Anne Vallayer-Coster was an 18th-century French painter best known for still lifes. She achieved fame and recognition early in her career, being admitted to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1770, at the age of twenty-six. Despite the low status that still life painting had at this time, Vallayer-Coster’s developed skills in the depiction of flowers, soon generated a great deal of attention from collectors and other artists, her “precocious talent and the rave reviews” earned her the attention of the court, where Marie Antoinette took a particular interest in Vallayer-Coster's paintings. Her life was determinedly private and hard-working, she survived the bloodshed of the French Revolution, but the fall of the French monarchy, who were her primary patrons, caused her reputation to decline. In addition to still lifes, she painted portraits and genre paintings, but because of the restrictions placed on women at the time her success at figure painting was limited. Born in 1744 on the banks of the Bièvre near the Seine, Vallayer-Coster was one of four daughters born to a goldsmith of the royal family at Gobelines.
The artist's family tapestry business might have had some influence on her interest and skill in art. Since her childhood was spent in the factory, she had the opportunity to experience the entire operation of the business. In 1754, her father moved the family to Paris. Vallayer-Coster seems not to have entered the studio of a professional painter because such an apprenticeship to an unrelated male was difficult for a respectable woman. Like other women artists of the time, she was trained by her father. By the age of twenty-six, Vallayer-Coster was still without a sponsor. Reluctantly, she submitted two of her still lifes—The Attributes of Painting and The Attributes of Music —to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, as reception pieces in 1770, she was unanimously elected into the Royal Académie once the Academicians saw her paintings, making her one of only four women accepted into the Académie before the French Revolution. This moment of success however, was overshadowed by the death of her father.
Her mother took over the family business, quite the case during this time, Anne continued to work to help support her family. Commenting on the Salon exhibit of 1771, the encyclopedist Denis Diderot noted that "if all new members of the Royal Academy made a showing like Mademoiselle Vallayer's, sustained the same high level of quality, the Salon would look different!" Though she is known for still life paintings in this period, she is known for portraits, her 1773 Portrait of a Violinist was purchased by the Nationalmuseum in 2015. Vallayer-Coster exhibited her first floral still life in 1775, subsequently became known as a painter of flowers. Four years she began to enjoy the patronage of Marie Antoinette. With her Court connections and pressure from Marie Antoinette, she received space in the Louvre in 1781, unusual for women artists. Shortly thereafter, in the presence of Marie Antoinette at the courts of Versailles, she married Jean-Pierre Silvestre Coster, a wealthy lawyer and respected member of a powerful family from Lorraine Marie Antoinette signed the marriage contract as witness.
With these titles came the highest ranks of the bourgeoisies, the noblesse de robe. With such a prestigious title came a state office which, traditionally during this time was bought from father to son, making them indistinguishable from the old nobility, she received early recognition of her career after being elected as an associate and a full member of the Royal Académie in 1770. Her strategies in initiating and sustaining her professional career were brilliant, she was exceptional in achieving membership in the Academy and succeeding in a prominent, professional career late in the 18th century, when resistance to women in the public sphere was deepening and the Académie was as resistant as to welcoming women into its ranks. A common image of Vallayer-Coster was not only as a virtuous artist but as a skilful diplomat and negotiator aware both of her potential patrons' interests and of her own unusual position as a prominent woman artist. With the Reign of Terror in 1793, the ancient regime, which up to this point had supported Vallayer-Coster, disappeared.
Despite her noble status and her connection to the throne, Vallayer-Coster was able to avoid the pandemonium of the French Revolution in 1789, but the fall of the French monarchy affected her career. Although during Napoléon's reign, the empress Josephine acquired two works from her in 1804, her reputation was diminished. Vallayer-Coster concentrated on floral paintings in oil and gouache. In 1817 she exhibited Still Life with Lobster in the Paris Salon. In this, her last painting, she managed what an expert called "a summation of her career" depicting most of her previous subjects together in a work she donated to the restored King Louis XVIII. There is some evidence that Vallayer-Coster gave it to the king as an expression of her joy as a loyal Bourbon supporter through the turbulent years of the Revolution and Napoleonic imperialism, she died in 1818 at the age of seventy-three having painted more than 120 still lifes, always with a distinctive colouristic brilliance. Vallayer-Coster worked principally in the varieties of still life developed over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Conventional morality precluded women artists from drawing from the nude model
33 Scenes From Life is a 2008 Polish film directed by Małgorzata Szumowska. The Polish artist Julia and her husband Piotr, a talented and successful composer, live in Kraków; when Julias's mother, Barbara falls ill with stomach cancer, the life of the family is falling apart. Julia accompanies her mother to death, but her husband Piotr is at rehearsals in Cologne and leaves her to cope with this difficult situation. Only her friend Adrian is at her side, her father Jurek is overwhelmed by the impending loss of his beloved wife. After the death of the mother her father takes comfort from alcohol. Shortly after the father dies. Julia found only in the arms of Adrian to rest. After the loss of the parents and breakup of the marriage she is now alone in the world with an uncertain future where Adrian is of little help. 33 Scenes from Life on IMDb 33 Scenes from Life - review at culture.pl Official website Entry in Filmpolski.pl
North American telephone area code 804 serves the east-central portion of Virginia. The area code is anchored by Virginia's capital and includes most of its metropolitan area. Other communities using 804 include Chesterfield, Hopewell, Powhatan, Midlothian and Colonial Heights; the 804 code includes the Northern Neck and the Middle Peninsula. The two southernmost counties on the Middle Peninsula and Mathews, are part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, but use 804 instead of the area code 757 used by the rest of Hampton Roads. Area code 804 was split from Virginia's original area code, area code 703, on Sunday, June 24, 1973, with an official permissive dialing period ending January 1, 1974, it stretched across the eastern two-thirds of the state, from Danville to the Eastern Shore. When an area code is split, the largest city in the old numbering plan area retains the old area code–in this case, Norfolk Virginia's largest city. However, C&P Telephone wanted to keep the large number of federal agencies in Northern Virginia from having to change their numbers.
Despite the rapid growth of the Richmond-Petersburg and Hampton Roads areas, this configuration remained in place for 23 years. On July 1, 1996, the Eastern Shore and most of Hampton Roads became area code 757. Although Hampton Roads is the largest metropolitan area based in the Commonwealth, Bell Atlantic decided to let Richmond keep 804 in order to spare the plethora of state agencies in the capital the expense and burden of having to change their numbers; this split was intended as a long-term solution, but by the turn of the century and millennium 804 was running out of numbers due to the rapid growth of the Richmond area, as well as the proliferation of cell phones and pagers. As a result, 804 was split again on June 1, 2001, when most of the western portion became area code 434. Area code 804 is famous for being the only one created during what is considered the most stable time of NANPA's existence, from 1966-1982. Despite Richmond's continued growth, the area will not need another area code until late 2025.
Dagfinn Bakke was a Norwegian painter and printmaker. Bakke was born in Lødingen, settled in Svolvær. From 1952 he worked as illustrator for the magazine Magasinet For Alle. From 1956 to 1992 he was appointed as illustrator for the newspaper Lofotposten, where he had a regular column which he signed as DAN, he illustrated several books, is represented at the National Gallery of Norway and other art galleries. His book illustrations include several humorous books by Arthur Arntzen. Bakke was biographed by Bjørn Tore Pedersen in 2013. In 1983, his caricature of Margaret Thatcher, pictured as a besom-riding witch escorted home from the Falkland Islands by British aircraft, won first prize at the International Salon of Cartoons in Montreal, he was awarded the Petter Dass medal in 2015. Pedersen, Bjørn Tore. Det stivnede hav
Mann Gulch is a gulch in the Gates of the Mountains Wilderness of the upper Missouri River, 24 miles north-northeast of Helena, Montana, in southeastern Lewis and Clark County. It is on the east side of the Missouri River and 9 miles east of Interstate 15, between Helena and Wolf Creek. Mann Gulch is between Meriwether Canyon to the south and Rescue Gulch to the north, the creek it contains flows into the Missouri in the canyon known as the Gates of the Mountains. Mann Gulch is 2.4 miles southeast of Beartooth Mountain. Mann Gulch is the site of the August 1949 Mann Gulch fire in which 13 firefighters died; the fire is the subject of Norman Maclean's book Young Fire. The Mann Gulch fire was started by lightning. 46°53′7″N 111°53′56″W Average elevation: 3,602 feet
The Floyd Rose Locking Tremolo, or Floyd Rose, is a type of locking vibrato arm for a guitar. Floyd D. Rose invented the locking vibrato in 1976, the first of its kind, it is now manufactured by a company of the same name; the Floyd Rose gained popularity in the 1980s through guitarists like Eddie Van Halen, Neal Schon, Brad Gillis, Joe Satriani, Steve Vai, Alex Lifeson, who used its ability to stay in tune with extreme changes in pitch. Its tuning stability comes through the double-locking design, regarded as revolutionary. Floyd D. Rose first started working on what became the Floyd Rose Tremolo in 1976, he was playing in a rock band at the time, inspired by Deep Purple. He used the vibrato bar but couldn't make his guitars stay in tune using traditional approaches like lubricating the nut, or winding the strings as little as possible around the tuning pegs. At the time, Rose made and sold jewelry, so had the skills and tools to fabricate small metal parts. After noticing the strings moved with the regular nut design, he made a brass nut that locked the strings in place with three U-shaped clamps.
