Casimir I the Restorer
Casimir I the Restorer, was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death. He was the son of Mieszko II Lambert by his wife Richeza, daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia. Casimir is known as the Restorer because he managed to reunite all parts of the Polish Kingdom after a period of turmoil and he reinstated Masovia and Pomerania into his realm. However, he failed to crown himself King of Poland, mainly because of internal and external threats to his rule, relatively little is known of Casimirs early life. He must have spent his childhood at the court of Poland in Gniezno. In order to acquire an education, he was sent to one of the Polish monasteries in 1026. According to some sources he initially wanted to have a career in the Church. This hypothesis, however, is not supported by modern historians, regardless, he left church work for good in 1031. Casimirs father, Mieszko II, was crowned King of Poland in 1025 after the death of his father Bolesław I the Brave, the powerful magnates of the country feared a strong central government like the one that existed under Bolesław Is rule.
This led to friction between the King and the nobility. Sometime during the reign of Bezprym and his sisters were taken by their mother to Germany for refuge. At the time of his fathers death in 1034, Casimir was about 18 years old and in Germany at the court of his uncle Hermann II, the central district of Greater Poland revolted against the nobles and Catholic clergy in a mass rebellion. A pagan revival in the area lasted for several years, the district of Masovia seceded and a local lord, Miecław, formed a state of his own. A similar situation occurred in Pomerania, in 1037 both the young prince and his mother returned to Poland and attempted to seize the throne. This precipitated a rebellion by local barons, which coupled with the so-called Pagan Reaction of the commoners, forced Casimir, soon Casimir returned to Poland and in 1038, once again, tried to regain power with the aide of his influential mother. This failed and he had to again, this time to the Kingdom of Hungary where he was imprisoned by Stephen I.
The Dowager Queen remained in Germany as a nun until her death, taking advantage of the chaos and his neighbours weakness, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia invaded and ravaged the country in 1039. Lesser and Greater Poland were severely pillaged, Poznań was captured, and Bretislaus sacked Gniezno, taking the relics of Saint Adalbert, Radim Gaudentius, and the five hermit brothers with him
Notre-Dame de Reims is a Roman Catholic church in Reims, France. It is the seat of the Archdiocese of Reims, where the kings of France were crowned. The cathedral replaced a church, destroyed by fire in 1211. That original structure had itself been erected on the site of some Roman baths, a major tourism destination, the cathedral receives about one million visitors annually. Excavations have shown that the present building occupies roughly the site as the original cathedral. That church was rebuilt during the Carolingian period and further extended in the 12th century, on 19 May 1051, King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev were married in the cathedral. Whilst conducting the Council of Reims in 1131, Pope Innocent II anointed and crowned the future Louis VII in the cathedral, on May 6,1210 the cathedral was damaged by fire and reconstruction started shortly after, beginning at the eastern end. In 1233 a long-running dispute between the chapter and the townsfolk boiled over into open revolt.
Several clerics were killed or injured during the violence and the entire cathedral chapter fled the city. Work on the new cathedral was suspended for three years, only resuming in 1236 after the clergy returned to the city and the interdict was lifted following mediation by the King and the Pope. The area from the crossing eastwards was in use by 1241, work on the west facade took place in several phases, which is reflected in the very different styles of some of the sculptures. The upper parts of the facade were completed in the 14th century, unusually the names of the cathedrals original architects are known. The labyrinth itself was destroyed in 1779 but its details and inscriptions are known from 18th century drawings, the clear association here between a labyrinth and master masons adds weight to the argument that such patterns were an allusion to the emerging status of the architect. The cathedral contains evidence of the rising status of the architect in the tomb of Hugues Libergier.
Not only is he given the honor of a slab, he is shown holding a miniature model of his church. The towers,81 m tall, were designed to rise 120 m. The south tower holds just two great bells, one of them, named “Charlotte” by Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine in 1570, following the death of the infant King John I, his uncle Philip would be hurriedly crowned at Reims,9 January 1317. During the Hundred Years War the cathedral and city were under siege by the English from 1359 to 1360, but the siege failed
It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg. The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen, UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic, the Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year when the city was first mentioned. Archaeological dating is fairly easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, and most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The Varangian name of the city Holmgård/Holmgard is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, Holmgård referred only to the stronghold southeast of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII, in 882, Ruriks successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus.
Novgorods size as well as its political and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus, according to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Konstantin. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise and his son, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day. In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki, four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the town of Visby in Gotland functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League.
