# Anseriformes

Anseriformes | |
---|---|

Magpie goose, Anseranas semipalmata
| |

Scientific classification | |

Kingdom: | Animalia |

Phylum: | Chordata |

Class: | Aves |

Clade: |
Anserimorphae |

Order: | AnseriformesWagler, 1831 |

Extant families | |

Range of the waterfowl and allies |

**Anseriformes** is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
In fact, these living species are all included in the Anatidae except for the three screamers and the magpie goose.
All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. The males, except for the screamers, also have a penis, a trait that has been lost in the Neoaves. All are web-footed for efficient swimming (although some have subsequently become mainly terrestrial).

## Contents

## Taxonomy[edit]

The Anseriformes and the Galliformes (pheasants, etc.) are the most primitive neognathous birds, and should follow ratites and tinamous in bird classification systems. Together they belong to the Galloanserae. Several unusual extinct families of birds like the albatross-like the pseudotooth birds and the giant flightless gastornithids and mihirungs have been found to be stem-anseriforms based on common features found in the skull region, beak physiology and pelvic region.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]} The genus *Vegavis* for a while was found to be the earliest member of the anseriform crowned group but a recent 2017 paper has found it to be just outside the crowned-group in the family Vegaviidae.^{[7]}

Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of anseriforms and their stem relatives.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[7]}

Odontoanserae |
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### Systematics[edit]

Anatidae systematics, especially regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not fully resolved. See the Anatidae article for more information, and for alternate taxonomic approaches. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae.^{[8]} The Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini, Mergini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive^{[9]}^{[10]} and John Boyd's website.^{[11]}

**Order Anseriformes**- Sub Order
**Anhimae**Wetmore & Miller 1926- Genus †
*Chaunoides*de Alvarenga 1999 - Family Anhimidae Stejneger 1885 (screamers)
- Genus
*Anhima*(Linnaeus 1766) Brisson 1760 [*Anhima minuta*;*Palamedea cornuta*Linnaeus 1766] (Horned screamer) - Genus
*Chauna*Illiger 1811

- Genus

- Genus †
- Sub Order
**Anseres**(true anseriformes)- Superfamily
**Anseranatoidea**- Family Anseranatidae Sclater 1880
- Genus †
*Anserpica*Mourer-Chauviré, Berthet & Hugueney 2004 - Genus †
*Eoanseranas*Worthy & Scanlon 2009 (Hand’s dawn magpie goose) - Genus †
*Anatalavis*Olson & Parris 1987 [*Nettapterornis*Mlikovsky 2002;*Telmatornis*Shufeldt 1915] (Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene – Early Eocene) - Genus
*Anseranas*(Latham 1798) Lesson 1828 [*Chenogeranus*Brown 1842;*Choristopus*Eyton 1838] (Magpie goose)

- Genus †

- Family Anseranatidae Sclater 1880
- Superfamily
**Anatoidea**- Family †Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926 (wading-"geese")
**^**- Genus †
*Teviornis*Kuročkin, Dyke & Karhu 2002 - Genus †
*Telmabates*Howard 1955 - Genus †
*Headonornis*(Lydekker 1891) Harrison & Walker 1976 [*Agnopterus hantoniensis*Lydekker 1891;*Ptenornis*Seeley 1866; ?*Presbyornis isoni*(Dyke 2001)] - Genus †
*Presbyornis*Wetmore 1926 [*Nautilornis*Wetmore 1926;*Coltonia*Hardy 1959] - Genus †
*Wilaru*Boles et al. 2013

- Genus †
- Family †Paranyrocidae Miller & Compton 1939
- Genus †
*Paranyroca*Miller & Compton 1939 (Rosebud Early Miocene of Bennett County, USA)

- Genus †
- Family Anatidae Leach 1820 (almost 150 species)
- Subfamily †Romainvilliinae Lambrecht 1933
- Genus †
*Romainvillia*Lebedinský 1927 (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Genus †
*Saintandrea*Mayr & De Pietri 2013

- Genus †
- Subfamily Dendrocygninae Reichenbach 1849–50
- Genus
*Dendrocygna*Swainson 1837 (whistling ducks) - Genus
*Thalassornis*Eyton 1838 (White-backed duck)

- Genus
- Subfamily †Dendrocheninae Livezey & Martin 1988
- Genus †
*Dendrochen*Miller 1944 - Genus †
*Manuherikia*Worthy et al. 2007 - Genus †
*Mionetta*Livezey & Martin 1988

