Hugh, Count of Vermandois
Hugh, called the Great, was a younger son of Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev and younger brother of Philip I. He was Count of Vermandois in right of his wife and his nickname Magnus is probably a bad translation into Latin of a French nickname, le Maisné, meaning the younger, referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France. In 1085 Hugh helped William the Conqueror repel a Danish invasion of England, early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris. Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated and his armada was possibly commanded by Arnout II, Count of Aarschot. It is fitting that I should be met on my arrival and received with the pomp and he brings with him from Rome the golden standard of St Peter. Understand, that he is commander of the Frankish army. See to it that he is accorded a reception worthy of his rank, whilst sailing the Adriatic Sea from Bari towards Illyricum, Hughs fleet was overtaken by a heavy storm and most ships were lost.
His own ship was thrown upon the shore near Epirus, when Hugh was found and brought to Dyrrhachium John Komnenos treated him to a banquet and he was allowed to rest. By order of the emperor Hugh was closely escorted by Manuel Boutoumites, eventually Hugh was given an audience by the emperor, who persuaded him to become his liegeman. The German historian Hans Eberhard Mayer argued that Alexius was fortunate that the first contingent of the army to arrive in Constantinople, led by Hugh, was very small. Moreover any conquests made to the east would be held as fiefs, anna Comnena recorded a conversation between Hugh and Godfrey of Bouillon, wherein Hugh tried to persuade Godfrey to pledge allegiance to Alexius. Godfrey however refused, you left your own country as a ruler with all that wealth, and then, as if you had won some great success, have you come here to tell me to do the same. After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098, captured Antioch, the emperor was uninterested and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem, went back to France.
There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and he joined the minor Crusade of 1101, but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus. He married Adelaide of Vermandois, the daughter of Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois, riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095-1131, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1997 Bury, J. B. The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume V, Contest of Empire and Papacy, Cambridge at the University Press, Cambridge,1926
Constance of France, Princess of Antioch
Constance of France was the daughter of King Philip I of France and Bertha of Holland. She was a member of the House of Capet and was Countess of Troyes from her first marriage and she was regent during the minority of her son. Her mother was repudiated by her father for Bertrade de Montfort and it caused the displeasure of the church and an interdict was placed on France several times as a result. Constance was the eldest of five children and was the daughter of her father from his first marriage. Constances brother was Louis VI of France, between 1093 and 1095, Phillip I arranged for his daughter, Constance, to marry Hugh, Count of Troyes and Champagne. Philip hoped to influence Hughs family, the powerful House of Blois, but the union between Constance and Hugh was too late to achieve the desired result. Hughs half-brother, Stephen II, Count of Blois, holder of most counties of the House of Blois was married, Stephen had married Adela of Normandy, daughter of William I of England, and their marriage had produced children.
After ten years and without any surviving issue, Constance demanded an annulment of their marriage, Constance obtained a divorce at Soissons on 25 December 1104, under grounds of consanguinity. Constance went to the court of Adela, wife of Stephen and she was acting as regent since Stephen was killed in the Holy Land. Adela was well educated and all seemed to be well at the Court and it appeared that Adela used all her power to help Constance get a divorce from Hugh, who left to fight in the Holy Land. At the same time, Bohemond I of Antioch was just released by the Turks and he returned to Europe to obtain relief for the Crusaders in the Holy Land. The regency of the Principality of Antioch was assured by Bohemonds nephew Tancred and he impressed audiences across France with gifts of relics from the Holy Land and tales of heroism while fighting the Saracens, gathering a large army in the process. Henry I of England famously prevented him landing on English shores. His new-found status won him the hand of Constance, so great was the reputation for valour of the French kingdom and of the Lord Louis that even the Saracens were terrified by the prospect of that marriage.
