Anise

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Anise
Koehler1887-PimpinellaAnisum.jpg
1897 illustration[1]
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Pimpinella
Species: P. anisum
Binomial name
Pimpinella anisum
L.
Synonyms[2]

Anise (/ˈænɪs/;[3] Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed,[4] is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.[5] Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise,[4] fennel, and liquorice.

Etymology[edit]

The name "anise" is derived from the Arabic name: "يَانْسُون - yānsūn [yaansoun]".

Description[edit]

Anise fruits
Cross section of anise fruit seen on light microscope

Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft (0.9 m) or more tall. The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 38–2 in (1–5 cm) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white, approximately 18 inch (3 mm) in diameter, produced in dense umbels. The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1814 in (3–6 mm) long, usually called "aniseed".[6]

Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths), including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug.

Cultivation[edit]

Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, and was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.[7]

Anise plants grow best in light, fertile, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon as the ground warms up in spring. Because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small.[8]

Production[edit]

Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes, drinks, and candies. The word is used for both the species of herb and its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China[9] called star anise (Illicium verum) widely used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, and East Asian dishes. Star anise is considerably less expensive to produce, and has gradually displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While formerly produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise.[10]

Composition[edit]

Anise essential oil in clear glass vial

As with all spices, the composition of anise varies considerably with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.[11]

Moisture: 9–13%
Protein: 18%
Fatty oil: 8–23%
Essential oil: 2–7%
Starch: 5%
N-free extract: 22–28%
Crude fibre: 12–25%

Essential oil[edit]

Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.[12] The yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions[13] and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient.[12] Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole (80–90%), with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde, estragole and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others.[14]

Uses[edit]

Culinary[edit]

Anise is sweet and very aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavor.[6] The seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes (alone or in combination with other aromatic herbs), as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, and Peruvian picarones. It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, which is similar to hot chocolate, and it is taken as a digestive after meals in India.

The Ancient Romans often served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe[15] at the end of feasts as a digestive. This tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings.[16]

Liquor[edit]

Anise alcohols of the Mediterranean region

Anise is used to flavor Colombian aguardiente;[17] French absinthe, anisette,[17] and pastis;[18] Greek ouzo;[19] Bulgarian mastika;[19] German Jägermeister;[citation needed] Italian sambuca;[19] Spanish anísado[19] and Herbs de Majorca;[citation needed] Mexican Xtabentún;[20] Turkish and Armenian rakı;[19] and Lebanese, Libyan, Syrian, Jordanian, Israeli and Palestinian arak.[19] These liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. It is believed to be one of the secret ingredients in the French liqueur Chartreuse. It is also used in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States.

Herbal medicine[edit]

The main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect (reducing flatulence),[4] as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine:

The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, and is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine gently, maketh abundance of milke, and stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske (diarrhea), and also the white flux (leukorrhea) in women.[21]

Anise has also been thought a treatment for menstrual cramps[22] and colic.[7]

In the 1860s, American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic. This method was later found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter.[22]

  • According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, and, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites (N.H. 20.72).[23]
  • In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi ("Water of Anise") in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi ("Spirit of Anise") in doses of 5–20 minims.[7]

Other uses[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ from Franz Eugen Köhlae, Köhlae's Medizinal-Pflanzen, 1897
  2. ^ The Plant List, Pimpinella anisum L.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "anise, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1884.
  4. ^ a b c Baynes 1878.
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Anice vera, Pimpinella anisum L.
  6. ^ a b Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) from Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages
  7. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911.
  8. ^ How to Grow Anise Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. from growingherbs.org.uk
  9. ^ Peter, K. V. (2004). Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Woodhead Publishing. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-85573-721-1. 
  10. ^ Philip R. Ashurst (1999). Food Flavorings. Springer. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8342-1621-1. 
  11. ^ J.S. Pruthi: Spices and Condiments, New Delhi: National Book Trust (1976), p. 19.
  12. ^ a b Pereira, Camila G.; Meireles, M. Angela A. (September 2007). "Economic analysis of rosemary, fennel and anise essential oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 22 (5): 407–413. doi:10.1002/ffj.1813. 
  13. ^ Zehtab-salmasi, S.; Javanshir, A.; Omidbaigi, R.; Alyari, H.; Ghassemi-golezani, K. (May 2001). "Effects of water supply and sowing date on performance and essential oil production of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)". Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 49 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1556/AAgr.49.2001.1.9. 
  14. ^ Rodrigues, Vera M.; Rosa, Paulo T. V.; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Petenate, Ademir J.; Meireles, M. Angela A. (March 2003). "Supercritical Extraction of Essential Oil from Aniseed using sCO2: Solubility, Kinetics, and Composition Data". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (6): 1518–1523. doi:10.1021/jf0257493. 
  15. ^ "Anise History". Our Herb Garden. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  16. ^ "Wedding Cake: A Slice of History | Carol Wilson". Gastronomica. 2005-05-05. Retrieved 2017-11-13. 
  17. ^ a b "16 Anise-Flavored Liquors | SenseList". senselist.com. Retrieved 2017-11-13. 
  18. ^ Jack S. Blocker, Jr.; David M. Fahey; Ian R. Tyrrell (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An Global Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 478–. ISBN 978-1-57607-833-4. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f Dealberto, Clara; Desrayaud, Lea (25 July 2017). "Le pastis, elixir provencal". Le Monde. Le Monde. p. 28. 
  20. ^ "Xtabentún Cocktail Guide, with Origins and Recipes". Wine Enthusiast Magazine. 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2017-11-13. 
  21. ^ John Gerard, The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, 1597, p. 880, side 903
  22. ^ a b Muller-Schwarze, Dietland (2006). Chemical Ecology of Vertebrates. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36377-8.  page = 287
  23. ^ Pliny (1856). "Book XX. Anise—sixty-one remedies". The Natural History of Pliny. 4. translators John Bostock, Henry Riley. London: Henry Bohn. pp. 271–274. OCLC 504358830. 
  24. ^ Railway Magazine. London: International Printing Company. 99: 287. 1953. 
  25. ^ Collins, Tony (2005). Encyclopedia of traditional British rural sports. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-415-35224-6. 
  26. ^ Gabriel, Otto; von Brandt, Andres (2005). Fish catching methods of the world (4 ed.). Oxford, England: Blackwell. pp. 153–4. ISBN 978-0-85238-280-6. 

References[edit]