At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard, later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich, the year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the posadnik, or mayor, the tysyatsky, or thousandman, originally the head of the town militia but a commercial and judicial official, was elected by the Veche. Another important local official was the Archbishop of Novgorod who shared power with the boyars, archbishops were elected by the Veche or by the drawing of lots, and after their election, were sent to the metropolitan for consecration. While a basic outline of the officials and the Veche can be drawn up. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city together, although where one officials power ended, throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally
Senlis is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. It has a long and rich heritage, having traversed centuries of history and this medieval town has welcomed some of the most renowned figures in French history, including Hugh Capet, Louis IX, the Marshal of France, Anne of Kiev and Séraphine de Senlis. The monarchs of the early French dynasties lived here, attracted by the proximity of the Chantilly forest and it is renowned for the gothic Senlis Cathedral and its vast historical monuments. Its inhabitants are called Senlisiens and Senlisiennes, Senlis is part of the province of lOise in the region of Hauts-de-France in the north of France. It is situated on the river Nonette, between the forests of Chantilly and dErmenonville in the South and dHalatte on the North and it is located 40 kilometers from the north of Paris,44 km from Beauvais and 79 km from Amiens. The highest point of the lies at the heart of the forest Halatte. Geologically, the area is occupied by a vast limestone plateau of the Lutetian covered mostly in silt, Senlis was known in early Roman imperial times as Augustomagus and as Civitas Silvanectium.
During the 3rd century, a high defensive wall, about half of which still exists, was erected around the settlement in response to Frankish incursions. The wall remained in use into the 13th century, the town featured a Roman amphitheatre, the remains of which are still visible, about 500 m west of the walled town. The amphitheatre seated as many as 10,000 people and was used for meetings, gladiatorial combats. The monarchs of the early French dynasties lived here, attracted by the proximity of the Chantilly Forest and its venison, in 987 Alberon, the archbishop of Reims, called together an assembly, and asked them to choose Hugh Capet as king of France. However, the monarchs of France soon abandoned the city, preferring Compiègne, new life was given to the city in the 12th century, and ramparts were built. The popularity of the city fell, and it slipped into decline. Today it remains an attraction for tourists for its long history, Senlis fell under the ownership of Hugh Capet in 981. He was elected king by his barons in 987 before being crowned at Noyon, under the Capetian rule, Senlis became a royal city and remained so until the reign of Charles X. A castle was built during this period remains are still visible today.
The city reached its apogee in the 12th and 13th centuries as trade in wool and leather increased, with an increasing population, the city expanded and needed new ramparts, a second chamber was erected under Phillip II that was larger and higher than the ramparts of the Gallo-Romans. A municipal charter was granted to the town in 1173 by King Louis VII, the bishop of Senlis and the Chancellor Guérin became close advisors to the King, strengthening Senlis ties to the French royalty
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many industries, higher education institutions. The city has an infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport. The citys name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, during its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until seized by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus, completely destroyed during the Mongol invasion in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come.
It was a capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours, first the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, followed by Poland. The city prospered again during the Russian Empires Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, in 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1919 Kiev was an important center of the Armed Forces of South Russia and was controlled by the White Army. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which was proclaimed by the Red Army, during World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. During the countrys transformation to an economy and electoral democracy. Kievs armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science, Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections.
As a prominent city with a history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution. The early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjev, the name is associated with that of Kyi, the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, on one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, in the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia
According to Christian tradition, Saint Denis is a Christian martyr and saint. In the third century, he was Bishop of Paris and he was martyred, with his companions Rusticus and Eleutherius, in connection with the Decian persecution of Christians, shortly after 250 AD. Denis is said to have picked his head up after being decapitated, walked ten kilometres, while preaching a sermon of repentance the entire way and he is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church as patron of Paris, and as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. The medieval and modern French name Denis derives from the ancient name Dionysius, gregory of Tours states that Denis was bishop of the Parisii and was martyred by being beheaded by a sword. The earliest document giving an account of his life and martyrdom, dionysii Rustici et Eleutherii dates from c. 600, is attributed to the poet Venantius Fortunatus, and is legendary. There Denis was appointed first Bishop of Paris, the persecutions under Emperor Decius had all but dissolved the small Christian community at Lutetia.
Denis and his companions were so effective in converting people that the non-Christian priests became alarmed over their loss of followers, at their instigation, Roman Governor arrested the missionaries. After a long imprisonment and two of his clergy were executed by beheading on the highest hill in Paris, which was likely to have been a holy place. Of the many accounts of martyrdom, this is noted in detail in the Golden Legend. The site where he stopped preaching and actually died was marked by a shrine that developed into the Saint Denis Basilica. Another account has his corpse being thrown into the Seine, veneration of Saint Denis began soon after his death. Her Vita Sanctae Genovefae attests the presence of a shrine near the present basilica by the close of the fifth century, dagobert I, great-grandson of Chlothar I had the first Royal Basilica built. The Merovingian tradition was originally to bury kings as Clovis and Chlothildis in Paris, yet Chilperic I had his own mother Dowager Queen Aregunda at Saint Denis.