She was not engaged since she had broken off her agreement to wed Hugh, count of Troyes, and wished to avoid another unsuitable match. The marriage was celebrated in the cathedral of Chartres between 25 March and 26 May 1106, and the festivities were held at the court of Adela, who took part in negotiations. Pleased by his success, Bohemond resolved to use his army of 34,000 men, not to defend Antioch against the Greeks and he did so, but Alexius, aided by the Venetians, proved too strong, and Bohemond had to submit to a humiliating peace. After her marriage, Constance accompanied her husband to Apulia, where she gave birth to their first son, future Prince of Antioch, a second son, was born in Apulia between 1108 and 1111, but died in early infancy, ca
Constance of Arles
Constance of Arles, known as Constance of Provence, was a queen consort of France as the third spouse of King Robert II of France. Born c. 986 Constance was the daughter of William I, count of Provence and Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou and she was the half-sister of Count William II of Provence. Constance was married to King Robert, after his divorce from his second wife, the marriage was stormy, Berthas family opposed her, and Constance was despised for importing her Provençal kinfolk and customs. Roberts friend, Hugh of Beauvais, tried to convince the king to repudiate her in 1007, possibly at her request twelve knights of her kinsman, Fulk Nerra, murdered Beauvais. In 1010 Robert went to Rome, followed by his former wife Bertha, to seek permission to divorce Constance, Pope Sergius IV was not about to allow a consanguineous marriage which had been formally condemned by Pope Gregory V and Robert had already repudiated two wives. After his return according to one source Robert loved his wife more, however, as the condemned clerics left the trial the queen struck out the eye of Stephen.
With the staff which she carried and this was seen as Constance venting her frustration at anyone subverting the prestige of the crown. At Constances urging, her eldest son Hugh Magnus was crowned co-king alongside his father in 1017, but Hugh demanded his parents share power with him, and rebelled against his father in 1025. Constance, however, on learning of her sons rebellion was furious with him, at some point Hugh was reconciled with his parents but shortly thereafter died, probably about age eighteen. Robert and Constance quarrelled over which of their sons should inherit the throne, Robert favored their second son Henry, while Constance favored their third son. Despite his mothers protests and her support by several bishops, Henry was crowned in 1027, however, was not graceful when she didnt get her way. The ailing Fulbert, bishop of Chartres told a colleague that he could attend the ceremony if he traveled slowly to Reims—but he was too frightened of the queen to go at all. Constance encouraged her sons to rebel, and they began attacking and pillaging the towns, son Robert attacked Burgundy, the duchy he had been promised but had never received, and Henry seized Dreux.
At last King Robert agreed to their demands and peace was made which lasted until the kings death, King Robert died on 20 July 1031. Soon afterwards Constance was at odds with both her surviving sons, Constance seized her dower lands and refused to surrender them. Henry fled to Normandy, where he received aid, weapons and he returned to besiege his mother at Poissy but Constance escaped to Pontoise. She only surrendered when Henry began the siege of Le Puiset, Constance died 28 July 1032. and was buried beside her husband Robert at Saint-Denis Basilica. A missing Capetian princess, daughter of King Robert II of France,1990 Moore, the Birth of Popular Heresy,1975
Charles I of Anjou
Thereafter, he claimed the island, though his power was restricted to the peninsular possessions of the kingdom, with his capital at Naples. Charles was the child and youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile. He conquered the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufen and acquired lands in the eastern Mediterranean, the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him to abandon his plans to reassemble the Latin Empire. By marriage to Beatrice of Provence, heiress of Raymond Berengar IV of Provence, he was Count of Provence, in 1247, his brother Louis IX made him Count of Anjou and Maine, as appanages of the French crown. By conquest and self-proclamation, he became King of Albania in 1272, by the testament of William II of Villehardouin, he inherited the Principality of Achaea in 1278. Charles was born in March 1227, four months after the death of his father, like his immediate older brother, Philip Dagobert, he did not receive a county as appanage, as had their older brothers. In 1232, his brothers Philip Dagobert and John, Count of Anjou and Maine, Charles became the next in line to receive the Counties, but was formally invested only in 1247.
The affection of his mother Blanche seems largely to have bestowed upon his brother Louis. The self-reliance this engendered in Charles may account for the drive, upon his accession as Count of Provence and Forcalquier in 1246, Charles rapidly found himself in difficulties. Furthermore, while Provence was technically a part of the Burgundy and hence of the Holy Roman Empire, recent counts had governed with a light hand, and the nobilities and cities had enjoyed great liberties. Three cities, Marseille and Avignon were Imperial cities technically separate from the county. In 1247, while Charles was in France to receive the counties of Anjou and Maine, the local nobility joined with Beatrice, unfortunately for Charles, he had promised to join his brother on the Seventh Crusade. For the time being, Charles compromised with Beatrice, allowing her to have Forcalquier, rich Provence provided the funds that supported his wider career. His rights as landlord were, on the whole, of recent establishment, from the Church, unlike his brothers in the north, he received virtually nothing.
