Ansel Easton Adams was an American photographer and environmentalist. His black and white photographs of the American West, especially Yosemite National Park, have been widely reproduced on calendars, books. Adams and Fred Archer developed the Zone System as a way to determine proper exposure, the resulting clarity and depth characterized his photographs. He primarily used large-format cameras because their high resolution helped ensure sharpness in his images, Adams founded the photography group known as Group f/64, along with fellow photographers Willard Van Dyke and Edward Weston. Adams was born in the Western Addition of San Francisco, California and he was named after his uncle, Ansel Easton. His mothers family came from Baltimore, where his grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business but lost his wealth investing in failed mining. The Adams family came from New England, having migrated from Northern Ireland in the early 18th century and his paternal grandfather founded and built a prosperous lumber business which his father ran, though his fathers natural talents lay more with sciences than with business.
Later in life, Adams condemned that very same industry for cutting many of the great redwood forests. In 1907, his family moved 2 miles west to a new home near the Seacliff neighbourhood, the home had a splendid view of the Golden Gate and the Marin Headlands. San Francisco was devastated by the April 18,1906 San Francisco earthquake, the four year-old Ansel Adams was uninjured in the initial shaking but was tossed face-first into a garden wall during an aftershock three hours later and scarring his nose. Among his earliest memories was watching the smoke from the fire that destroyed much of the city a few miles to the east. A doctor recommended that his nose be reset once he reached maturity, Adams was a hyperactive child and prone to frequent sickness and hypochondria. He had few friends, but his home and surroundings on the heights facing the Golden Gate provided ample childhood activities. His father bought a telescope, and they enthusiastically shared the hobby of amateur astronomy. His father went on to serve as the paid secretary-treasurer of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific from 1925 to 1950, Ansels fathers business suffered great financial losses after the death of Ansels grandfather and the aftermath of the Panic of 1907.
By 1912, the standard of living had dropped sharply. Ansel was dismissed from several schools for being restless and inattentive. Adams was educated by tutors, his aunt Mary
Thousand Island Lake
Thousand Island Lake is a large alpine lake in the Sierra Nevada, within the Ansel Adams Wilderness in eastern Madera County, California. The lake is named for the small rocky islands that dot its surface. Theodore Solomons probably established the Thousand Island name, as appears on his 1896 map. John Muir called it by Islet Lake, the lake is within the boundaries of the Ansel Adams Wilderness of the Sierra National Forest and Inyo National Forest. Thousand Island Lake sits at the base of Banner Peak in the Ritter Range and it is the source of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River, which flows southeast, and west, into the San Joaquin Valley. The lake is a tarn, formed in the bottom of a cirque when a glacier retreated. List of lakes in California Sierra Nevada subalpine zone
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity, however. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion and it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports, Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks. The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð which means stick of wood, Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting almost five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia.
It may have practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxinganling. Early historical evidence includes Procopius description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as ski running samis, birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the very old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimssons 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Goods practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis, the Gulating law stated that No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land. Cross-country skiing evolved from a means of transportation to being a world-wide recreational activity and sport. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis, the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. This combination has a long history among the Sami people, skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, and the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century and these troops were reportedly able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry.
The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary, Norwegian immigrant Snowshoe Thompson transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis, Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition, in 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. An early record of a ski competition occurred in Tromsø,1843
Inyo National Forest
Inyo National Forest is a United States National Forest covering parts of the eastern Sierra Nevada of California and the White Mountains of California and Nevada. The forest covers 1,903,381 acres and includes nine designated wilderness areas which protect over 800,000 acres, most of the forest is in California, but it includes about 60,700 acres in western Nevada. It stretches from the side of Yosemite to south of Sequoia National Park. Geographically it is split in two, one on side of the Long Valley Caldera and Owens Valley. The John Muir Wilderness is a part of the Inyo National Forest and abuts Sequoia, the northern part of the Inyo National Forest is preserved as a part of the Ansel Adams Wilderness area, which borders Yosemite National Park. Together, the areas and parks form one contiguous area of protected wilderness of more than 1.5 million acres. The Inyo National Forest was named after Inyo County, the name Inyo comes from a Native American word meaning dwelling place of the great spirit.