His grandson was clearly following a family tradition, aregundas tomb was discovered in 1959 and her burial items can be seen at Saint-Germain-en-Laye museum. A successor church was erected by Fulrad, who became abbot in 749/50 and was linked with the accession of the Carolingians to the Merovingian throne. In time, the Saint Denis, often combined as Montjoie, Saint Denis. became the war-cry of the French armies. The oriflamme, which became the standard of France, was the banner consecrated upon his tomb and his veneration spread beyond France when, in 754, Pope Stephen II, who was French, brought veneration of Saint Denis to Rome
Sviatoslav II of Kiev
Sviatoslav II Iaroslavich or Sviatoslav II Yaroslavich was Grand Prince of Kiev between 1073 and 1076. He was born as a son of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise. He ruled the Principality of Vladimir in Volhynia in his fathers lifetime, Yaroslav the Wise, who divided the Kievan Rus between his five sons in his testament, willed the Principality of Chernigov to Sviatoslav. Sviatoslav joined his brothers, Iziaslav of Kiev and Vsevolod of Pereyaslav, the three brothers together fought against their enemies, including the nomadic Oghuz Turks, and their distant relative, Prince Vseslav of Polotsk. The Cumans defeated their united force in the autumn of 1068, the triumvirate broke up, when Sviatoslav, supported by his younger brother Vsevolod and replaced their older brother Iziaslav in 1073. He commissioned the compilation of at least two miscellanies of theological works, his short reign was uneventful. Sviatoslav was the son of Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev. The Lyubetskiy sinodik—a list of the princes of Chernigov which was completed in the Monastery of Saint Anthony in Lyubech—writes that his name was Nicholas.
The Russian Primary Chronicle writes that Sviatoslav was staying at Vladimir in Volhynia around the time his father seriously ill before his death. According to the historian Martin Dimnik, the report shows that Yaroslav the Wise had, most probably in about 1040. On his deathbed, Yaroslav the Wise divided the most important towns of his realm among his five sons—Iziaslav, Vsevolod, the dying grand prince ordered that his four younger sons should heed their eldest brother, Iziaslav who received Kiev. Yaroslav the Wise died on 20 February 1054 and his three elder sons—Iziaslav of Kiev, Sviatoslav of Chernigov, and Vsevolod of Pereyaslav—decided to jointly govern the Kievan Rus. The triumviri closely cooperated in the following years, in 1059 they liberated their uncle, Sudislav whom their father had sent to prison around 1035. They made a joint expedition by horse and ship against the Torks or Oghuz Turks, according to the Russian Primary Chronicle, on hearing of the arrival of the Rus forces, the Torks fled from their lands without resistance.
In 1065, Sviatoslav led his troops against his nephew, Rostislav Vladimirovich, upon Sviatoslavs arrival, Rostislav withdrew from this important center of his uncles domains, but he reoccupied it after Sviatoslav had returned to Chernigov. A distant cousin of the triumviri, Vseslav Briacheslavich, attacked Pskov in 1065, Vseslav Briacheslavich could not take this town, but he seized and plundered Novgorod—which had been ruled by Iziaslav of Kievs son, Mstislav—in the next winter. Izyaslav and Vsevolod soon united their forces and set forth against Vseslav, though it was the dead of winter and they routed Vseslavs army by the Nemiga River on 3 March 1066. Vseslav, who fled from the battlefield, agreed to enter negotiations with the triumviri
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
A dowry is a transfer of parental property at the marriage of a daughter. Dowry contrasts with the concepts of bride price and dower. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected, and demanded as a condition to accept a proposal, in some parts of the world, mainly in parts of Asia, Northern Africa. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings, the custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husbands family. Dowries have a history in Europe, South Asia, Africa. A dowry is the transfer of property to a daughter at her marriage rather than at the owners death. A dowry establishes a type of fund, the nature of which may vary widely. This fund may provide an element of security in widowhood or against a negligent husband.