- Genus †
- Subfamily Stictonettinae
- Genus
*Stictonetta*(Gould 1841) Reichenbach 1853 (Freckled duck)

- Genus
- Subfamily Anserinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 (swans and geese)
- Genus †
*Anserobranta*Kuročkin & Ganya 1972 - Genus †
*Asiavis*Nesov 1986 - Genus †
*“Chenopis”*De Vis 1905 - Genus †
*Cygnavus*Lambrecht 1931 - Genus †
*Cygnopterus*Lambrecht 1931 - Genus †
*Eremochen*Brodkorb 1961 - Genus †
*Megalodytes*Howard 1992 - Genus †
*Paracygnus*Short 1969 - Genus †
*Presbychen*Wetmore 1930 - Genus †
*Cnemiornis*Owen 1866 (New Zealand Geese) - Genus
*Coscoroba*(Molina 1782) Reichenbach 1853 [*Pseudolor*Gray 1855] (Coscoroba swan) - Genus
*Cereopsis*Latham 1801 (Cape Barren goose) - Genus
*Cygnus*Garsault 1764 [*Archaeocygnus*De Vis 1905;*Cygnanser*Kretzoi 1957;*Euolor*Mathews & Iredale 1917;*Palaeocygnus*Oberholser 1908;*Chenopis*Wagler 1832] - Genus †
*Afrocygnus chauvireae*Louchart et al. 2005 - Genus
*Branta*Scopoli 1769 [*Brenthus*Sundeval l1872 non Schoenherr 1826;*Bernicla*Oken 1817;*Geochen*Wetmore 1943;*Nesochen*Salvadori 1895]- Tribe Anserini Vigors 1825
- Genus
*Anser*Brisson 1760 [*Chen*Boie 1822;*Chionochen*Reichenbach 1852;*Exanthemops*Elliot 1868;*Cygnopsis*Brandt 1836;*Eulabeia*Reichenbach 1852;*Philacte*Bannister 1870;*Heterochen*Short 1970;*Marilochen*Reichenbach 1852]

- Genus

- Tribe Anserini Vigors 1825

- Genus †
- Subfamily Tadorninae Reichenbach 1849–50 (shelducks and sheldgeese)
- Genus †
*Australotadorna*Worthy 2009 - Genus †
*Brantadorna*Howard 1964 - Genus †
*Centrornis*Andrews 1897 (Malagasy sheldgoose) - Genus †
*Miotadorna*Worthy et al. 2007 (St. Bathans shelduck) - Genus †
*Nannonetta*Campbell 1979 - Genus †
*Pleistoanser*Agnolín 2006 - Genus
*Plectropterus*(Linnaeus 1766) (Spur-winged goose) - Genus
*Merganetta*Gould 1842 (Torrent duck) - Genus
*Chloephaga*Eyton 1838 [*Foetopterus*Moreno & Mercerat 1891] - Genus
*Neochen*Oberholser 1918 - Genus
*Cyanochen*(Rüppell 1845) Bonaparte 1856 (Blue-winged goose) - Genus
*Tadorna*Boie 1822 [*Vulpanser*Keyserling & Blasius 1840;*Zesarkaca*Mathews 1937;*Gennaeochen*Heine & Reichenow 1890;*Casarca*Bonaparte 1838;*Nettalopex*Heine 1890] - Genus
*Radjah*Reichenbach, 1853 - Genus
*Alopochen*Stejneger 1885 [*Mascarenachen*Cowles 1994;*Proanser*Umans'ka 1979a;*Anserobranta*Kuročkin & Ganya 1972;*Chenalopex*Stephens 1824 non Vieillot 1818] - Genus
*Cairina*(Linnaeus 1758) Fleming 1822 (Muscovy duck) - Genus
*Hymenolaimus*(Gmelin 1789) Gray 1843 (Blue duck) - Genus
*Sarkidiornis*Eyton 1838 - Genus
*Tachyeres*Owen 1875 [*Micropterus*Lesson 1828 non Lacépède 1802;*Microa*Strand 1943] (Steamer ducks)