Charles agents were efficient, the towns were prosperous, the peasants were buying up the duties of corvée and establishing self-governing consulats in the villages, Charles sailed with the rest of the Crusaders from Aigues-Mortes in 1248 and fought at Damietta and in the struggle around Mansourah, Egypt. However, his piety does not seem to have matched that of his brother, during his absence, open rebellion had broken out in Provence. Charles moved to suppress it, and Arles, Marseille held out until July 1252, but sued for peace. Charles imposed a lenient peace, but insisted on the recognition of his full rights, in November 1252, the death of his mother Blanche of Castile caused him to go north to Paris and assume the joint regency of the kingdom with his brother Alphonse
Peter I of Courtenay
Peter I of Courtenay was the youngest son of Louis VI of France and his second wife, Adélaide de Maurienne. He was the father of the Latin Emperor Peter II of Courtenay, Peter was born in France and died in Palestine. In about 1150, he married Elizabeth de Courtenay, the daughter of Renaud de Courtenay and Hawise du Donjon and he is buried in a tomb in the floor of Exeter Cathedral, next to Elizabeth. Their eldest son was Peter of Courtenay, Lord of Conches, Seigneur of Tanlay Isabella Constance
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
Robert I, Count of Dreux
Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great, was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide de Maurienne. Through his mother he was related to the Carolingians and to the Marquess William V of Montferrat, in 1137 he received the County of Dreux as an appanage from his father. He held this title until 1184 when he granted it to his son Robert II, in 1139 he married Agnes de Garlande. In 1145, he married Hawise of Salisbury, Robert I participated in the Second Crusade and was at the Siege of Damascus in 1148. In 1158 he fought against the English and participated in the Siege of Séez in 1154,1. Agnes de Garlande, daughter of Anseau de Garlande, count of Rochefort. Simon, lord of La Noue 2, alice or Adelheid 3. Agnes de Baudemont, Countess of Braine. Robert II, count of Dreux and Braine, bishop of Orléans Alix, married Raoul I, lord of Coucy Philippe, bishop of Beauvais. Isabella, married Hugh III of Broyes Peter William, lord of Braye, gislebertus of Mons, Chronicle of Hainaut, Trans. Medieval France, an encyclopedia, Ed.
William W. Kibler, Edmond, Histoire de la ville de Brie-Comte-Robert, Vol.1, Dujarric & Cie,1902. M. A. Pollock, Scotland and France After the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296, Auld Amitie, Daniel, The Norman frontier in the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, Cambridge University Press,2004
Robert I, Duke of Burgundy
Robert I of Burgundy, known as Robert the Old and Tete-Hardi, was Duke of Burgundy from 1032 to his death. Robert was son of King Robert II of France and brother of Henry I of France, in 1025, with the death of his eldest brother Hugh Magnus, he and Henry rebelled against their father and defeated him, forcing him back to Paris. In 1031, after the death of his father the king, Robert participated in a rebellion against his brother, in which he was supported by his mother, peace was only achieved when Robert was given Burgundy. Throughout his reign, he was more than a robber baron who had no control over his vassals, whose estates he often plundered. He seized the income of the diocese of Autun and the wine of the canons of Dijon and he burgled the abbey of St-Germain at Auxerre. In 1048, he repudiated his wife, Helie of Semur followed by the assassination of her brother Joceran, in that same year, the Bishop of Langres, refused to dedicate the church of Sennecy so as not to be exposed to the violence of the duke.