Dowries may go toward establishing a marital household, and therefore might include such as linens. This practice differs from the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice homogenous inheritance in which property is transmitted only to children of the same sex as the property holder. These latter African societies are characterized by the transmission of the bride price, drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies in intensive plough agriculture and extensive shifting horticulture. In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women and these are the societies that give brideprice. Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamy, in plough agriculture farming is largely mens work, this is where dowry is given. In contrast, plough agriculture is associated with property and marriage tends to be monogamous. Close family are the preferred marriage partners so as to property within the group.
There is a debate on Goodys theory. She notes that Goodys is a model in which these historical variables may not be the decisive factors today
A regent is a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency, a regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. Regent is sometimes a formal title, if the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons and this was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, in the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually as joint heads of state and of government.
Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent, George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to terms such as Regency era. Strictly this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, as of 1 December 2016, Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency. The term regent may refer to lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations, typically as an equivalent of director, some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the Board of Regents. The term regent is used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France. This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th century, in the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized state as a regentschap. Consequently, in the state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati.
Again in Belgium and France, Regent is the title of a teacher in a lower secondary school. In the Philippines, the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent and they form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is a training to be a Jesuit. A regent in the Jesuits is often assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final vows, list of regents Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith, the Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches, each typically governed by a Holy Synod. It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination, prior to the Council of Chalcedon in AD451, the Eastern Orthodox had shared communion with the Oriental Orthodox churches, separating primarily over differences in Christology. Eastern Orthodoxy spread throughout the Roman and Eastern Roman Empires and beyond, playing a prominent role in European, Near Eastern and some African cultures. As a result, the term Greek Orthodox has sometimes used to describe all of Eastern Orthodoxy in general. However, the appellation Greek was never in use and was gradually abandoned by the non-Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox churches. Its most prominent episcopal see is Constantinople, there are many in other parts of the world, formed through immigration and missionary activity.
The official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the Orthodox Catholic Church and it is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, and in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the Church as Catholic and this name and longer variants containing Catholic are recognized and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use, for this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as Greek, even before the great schism. After 1054, Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople and this identification with Greek, became increasingly confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. Today, many of those same Roman churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin.
Eastern, indicates the element in the Churchs origin and development, while Orthodox indicates the faith. While the Church continues officially to call itself Catholic, for reasons of universality, the first known use of the phrase the catholic church occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. Quote of St Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, almost from the very beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the One, Holy and Apostolic Church. The Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same Church, a number of other Christian churches make a similar claim, the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches. The Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church, not directly from the Orthodox Church, the depth of this meaning in the Orthodox Church is registered first in its use of the word Orthodox itself, a union of Greek orthos and doxa
Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv is an outstanding architectural monument of Kievan Rus. The cathedral is one of the citys best known landmarks and the first heritage site in Ukraine to be inscribed on the World Heritage List along with the Kyiv Cave Monastery complex. Aside from its building, the cathedral includes an ensemble of supporting structures such as a bell tower. In 2011 the historic site was reassigned from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Regional Development of Ukraine to the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine, in Ukrainian the cathedral is known as Sobor Sviatoyi Sofiyi or Sofiyskyi sobor. In Russian it is known as Sobor Svyatoi Sofii or Sofiyskiy sobor, the cathedrals name comes from the 6th-century Hagia Sophia cathedral in Constantinople. The first foundations were laid in 1037 or 1011, but the cathedral took two decades to complete. This info has been accepted by both UNESCO and Ukraine, which celebrated the 1000th anniversary of the cathedral during 2011. )The structure has 5 naves,5 apses.
It is surrounded by galleries from three sides. Measuring 37 to 55 m, the used to be faced with plinths. On the inside, it retains mosaics and frescos from the 11th century, including a representation of Yaroslavs family. After the pillaging of Kiev by Andrei Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal in 1169, followed by Mongolian Tatars in 1240 and it was greatly damaged in the 16th century, when Poland and Ukraine were trying to unite catholic and orthodox churches. At this period the Cathedral was almost ruined, its roof decayed, following the 1595-96 Union of Brest, the Cathedral of Holy Sophia belonged to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church until it was claimed by the Moldavian Orthodox metropolitan Peter Mogila in 1633. The work continued under the Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa until 1767, all of these buildings as well as the Cathedral after the reconstruction have distinctive features of Ukrainian Baroque. The cathedral was saved from destruction primarily with the effort of many scientists, since the late 1980s Soviet, and Ukrainian, politicians promised to return the building to the Orthodox Church.
Due to various schisms and factions within the Church the return was postponed as all Orthodox, although all of the Orthodox churches have been allowed to conduct services at different dates, at other times they are denied access. After events such as those no religious body has yet given the rights for regular services. The complex now remains a museum of Ukraines Christianity, with most of its visitors being tourists