The forest spans parts of Inyo, Tulare and Madera counties in California, the forests headquarters are in Bishop, with ranger district offices in Bishop, Lee Vining, Lone Pine, and Mammoth Lakes. The forest was established on May 25,1907, on July 1,1945 land from the former Mono National Forest was added. There are nine wilderness areas lying within Inyo NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. One of these Bristlecone Pines is Methuselah, the second oldest known living tree on earth, over 4,839 years old. It was the location of the 1998 Sci-fi film. Inyo Forest served as the location for the second half of the second episode in BBCs Walking with Monsters. Forest Service Inyo National Forest Map
John Muir Wilderness
The John Muir Wilderness is a wilderness area that extends along the crest of the Sierra Nevada of California for 90 miles, in the Inyo and Sierra National Forests. Established in 1964 by the Wilderness Act and named for naturalist John Muir, the wilderness lies along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra from near Mammoth Lakes and Devils Postpile National Monument in the north, to Cottonwood Pass near Mount Whitney in the south. The wilderness area spans the Sierra crest north of Kings Canyon National Park, the wilderness contains some of the most spectacular and highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada, with 57 peaks over 13,000 feet in elevation. The peaks are made of granite from the Sierra Nevada Batholith. The southernmost glacier in the United States, the Palisade Glacier, is contained within the wilderness area, notable eastside glaciated canyons are drained by Rock, McGee, and Bishop Creeks. The eastern escarpment in the wilderness rises from 6,000 to 8,000 feet from base to peak, the Sierra crest contains peaks from 12,000 to 14,000 feet in elevation, including Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the continental United States.
Other notable mountains in the area include the Palisades and Mount Humphreys. Mount Muir is located 2 miles south of Mount Whitney, Mount Williamson is the second-highest peak in the wilderness, at 14,375 feet, it rises in one continuous sweep of granite from the floor of the Owens Valley to a peak just east of the main range. The John Muir Wilderness contains the largest contiguous area above 10,000 feet in the continental United States and it contains large areas of subalpine meadows and fellfields above 10,800 feet, containing stands of whitebark and foxtail pine. From 9,000 feet to 10,800 feet, the wilderness is dominated by lodgepole pines, below the lodgepole forest is forest dominated by Jeffrey pine. Common animals in the wilderness include yellow-bellied marmots, golden-mantled ground squirrels, Clarks nutcrackers, golden trout, the wilderness area includes California bighorn sheep zoological areas, which are set aside for the protection of the species. The wilderness contains 589.5 miles of hiking trails, including the John Muir Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail, the John Muir Wilderness is the second most-visited wilderness in the United States, and quota are required for overnight use on virtually all trailheads.
Duck Lake Lake Virginia Squaw Lake Bibliography of the Sierra Nevada, for further reading Wilderness. net TopoQuest map
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Due to the length and extended endurance required and because accidents are likely to happen on descent than ascent. It is very rare for a climber to downclimb, especially on the larger multiple pitches, professional Rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an increasingly difficult route. Scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, is similar to rock climbing, rock climbing is generally differentiated by its sustained use of hands to support the climbers weight as well as to provide balance. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climbers strength, agility and it can be a dangerous activity and knowledge of proper climbing techniques and usage of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes.
Because of the range and variety of rock formations around the world. Paintings dating from 200 BC show Chinese men rock climbing China woop woop, in early America, the cliff-dwelling Anasazi in the 12th century were thought to be excellent climbers. Early European climbers used rock climbing techniques as a required to reach the summit in their mountaineering exploits. In the 1880s, European rock climbing become an independent pursuit outside of mountain climbing, Rock climbing evolved gradually from an alpine necessity to a distinct athletic activity. However, climbing techniques and ethical considerations have evolved steadily, free climbing, climbing using holds made entirely of natural rock while using gear solely for protection and not for upward movement, is the most popular form of the sport. Free climbing has since divided into several sub-styles of climbing dependent on belay configuration. Over time, grading systems have created in order to compare more accurately the relative difficulties of the rock climbs.