His first son, died in battle at an age and his second son, Henry. He was succeeded by Henrys eldest son, his grandson, Hugh I and he married his first wife, Helie of Semur, about 1033, and repudiated her in 1048. Robert and Helie had five children, killed in battle Henry and he died shortly before his father, thus making his son Roberts heir. Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III—Germany and the Western Empire
Hugh Capet was the first King of the Franks of the House of Capet from his election in 987 until his death. He succeeded the last Carolingian king, Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born in 941. Hugh Capet was born into a well-connected and powerful family with ties to the royal houses of France. Through his mother, Hugh was the nephew to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne, and finally, Gerberga of Saxony, Queen of France. Gerberga was the wife of Louis IV, King of France and mother of Lothair of France and Charles and his paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I, King Odo was his granduncle and King Rudolph was his uncle by affinity. Hughs paternal grandmother was a descendant of Charlemagne, after the end of the ninth century, the descendants of Robert the Strong became indispensable in carrying out royal policies.
As Carolingian power failed, the nobles of West Francia began to assert that the monarchy was elective, not hereditary. Robert I, Hugh the Greats father, was succeeded as King of the Franks by his son-in-law, when Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great had to decide whether he ought to claim the throne for himself. To block his rivals, Hugh the Great brought Louis dOutremer and this maneuver allowed Hugh to become the most powerful person in France in the first half of the tenth century. Once in power, Louis IV granted him the title of dux Francorum, Louis officially declared Hugh the second after us in all our kingdoms. Hugh gained power when Herbert II of Vermandois died in 943, Hugh the Great came to dominate a wide swath of central France, from Orléans and Senlis to Auxerre and Sens, while the king was rather confined to the area northeast of Paris. The realm in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, Hughs predecessors did not call themselves kings of France, and that title was not used by his successors until the time of his descendant, Philip II.
Kings ruled as rex Francorum, the remaining in use until 1190 The lands they ruled comprised only a small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hughs first cousin Otto II and by Ottos son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Francia kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. Both the Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, in 956, when his father Hugh the Great died, the eldest son, was about fifteen years old and had two younger brothers. In 954, Otto I appointed his brother Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lorraine, as guardian of Lothair, in 956, Otto gave him the same role over Hugh and the Robertian principality
Coronation of the French monarch
The accession of the King of France was legitimized by coronation ceremony performed with the Crown of Charlemagne at Notre-Dame de Reims. The most important part of the French coronation ceremony was not the coronation itself, the Carolingian king Pepin the Short was the first anointed monarch in Europe, which occurred in Soissons to legitimize the accession of the new dynasty. A second coronation of Pepin by Pope Stephen II took place at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, the first coronation performed by a Pope. Since this Roman glass vial containing the balm due to be mixed with chrism, was brought by the dove of the Holy Spirit. All succeeding Kings of France were anointed with this same oil—mixed with chrism prior to their coronation, French queens were crowned either together with their husband at Rheims or alone at Sainte-Chapelle or Abbey of St. Denis. The king is crowned by the Archbishop of Reims who is assisted by four bishops of his ecclesiastical province. The established order of six bishops is, The Archbishop of Reims anoints, the Bishop of Laon carries the holy ampulla.
The Bishop of Langres carries the scepter, the Bishop of Beauvais carries and shows the coat of arms or royal mantle. The Bishop of Chalons carries the royal ring, the Bishop of Noyon carries the belt. To these are added the Abbot of the Abbey of Saint-Remi, guardian of the ampulla. Peers are cited for the first time in 1203 and 1226, their first recorded participation in the coronation is made on the occasion of the coronation of Philip V of France on 9 January 1317. These are the six aforementioned ecclesiastical peers and the six lay peers, in order of protocol, the six lay peers are, The Duke of Burgundy carries the royal crown, girds the kings sword, and gives him the order of chivalry. The Duke of Normandy carries the first square banner, the Duke of Aquitaine carries the second square banner. The Count of Toulouse carries the spurs, the Count of Flanders carries the royal sword. The Count of Champagne carries the banner of war, the spiritual peerages were perpetual, and were never extinguished during the existence of the Kingdom of France.
But as early as 1204, the roster of the lay peerages had been incomplete, Normandy had been absorbed into the French crown, Toulouse in 1271, Champagne in 1284. Aquitaine was several times forfeited and restored, Burgundy became extinct in 1361 and again in 1477, more often than not, princes of the royal blood and high-ranking members of the nobility acted as representatives of the ancient lay peerages. Spiritual peers were represented if their see is vacant or they are unable to attend
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic