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Anius

In Greek mythology, Anius was a king of Delos and priest of Apollo. He was daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis. Anius was born either on the island of Delos, sacred to his father Apollo, or on Euboea, after the box in which his mother had been placed by Staphylus when he had discovered her pregnancy was washed ashore there. Rhoeo placing the baby on Apollo's altar, asked the god to care for it, if it was his. Rhoeo married Zarex, who thus became the legal father of Anius. Apollo cared for the child Anius for a long time, teaching him the arts of prophecy. Anius became Apollo's priest and the king of Delos. Anius had three daughters: Oeno and Elais, known as the Oenotropae, their mother was Dorippe, a Thracian woman ransomed by Anius for the price of a horse from the pirates who had kidnapped her. Dionysus gave the three daughters the power to change whatever they wanted into wine and oil; when the Greeks landed on Delos while on their way to Troy, Anius prophesied that the Trojan War would not be won until the tenth year, insisted that they stay with him for nine years, promising that his daughters would supply them with aliments during that period.

When Agamemnon heard this, he wanted to take the Oenotropae with him by force, to provide his army with food and wine. They prayed to Dionysus. Of Anius's three sons and Mykonos became eponyms of the islands of Andros and Mykonos respectively; as for Thasos, he was devoured by dogs, since it was prohibited to keep dogs on Delos. Anius, an old friend of Anchises, gave aid to him, his son Aeneas, his retinue when they were fleeing from Troy and en route to the future site of Rome. According to a rare version of the myth, Aeneas married Anius's daughter Lavinia, like her father, had prophetic abilities and bore Aeneas a son, named Anius. Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Vol. 3. Books 4.59–8. Online version at Bill Thayer's Web Site Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica. Vol 1-2. Immanel Bekker. Ludwig Dindorf. Friedrich Vogel. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1888-1890.

Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Dionysus of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities. English translation by Earnest Cary in the Loeb Classical Library, 7 volumes. Harvard University Press, 1937-1950. Online version at Bill Thayer's Web Site Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitatum Romanarum quae supersunt, Vol I-IV.. Karl Jacoby. In Aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1885. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Maurus Servius Honoratus, In Vergilii carmina comentarii. Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii. Georgius Thilo. Leipzig. B. G. Teubner. 1881. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.

Greek text available from the same website. Publius Ovidius Naso, Ibis translated by A. S. Kline © 2003. Online version at the Poetry in Translation Publius Ovidius Naso, Ibis. R. Merkelii Recognitione, Vol III. Rudolf Merkel. Rudolf Ehwald. Lipsiae. In Aedibus B. G. Teubneri. 1889. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Publius Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses translated by Brookes More. Boston, Cornhill Publishing Co. 1922. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Publius Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses. Hugo Magnus. Gotha. Friedr. Andr. Perthes. 1892. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Stephanus of Byzantium, Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, edited by August Meineike, published 1849. A few entries from this important ancient handbook of place names have been translated by Brady Kiesling. Online version at the Topos Text Project

Tazir

In Islamic Law, tazir refers to punishment for offenses at the discretion of the judge or ruler of the state. It is one of three major types of punishments or sanctions under Sharia Islamic law — hadd and tazir; the punishments for the Hadd offenses are fixed by the Qur'an or Hadith, qisas allow equal retaliation in cases of intentional bodily harm, while ta'zir refers to punishments applied to the other offenses for which no punishment is specified in the Qur'an or the Hadith. The classical Islamic legal tradition did not have a separate category for criminal law as does modern law; the classical Islamic jurisprudence divided the subject matter of law into four "quarters", rituals, sales and injuries. In modern usage, Islamic criminal law has been extracted and collated from that classical Islamic jurisprudence literature into three categories of rules: Hadd under Sharia, are rules stated in the Quran and the Hadiths, whose violation is deemed in Islam as a crime against God, requires a fixed punishment.

Hadd crimes include theft, illicit sexual relations or rape,making unproven accusations of illicit sex, drinking intoxicants like alcohol and highway robbery. Qisas, diyya, دية), in Islamic jurisprudence, are the second category of crimes, where Sharia specifies equal retaliation or monetary compensation, as a possible punishment. Included in this category is homicide, for example, which Islamic law treats as a civil dispute between believers. Qisas principle is available against the accused, to the victim or victim's heirs, when a Muslim is murdered, suffers bodily injury or suffers property damage. In the case of murder, qisas means the right of a murder victim's nearest relative or wali to, if the court approves, take the life of the killer. Tazir is the third category, refers to offense mentioned in the Quran or the Hadiths, but where neither the Quran nor the Hadiths specify a punishment. In Tazir cases, the punishment is at the discretion of the state, the ruler, or a qadi, or court acting on behalf of the ruler.