In How to Rock Climb, John Long notes that for moderately skilled climbers simply getting to the top of a route is not enough, in rock climbing, style refers to the method of ascending the cliff. There are three styles of climbing, on-sight and redpoint. To on-sight a route is to ascend the wall without aid or any foreknowledge and it is considered the way to climb with the most style. Flashing is similar to on-sighting, except that the climber has previous information about the route including talking about the beta with other climbers, redpointing means to make a free ascent of the route after having first tried it. Free climbing is typically divided into styles that differ from one another depending on the choice of equipment used
The Minarets are a series of jagged peaks located in the Ritter Range, a sub-range of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the state of California. They are easily viewed from Minaret Summit, which is accessible by auto, the peaks bear a certain resemblance to the minarets of Islamic mosques. Collectively, they form an arête, and are a prominent feature in the Ansel Adams Wilderness which was known as the Minaret Wilderness until it was renamed in honor of Ansel Adams in 1984. Seventeen of the Minarets have been given names, including Michael Minaret, Adams Minaret, Leonard Minaret. Clyde Minaret, named after Norman Clyde, is the tallest of the spires, the Southeast Face Route of Clyde Minaret is a technical rock climb featured in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. Steve Fossett, an American aviator and adventurer, died in a crash near the Minarets in 2007
Bibliography of the Sierra Nevada
The following is a bibliography of the Sierra Nevada of California, United States, including books on recreation, natural history, and human history. Yosemite & The Southern Sierra Nevada, A Complete Guide, Including Sequoia & Kings Canyon, Death Valley & Mammoth Lakes, by David T. Page, feather River Country Adventure Trails. by Tom Demund, ISBN 0-9679740-2-X,2004. Ed. by Walter A. Starr, Jr. ISBN 0-87156-172-7,2002 The Good, the Great, and the Awesome, The Top 40 High Sierra Rock Climbs, by Peter Croft, ISBN 0-9676116-4-4,2002. Hiking in the Sierra Nevada, by John Mock and Kimberley ONeil, Yuba trails 2, A selection of historic hiking trails in the Yuba River and neighboring watersheds, by Hank Meals, ASIN B0006RSO5U,2001. The High Sierra, Peaks and Trails by R. J. Secor, Sierra Classics,100 Best Climbs in the High Sierra, by John Moynier and Claude Fiddler, ISBN 0-934641-60-9,1993. The Tahoe-Yosemite Trail, A Comprehensive Guide. by Thomas Winnett, Wilderness Press, ISBN 0-89997-084-2,1987 Yosemite Climbs.
by George Meyers and Don Reid, backcountry Skiing Californias High Sierra, by John Moynier, ISBN 1-56044-913-6,1999. Ski Tours in the Sierra Nevada, East of the Sierra, by Marcus Libkind, ski Tours in the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe, by Marcus Libkind, ISBN 0-931255-00-7,1985. Ski Tours in the Sierra Nevada, Yosemite and Shaver Lakes, Kings Canyon and Sequoia, by Marcus Libkind, the Best Whitewater in California, by Lars Holbek and Chuck Stanley, ISBN 0-9665289-0-5,1998. California Whitewater, A Guide to the Rivers, by Jim Cassady and Fryar Calhoun, the California Naturalist Handbook, by Greg de Nevers, Deborah Stanger Edelman, Adina Merenlender, ISBN 978-0-520-27480-8,2013. The Laws Field Guide to the Sierra Nevada, by John Muir Laws, a Natural History of California, Allan A. Mammoth Lakes Sierra, A Handbook for Roadside and Trail by Dean Rinehart, Elden Vestal, the Yosemite by John Muir, ISBN 0-87156-782-2,1912. The Mountains of California, by John Muir,1894 Introduction to California Plant Life, Revised Edition, by Robert Ornduff, Phyllis Faber, Todd Keeler-Wolf, ISBN 0-520-23704-8,2003.
Wildflowers of the Eastern Sierra and adjoining Mojave Desert and Great Basin, by Laird R. Blackwell, fire in Sierra Nevada Forests, A Photographic Interpretation of Ecological Change Since 1849, by George E. Gruell, ISBN 0-87842-446-6,2001. Conifers of California, by Ronald M. Lanner, ISBN 0-9628505-3-5,1999, Wildflowers of the Sierra Nevada and the Central Valley, by Laird R. Blackwell, ISBN 1-55105-226-1,1998. Sierra Nevada Wildflowers, by Elizabeth L. Horn, ISBN 0-87842-388-5,1998, California Forests and Woodlands, A Natural History, by Verna R. Johnston, Carla J. Simmons, ISBN 0-520-20248-1,1996. A Sierra Nevada Flora, by Norman L Weeden and Amy David, Manual of California Vegetation, by Todd Keeler-Wolf and John Sawyer, ISBN 0-943460-26-3,1995. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California by James C Hickman, oaks of California, by Bruce M. Pavlik, Sharon Johnson, Pamela Muick, Marjorie Popper, ISBN 0-9628505-1-9,1990. Lingering in Tahoes Wild Gardens, A Guide to Hundreds of the Most Beautiful Wildflower Gardens of the Tahoe Region, by Julie Carville, illustrated Manual of California Shrubs, by Howard E McMinn, ISBN 0-520-00847-2,1980
Landscape photography shows spaces within the world, sometimes vast and unending, but other times microscopic. Landscape photographs typically capture the presence of nature but can focus on man-made features or disturbances of landscapes. Landscape photography is done for a variety of reasons, perhaps the most common is to recall a personal observation or experience while in the outdoors, especially when traveling. Others pursue it particularly as a lifestyle, to be involved with nature. As with most forms of art, the definition of a photograph is broad and may include rural or urban settings. Notable landscape photographers include Ansel Adams, Mark Gray, Galen Rowell, some of the most important and celebrated landscape photographers have been motivated by an appreciation of the beauty of the natural environment and a desire to see it preserved. The work of William Henry Jackson in the century was instrumental in convincing Congress in 1872 to create Yellowstone. Photography produced by Philip Hyde for the Sierra Club found extensive use in promoting the preservation of natural places in the Western United States during the 20th century.