- Genus †
- Subfamily Anatinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996
- Genus
*Aix*Boie 1828 [*Dendronessa*Wagler 1832] - Genus
*Callonetta*Delacour 1936 (Ringed teal) - Genus
*Chenonetta*von Brandt 1836 (Australian wood duck) - Genus
*Biziura*Stephens 1824 (musk ducks) - Genus
*Pteronetta*(Cassin 1860) Salvadori 1895 (Hartlaub's duck) - Genus
*Marmaronetta*(Ménétries 1832) Reichenbach 1853 (Marbled duck) - Genus
*Asarcornis*(Müller 1842) Salvadori 1895 (White-winged duck) - Genus
*Netta*Kaup 1829 [*Callichen*Brehm 1830;*Mergoides*Eyton 1836;*Netta (Rhodonessa)*Reichenbach 1852] - Genus
*Lophonetta*(King 1828) Riley 1914 (Crested duck) - Genus
*Amazonetta*(Gmelin 1789) von Boetticher 1929 (Brazilian teal) - Genus †
*Dunstanetta*Worthy et al. 2007 (Johnstone’s duck) - Genus †
*Lavadytis*Stidham & Hilton 2015 - Genus †
*Pinpanetta*Worthy 2009 - Genus †
*Tirarinetta*Worthy 2008 - Tribe Oxyurini Swainson 1831 (stiff-tailed ducks and allies)
- Genus
*Heteronetta*(Merrem 1841) Salvadori 1865 (Black-headed duck) - Genus
*Nomonyx*(Linnaeus 1766) Ridgway 1880 (Masked duck) - Genus
*Oxyura*Bonaparte 1828 [*Erismatura*Bonaparte 1832;*Plectrura*Gistl 1848;*Gymnura*Nuttall 1834]

- Genus
- Genus
*Nettapus*von Brandt 1836 [(*Cheniscus*) Eyton 1838;*Anserella*Gray 1855 non Selby 1840; ; Microcygna Gray 1840; ] (Pygmy geese) - Genus †
*Anabernicula*Ross 1935 - Genus
*Malacorhynchus*Swainson 1831 (Pink-eared duck) - Genus
*Salvadorina*Rothschild & Hartert 1894 (Salvadori's teal) - Genus
*Speculanas*(King 1828) von Boetticher 1929 (Bronze-winged duck) - Tribe Mergini Rafinesque 1815 (eiders, scoters, mergansers and other sea-ducks)
- Genus †
*Chendytes*Miller 1925 - Genus †
*Shiriyanetta*Watanabe & Matsuoka 2015 - Genus
*Histrionicus*Lesson 1828 [*Cosmonessa*Kaup 1829; †*Ocyplonessa*Brodkorb 1961] (Harlequin duck) - Genus †
*Camptorhynchus*(Gmelin 1789) Bonaparte 1838 [*Anas labradorius*Gmelin 1789] (Labrador duck) - Genus
*Clangula*Leach 1819 (Long-tailed duck) - Genus
*Polysticta stelleri*(Pallas 1769) Eyton 1836 [*Eniconetta*Gray 1840;*Stelleria*Bonaparte 1842] (Steller's Eiders) - Genus
*Somateria*Leach 1819 [*Platypus*Brehm 1824 non Shaw 1799 non Herbst 1793;*Erionetta*Coues 1884;*(Lampronetta)*Brandt 1847] (Eiders) - Genus
*Melanitta*Boie 1822 [*Phoenonetta*Stone 1907;*Ania*Stephens 1824 non Stephens 1831;*Maceranas*Lesson 1828;*Macroramphus*Lesson 1828;*Pelionetta*Kaup 1829;*(Oidemia)*Fleming 1822] (Scoters) - Genus
*Bucephala*Baird 1858 [*Charitonetta*Stejneger 1885;*Clanganas*Oberholser 1974;*Glaucion*Kaup 1829 non Oken 1816;*Bucephala (Glaucionetta)*Stejneger 1885] - Genus
*Mergellus*Selby 1840 (Smew) - Genus
*Lophodytes*(Linnaeus 1758) Reichenbach 1853 (Hooded merganser) - Genus
*Mergus*Linnaeus 1758 non Brisson 1760 [*(Promergus)*Mathews & Iredale 1913;*(Prister)*Heine & Reichenow 1890]