Tazir punishment is for actions which are considered sinful in Islam, undermine the Muslim community, or a threaten public order during Islamic rule, but those that are not punishable as hadd or qisas crimes. The legal restrictions on the exercise of that power are not specified in the Quran or the Hadiths, vary. Crimes punished by tazir require proof that hadd or qisas crimes require; the judge enjoys considerable leeway in deciding an appropriate form of punishment, the punishment does not have to be consistent across the accused persons or over time. The ruler or qadi has the discretion to forgive tazir offenses; the word tazir is not used in the Quran or the Hadith, in the sense that modern Islamic criminal law uses it. However, in several verses of the Quran, crimes are identified, punishment of the accused indicated, but no specific punishment is described; these instances led early Islamic scholars to interpret the Quran as requiring discretionary punishment of certain offenses, namely Tazir.

Example specific verses from the Quran that support taazir are, And as for the two who are guilty of indecency from among you, give them both a punishment. And those who dispute about Allah after that obedience has been rendered to Him, their plea is null with their Lord, upon them is wrath, for them is severe punishment. Tazir offenses are broadly grouped into two sub-categories in Islamic literature; the first are those offenses that have the same nature but do not meet the complete requirements of hudud crimes. Examples of such Tazir offenses include thefts among relatives, or attempted but unsuccessful robbery, fornication that does not include penetration, homosexual contacts such as kissing that does not result in fornication; the second sub-category of Tazir offenses relate to offenses committed by an individual that violate the behavior demanded in the Quran and the Hadiths. Examples of the second sub-category include false testimony, loaning money or any property to another person for interest in addition to principal, any acts that threaten or damage the public order or Muslim community or Islam.

The fourteenth century Islamic jurist Ibn Taymiyyah included any form of disobedience as a Tazir offense, listed several examples where there is no legal penalty in Sharia: the man who kisses a boy or a woman unrelated to him by marriage or a near kinship. Tazir punishments were common in Sharia courts for less serious offenses. Punishments vary with the nature of crime and include a prison term, flogging, a fine and seizure of property; the sixteenth-century Egyptian jurist Ibn Nujaym said that taʿzīr could consist of lashing, rubbing the ears, a ster

SIM Application Toolkit

SIM Application Toolkit is a standard of the GSM system which enables the subscriber identity module to initiate actions which can be used for various value-added services. Similar standards exist for other network and card systems, with the USIM Application Toolkit for USIMs used by newer-generation networks being an example. A more general name for this class of Java Card-based applications running on UICC cards is the Card Application Toolkit; the SIM Application Toolkit consists of a set of commands programmed into the SIM which define how the SIM should interact directly with the outside world and initiates commands independently of the handset and the network. This enables the SIM to build up an interactive exchange between a network application and the end user and access, or control access to, the network; the SIM gives commands to the handset such as displaying menus and/or asking for user input. STK has been deployed by many mobile operators around the world for many applications where a menu-based approach is required, such as Mobile Banking and content browsing.

Designed as a single application environment, the STK can be started during the initial power up of the SIM card and is suited to low level applications with simple user interfaces. In GSM networks, the SIM Application Toolkit is defined by the GSM 11.14 standard released in 2001. From release 4 onwards, GSM 11.14 was replaced by 3GPP TS 31.111 which includes the specifications of the USIM Application Toolkit for 3/4G networks. Some manufacturers claim that STK enables higher levels of security through identity verification and encryption, which are necessary for secure electronic commerce. STK has been deployed on the largest number of mobile devices. Updating Android software is done over GSM where the SIM Toolkit may install automatically with new software regardless of automatic install applications. Change in applications and menus stored on the SIM is difficult after the customer takes delivery of the SIM and sometimes may be recognized as surveillance software. To deliver updates, either the SIM must be returned and exchanged for a new one or the application updates must be delivered over-the-air using specialized, optional SIM features.

As of October 2010, mobile network operators can, for example, deliver updated STK application menus by sending a secure SMS to handsets that include a Toolbox compliant wireless internet browser. When using a SIM card compliant to the BIP in a BIP-compliant handset, the updates can be delivered quickly as well, it might be possible to change the menu of STK applications based on the Wireless Internet Gateway specification. The update limitations hinder the frequency of STK application deployments. STK has no support for multimedia, only basic pictures; the STK technology has limited independent development support available. USIM Application Toolkit is the equivalent of STK for 3G networks. USAT takes advantage of the multiapplication environment of 3G devices by not activating until a specific application has been selected, unlike STK, activated at startup; some functions are card related rather than application related. Unstructured Supplementary Service Data M-Pesa Defcon 21: The Secret Life of SIM Cards on YouTube