Photography of artificial scenery, such as fields, orchards and architecture. Even the presence of structures or art may be considered landscape if presented in artistic settings or appearing in artistic style. Further, landscape photography is typically of relatively stationary subjects—arguably a form of still life and this tends to simplify the task, as opposed to photography of kinetic or live subjects. Landscape photography typically requires relatively simple equipment, though more sophisticated equipment can give a wider range of possibilities to the art. An artists eye for the subject can yield attractive and impressive results even with modest equipment, any ordinary camera -- film camera or digital camera—can be readily used for common landscape photography. Higher-resolution and larger-format digital cameras permit a greater amount of detail, however, a larger-format camera yields a more limited depth of field for a given aperture value, requiring greater care in focusing. A camera with panorama function or frame can permit very wide images suitable for capturing a panoramic view, for wide open spaces, a wide-angle lens is generally the preferred lens, allowing a broad angle of view.
However, medium-range to telephoto lenses can achieve satisfying imagery, as well, other lenses that can help include the fisheye lens for extremely wide angles and dramatic effect, and the macro lens for extreme close-up work. While variable-range zoom lenses are used, some landscape photographers prefer fixed-range prime lenses to provide higher clarity and quality in the image. The sensitivity to light, of the film or the digital camera sensor—is important in landscape photography
Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages.
While the project was proposed to contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures.
Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
Mono County, California
Mono County /ˈmoʊnoʊ/ is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,202, making it the fifth-least populous county in California. The county is located east of the Sierra Nevada between Yosemite National Park and Nevada, the only incorporated town in the county is Mammoth Lakes, which is located at the foot of Mammoth Mountain. Other locations, such as June Lake, are famous as skiing and fishing resorts. Located in the middle of the county is Mono Lake, a habitat for millions of migratory. The lake is located in a natural setting, with pinnacles of tufa arising out of the salty. Also located in Mono County is Bodie, the official gold rush ghost town. Mono County was formed in 1861 from parts of Calaveras, parts of the countys territory were given to Inyo County in 1866. The county is named after Mono Lake which, in 1852, was named for a Native American Paiute tribe, the Mono people, who historically inhabited the Sierra Nevada from north of Mono Lake to Owens Lake.
The tribes western neighbors, the Yokut, called them monachie, meaning fly people because they used fly larvae as their chief food staple, archeologists know almost nothing about the first inhabitants of the county, as little material evidence has been found from them. The Kuzedika, a band of Paiute, had been many generations by the time the first anglophones arrived. The Kuzedika were hunter-gatherers and their language is a part of the Shoshone language. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,132 square miles. Inyo National Forest Toiyabe National Forest Granite Mountain Wilderness The 2010 United States Census reported that Mono County had a population of 14,202. The racial makeup of Mono County was 11,697 White,47 African American,302 Native American,192 Asian,11 Pacific Islander,1,539 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,762 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,853 people,5,137 households, the population density was 4/sq mi. There were 11,757 housing units at a density of 4/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the county was 84. 2% White,0. 5% Black or African American,2. 4% Native American,1. 1% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,9. 5% from other races, and 2. 3% from two or more races
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Basin and Range Province. The vast majority of the lies in the state of California. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles across east-to-west, the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, and two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks, the character of the range is shaped by its geology and ecology. More than one hundred years ago during the Nevadan orogeny. The range started to uplift four M. A. ago, the uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra. The Sierra Nevada has a significant history, the California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855.
Due to inaccessibility, the range was not fully explored until 1912, the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a very small but historically important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevadas elevation increases gradually from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to an height of about 10,500 feet at its crest only 50–75 miles to the east. The east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment, unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift. The Sierra Nevada stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass in the north to Tehachapi Pass in the south and it is bounded on the west by Californias Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province. The geographical boundary between the Sierra and the Cascades is virtually indistinguishable, with the Fredonyer Pass designation being traditional, physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division.
The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, the northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, and the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River. The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower, its rivers flow out into the endorheic Great Basin of eastern California and western Nevada. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California, the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases gradually from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet. The crest near Lake Tahoe is roughly 9,000 feet high, farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell