." Early mills were always built and supported by farming communities and the miller received the "miller's toll" in lieu of wages. Most towns and villages had their own mill so that local farmers could transport their grain there to be milled; these communities were dependent on their local mill. Classical mill designs are water-powered, though some are powered by the wind or by livestock.
In a watermill a sluice gate is opened to allow water to flow onto, or under, a water wheel to make it turn. In most watermills the water wheel was mounted vertically, i.e. edge-on, in the water, but in some cases horizontally. Designs incorporated horizontal steel or cast iron turbines and these were sometimes refitted into the old wheel mills. In most wheel-driven mills, a large gear-wheel called the pit wheel is mounted on the same axle as the water wheel and this drives a smaller gear-wheel, the wallower, on a main driveshaft running vertically from the bottom to the top of the building; this system of gearing ensures that the main shaft turns faster than the water wheel, which rotates at around 10 rpm. The millstones themselves turn at around 120 rpm, they are laid one on top of the other. The bottom stone, called the bed, is fixed to the floor, while the top stone, the runner, is mounted on a separate spindle, driven by the main shaft. A wheel called the stone nut connects the runner's spindle to the main shaft, this can be moved out of the way to disconnect the stone and stop it turning, leaving the main shaft turning to drive other machinery.
This might include driving a mechanical sieve to refine the flour, or turning a wooden drum to wind up a chain used to hoist sacks of grain to the top of the mill house. The distance between the stones can be varied to produce the grade of flour required; the grain is lifted in sacks onto the sack floor at the top of the mill on the hoist. The sacks are emptied into bins, where the grain falls down through a hopper to the millstones on the stone floor below; the flow of grain is regulated by shaking it in a sloping trough from which it falls into a hole in the center of the runner stone. The milled grain is collected as it emerges through the grooves in the runner stone from the outer rim of the stones and is fed down a chute to be collected in sacks on the ground or meal floor. A similar process is used for grains such as wheat to make flour, for maize to make corn meal. In order to prevent the vibrations of the mill machinery from shaking the building apart, a gristmill will have at least two separate foundations.
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
Forage is a plant material eaten by grazing livestock. The term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals as hay or silage; the term forage fish refers to small schooling fish. While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennial, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop. Grass forages include: Agrostis spp. – bentgrasses Agrostis capillaris – common bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera – creeping bentgrass Andropogon hallii – sand bluestem Arrhenatherum elatius – false oat-grass Bothriochloa bladhii – Australian bluestem Bothriochloa pertusa – hurricane grass Brachiaria decumbens – Surinam grass Brachiaria humidicola – koronivia grass Bromus spp. – bromegrasses Cenchrus ciliaris – buffelgrass Chloris gayana – Rhodes grass Cynodon dactylon – bermudagrass Dactylis glomerata – orchard grass Echinochloa pyramidalis – antelope grass Entolasia imbricata – bungoma grass Festuca spp. – fescues Festuca arundinacea – tall fescue Festuca pratensis – meadow fescue Festuca rubra – red fescue Heteropogon contortus – black spear grass Hymenachne amplexicaulis – West Indian marsh grass Hyparrhenia rufa – jaragua Leersia hexandra – southern cutgrass Lolium spp. – ryegrasses Lolium multiflorum – Italian ryegrass Lolium perenne – perennial ryegrass Megathyrsus maximus – Guinea grass Melinis minutiflora – molasses grass Paspalum dilatatum – dallisgrass Phalaris arundinacea – reed canarygrass Phleum pratense – timothy Poa spp. – bluegrasses, meadow-grasses Poa arachnifera – Texas bluegrass Poa pratensis – Kentucky bluegrass Poa trivialis – rough bluegrass Setaria sphacelata – African bristlegrass Themeda triandra – kangaroo grass Thinopyrum intermedium – intermediate wheatgrass Herbaceous legume forages include: Arachis pintoi – pinto peanut Chamaecrista rotundifolia – roundleaf sensitive pea Clitoria ternatea – butterfly-pea Lotus corniculatus – bird's-foot trefoil Macroptilium atropurpureum – purple bush-bean Macroptilium bracteatum – burgundy bean Medicago spp. – medics Medicago sativa – alfalfa, lucerne Medicago truncatula – barrel medic Melilotus spp. – sweetclovers Neonotonia wightii – perennial soybean Onobrychis viciifolia – common sainfoin Stylosanthes spp. – stylo Stylosanthes humilis – Townsville stylo Stylosanthes scabra – shrubby stylo Trifolium spp. – clovers Trifolium hybridum – alsike clover Trifolium incarnatum – crimson clover Trifolium pratense – red clover Trifolium repens – white clover Vicia spp. – vetches Vicia articulata – oneflower vetch Vicia ervilia – bitter vetch Vicia narbonensis – narbon vetch Vicia sativa – common vetch, tare Vicia villosa – hairy vetch Vigna parkeri – creeping vigna Tree legume forages include: Acacia aneura – mulga Albizia spp. – silk trees Albizia canescens – Belmont siris Albizia lebbeck – lebbeck Enterolobium cyclocarpum – earpodtree Leucaena leucocephala – leadtree Silage may be composed by the following: Alfalfa Maize Grass-legume mix Sorghums Oats Crop residues used as forage include: Sorghum Corn or soybean stover Grass-fed beef
A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, peas, lentils, lupin bean, carob, soybeans and tamarind. Legumes produce a botanically unique type of fruit – a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla and of the radish. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation; the term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, is reserved for crops harvested for the dry seed. This excludes green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Excluded are seeds that are grown for oil extraction, seeds which are used for sowing forage.
However, in common usage, these distinctions are not always made, many of the varieties used for dried pulses are used for green vegetables, with their beans in pods while young. Some Fabaceae, such as Scotch broom and other Genisteae, are leguminous but are not called legumes by farmers, who tend to restrict that term to food crops. Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested. Grain legumes known as pulses, are cultivated for their seeds; the seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lupins and peanuts. Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber and dietary minerals. Like other plant-based foods, pulses contain little fat or sodium. Legumes are an excellent source of resistant starch, broken down by bacteria in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids used by intestinal cells for food energy.
Preliminary studies in humans include the potential for regular consumption of legumes in a plant-based diet to reduce the prevalence or risk of developing metabolic syndrome. There is evidence that a portion of pulses in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the supporting data. FAO recognizes 11 primary pulses. Dry beans Kidney bean, navy bean, pinto bean, haricot bean Lima bean, butter bean Adzuki bean, azuki bean Mung bean, golden gram, green gram Black gram, urad Scarlet runner bean Ricebean Moth bean Tepary bean Dry broad beans Horse bean Broad bean Field bean Dry peas Garden pea Protein pea Chickpea, Bengal gram Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules Lentil Bambara groundnut, earth pea Vetch, common vetch Lupins Pulses NES, Minor pulses, including: Lablab, hyacinth bean Jack bean, sword bean Winged bean Velvet bean, cowitch Yam bean Forage legumes are of two broad types.
Some, like alfalfa, vetch, stylo, or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or cut by humans to provide livestock feed. Legumes base feed fed to animals improves animal performance compared to diets of perennial grass diet. Factors that attribute towards such result: larger consumption, quicker rate of digestion and feed conversion rate efficiency. Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena and Sesbania species.
Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe. Legume trees like the locust trees or the Kentucky coffeetree can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume tre