He installed this nut in his 1957 Fender Stratocaster. He improved this design by using hardened steel—otherwise the strings wore the clamps down too quickly—and redesigned the bridge, which locked the strings with clamps. Rose hand-made the first bridges and nuts, which were picked up by some influential guitarists at the time, such as Eddie Van Halen. Other well-known guitarists who picked it up early were Neal Schon, who purportedly got serial number 3, Brad Gillis, Steve Vai; the first patent was awarded in 1979, shortly afterward, Rose made an agreement with Kramer Guitars because he could no longer keep up with demand manufacturing the bridges by hand. Kramer's guitar models with the Floyd Rose bridge became popular, leading them to drop the earlier Rockinger vibrato in favor of the Floyd Rose between June 1982 and January 1983; the Floyd Rose design's popularity led to other companies making similar bridges, thus violating the patent. Notably, courts found that Gary Kahler's vibrato bridge infringed on Floyd Rose's patents, awarded a judgment in excess of $100M against Gary Kahler.
Floyd Rose and Kramer went on to make licensing agreements with other manufacturers, there are now several different models available based on the double-locking design. Because the bridges and nuts were no longer hand-made it was necessary to update the design, the bridges were changed to add a set of tuners that allow for fine-tuning the guitar after the strings are locked at the nut. In January 1991, Kramer's exclusive distribution agreement with Rose ended when Fender announced they would be the new exclusive distributor of Floyd Rose products. While Fender used Floyd Rose-licensed vibrato systems this move allowed Fender to offer a few models with the original Floyd Rose Tremolo, such as the Richie Sambora Signature Strat in 1991, the Floyd Rose Classic Stratocaster in 1992 and the Set-Neck Floyd Rose Strat in 1993. Floyd Rose collaborated with Fender to design a Fender Deluxe Locking Tremolo, introduced in 1991 on the Strat Plus Deluxe, the USA Contemporary Stratocaster, the Strat Ultra.
Fender used the Floyd Rose-designed locking vibrato system on certain humbucker-equipped American Deluxe and Showmaster models until 2007. In 2005, distribution of the Floyd Rose Original reverted to Floyd Rose, whereas the patented designs were licensed to other manufacturers to use. Position I illustrates the normal position of an ideally tuned Floyd Rose bridge; the bridge balances on a pivot point, being pulled counter-clockwise by the strings' tension and clockwise by one to five springs. Controlled by special tuning screws, these two forces are balanced such that the bridge's surface is parallel to the guitar body; the strings are locked with a special mechanism at the nut as well as at the bridge, hence "double-locking". Position II illustrates the position of the bridge when the vibrato arm is pushed down towards the guitar body; the bridge rotates around a pivot point counter-clockwise and the tension in each string decreases, lowering the pitch of each string. The sound of any notes being played becomes flat.
While the tension of the strings decreases, the tension of the springs increases. It is the balance between string-tension and spring-tension, as well as the fact that the strings end at the bridge saddles and nut, that brings the strings reliably back into tune when force on the bar is removed. Position III illustrates the position of the bridge when the vibrato arm is pulled up away from the guitar body; the bridge rotates clockwise, tension in the strings increases, the pitch of the sound increases and so notes sound sharper than normal. Due to the limitations on the assembly's movement imposed by the guitar's body, the amount of available pitch change is much larger when the bar is depressed than when it is lifted. Note that when using the vibrato bar, string action is affected, this can sometimes cause the strings to unintentionally touch the frets and create unwanted sounds on instruments set up with low action and recessed vibrato installations; the main advantage of the Floyd Rose vibrato system is its double-locking design.
This makes the guitar stay in tune through large pitch changes, e.g. forcing the vibrato bar all the way down to the guitar body, or pulling up on the bar to