- Genus †
- Tribe Anatini Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 (dabbling ducks and moa-nalos)
- Genus †
*Matanas*Worthy et al. 2007 (Enright’s duck) - Genus
*Anas*Linnaeus 1758 [*Boschas*Swainson 1831;*Dafila*Stephens 1824;*Nettion*Kaup 1829;*Phasianurus*Wagler 1832;*Trachelonetta*Kaup 1829;*Anas (Dafila)*Stephens 1824;*Virago*Newton 1871;*Macera*Swainson 1837;*Penelops*Kaup 1829;*Mareca (Notonetta)*Roberts 1922;*Mareca (Chaulelasmus)*Bonaparte 1838;*Chauliodus*Swainson 1831 non Bloch 1801;*Ktinorhynchus*Eyton 1838;*Mareca (Eunetta)*Bonaparte 1856;*Horizonetta*Oberholser 1917;*Anas (Melananas)*Roberts 1922;*Anas (Afranas)*Roberts 1922;*Anas (Polionetta)*Oates 1899 non Rondani 1856;*Anas (Virago)*Newton 1872;*Elasmonetta*Salvadori 1895;*Xenonetta*Fleming 1935;*Anas (Paecilonitta)*Eyton 1838;*Aethiopinetta*Boetticher 1943;*Anas (Dafilonettio)*Boettischer 1937] - Genus
*Sibirionetta*(Georgi 1775) (Baikal teal) - Genus
*Mareca*(Stephens 1824) - Genus
*Spatula*Boie 1822 [*Anas (Pterocyanea)*Bonaparte 1841;*Querquedula*Stephens 1824;*Rhynchaspis*Stephens 1824;*Rhynchoplatus*Berthold 1827;*Cyanopterus*Bonaparte 1838 non Haliday 1835;*Clypeata*Lesson 1828;*Anas (Micronetta)*Roberts 1922;*Adelonetta*Heine & Reichenow 1890]

- Genus †
- Tribe Aythyini Delacour and Mayr, 1945 (diving ducks)
- Genus
*Aythya*Boie 1822 [*Aristonetta*Baird 1858;*Dyseonetta*Boetticher 1950;*Marila*Oken 1817;*Fulix*Sundevall 1836;*Nettarion*Baird 1858;*Fuligula*Stephens 1824;*Zeafulix*Mathews 1937;*Ilyonetta*Heine & Reichenow 1890;*Aythya (Nyroca)*Fleming 1822]

- Genus

- Genus

- Subfamily †Romainvilliinae Lambrecht 1933

- Family †Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926 (wading-"geese")

- Superfamily

- Sub Order

Some fossil anseriform taxa not assignable with certainty to a family are:

- †
*Proherodius*(London Clay Early Eocene of London, England) – Presbyornithidae? - †
*Garganornis ballmanni*Meijer 2014

Unassigned Anatidae:

- †
*"Anas" albae*Jánossy 1979 [?*Mergus*] - †
*"Anas" amotape*Campbell 1979 - †
*"Anas" isarensis*Lambrecht 1933 - †
*"Anas" luederitzensis* - †
*"Anas" sanctaehelenae*Campbell 1979 - †
*"Anas" eppelsheimensis*Lambrecht 1933 - †
*"Oxyura" doksana*Mlíkovský 2002 - †
*"Anser" scaldii*["Anas" scaldii] - †
*Ankonetta larriestrai*Cenizo & Agnolín 2010 - †
*Cayaoa bruneti*Tonni 1979 - †
*Eoneornis*nomen dubium - †
*Eutelornis* - †
*Aldabranas cabri*Harrison & Walker 1978 - †
*Chenoanas deserta*Zelenkov 2012 - †
*Cygnopterus alphonsi*Cheneval 1984 [non*Cygnavus senckenbergi*Mlíkovský 2002] - †
*Helonetta brodkorbi*Emslie 1992 - †
*Loxornis clivus*Ameghino 1894 - †
*Mioquerquedula minutissima*Zelenkov & Kuročkin 2012 [*Anas velox*Milne-Edwards 1867] - †
*Paracygnopterus scotti*Harrison & Walker 1979 - †
*Proanser major*Umanskaya 1979 - †
*Teleornis*Ameghino 1899 - †
*Protomelanitta*Zelenkov 2011 - †
*Nogusunna conflictoides*Zelenkov 2011 - †
*Sharganetta mongolica*Zelenkov 2011 *Metopiana*Bonaparte 1856 [*Metopias*Heine & Reichenow 1890;*Phoeonetta*Delacour 1937;*Netta (Phoeoaythia)*Delacour 1937]- †
*Bambolinetta*(Portis 1884) Mayr & Pavia 2014 [*Anas lignitifila*Portis 1884] - †
*Heteroanser vicinus*(Kuročkin 1976) Zelenkov 2012 [*Heterochen vicinus*Kuročkin 1976;*Anser vicinus*(Kuročkin 1976) Mlíkovský & Švec 1986] - †
*Sinanas*Yeh 1980 - †
*Talpanas*Olson & James 2009 (Kaua'i mole duck) - †
*Wasonaka*Howard 1966 - †
*Chelychelynechen*Olson & James 1991 (turtle-jawed moa-nalo) - †
*Ptaiochen*Olson & James 1991 (small-billed moa-nalo) - †
*Thambetochen*Olson & Wetmore 1976

In addition, a considerable number of mainly Late Cretaceous and Paleogene fossils have been described where it is uncertain whether or not they are anseriforms. This is because almost all orders of aquatic birds living today either originated or underwent a major radiation during that time, making it hard to decide whether some waterbird-like bone belongs into this family or is the product of parallel evolution in a different lineage due to adaptive pressures.

- "Presbyornithidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Barun Goyot Late Cretaceous of Udan Sayr, Mongolia) – Presbyornithidae?
- UCMP 117599 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA)
*Petropluvialis*(Late Eocene of England) – may be same as*Palaeopapia**Agnopterus*(Late Eocene – Late Oligocene of Europe) – includes*Cygnopterus lambrechti**"Headonornis hantoniensis"*BMNH PAL 4989 (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) – formerly*"Ptenornis"**Palaeopapia*(Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England)*"Anas" creccoides*(Early/Middle Oligocene of Belgium)*"Anas" skalicensis*(Early Miocene of "Skalitz", Czech Republic)*"Anas" risgoviensis*(Late Miocene of Bavaria, Germany)- †
*"Anas" meyerii*Milne-Edwards 1867 [*Aythya meyerii*(Milne-Edwards 1867) Brodkorb 1964] - †
*Eonessa anaticula*Wetmore 1938 {Eonessinae Wetmore 1938}

### Phylogeny[edit]

Living Anseriformes based on the work by John Boyd.^{[11]}

Crested screamer (

*Chauna torquata*)Magpie goose (

*Anseranas semipalmata*), sole surviving member of a Mesozoic lineageCast of

*Dromornis stirtoni*, a mihirung, from Australia.

## Molecular studies[edit]

Studies of the mitochnodrial DNA suggest the existence of four branches – Anseranatidae, Dendrocygninae, Anserinae and Anatinae – with Dendrocygninae being a subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae representing an
independent family.^{[12]} The clade Somaterini has a single genus *Somateria*.

## See also[edit]

## References[edit]

- ^
^{a}^{b}Andors, A. (1992). "Reappraisal of the Eocene groundbird*Diatryma*(Aves: Anserimorphae)".*Science Series Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County*.**36**: 109–125. - ^
^{a}^{b}Murrary, P.F; Vickers-Rich, P. (2004).*Magnificent Mihirungs: The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime*. Indiana University Press. - ^
^{a}^{b}Bourdon, E. (2005). "Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)".*Naturwissenschaften*.**92**(12): 586–91. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0047-0. PMID 16240103. - ^
^{a}^{b}Agnolín, F. (2007). "*Brontornis burmeisteri*Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes (Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina".*Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales*.**9**: 15–25. doi:10.22179/revmacn.9.361. - ^
^{a}^{b}Livezey, B.C.; Zusi, R.L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion".*The Science of Nature*.**149**(1): 1–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. PMC 2517308. PMID 18784798. **^**Louchart, A.; Sire, J.-Y.; Mourer-Chauviré, C.; Geraads, D.; Viriot, L.; de Buffrénil, V. (2013). "Structure and Growth Pattern of Pseudoteeth in Pelagornis mauretanicus (Aves, Odontopterygiformes, Pelagornithidae)".*PLoS ONE*.**8**(11): e80372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080372.- ^
^{a}^{b}Agnolín, F.L.; Egli, F.B.; Chatterjee, S.; Marsà, J.A.G (2017). "Vegaviidae, a new clade of southern diving birds that survived the K/T boundary".*The Science of Nature*.**104**(87). doi:10.1007/s00114-017-1508-y. **^**Gonzalez, J.; Düttmann, H.; Wink, M. (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships based on two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae".*Journal of Zoology*.**279**: 310–318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00622.x.**^**Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "*Anseriformes – waterfowls*". Retrieved 30 December 2015.**^**Paleofile.com (net, info) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-11. Retrieved 2015-12-30. . "*Taxonomic lists- Aves*". Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.- ^
^{a}^{b}John Boyd's website [2] Boyd, John (2007). "*Anseriformes – waterfowl*". Retrieved 30 December 2015. **^**Liu, G; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Luo, Z; Xu, W (2013). "The complete mitochondrial genome of bean goose (*Anser fabalis*) and implications for anseriformes taxonomy".*PLoS ONE*.**8**(5): e63334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063334.

## Cited texts[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to .Anseriformes |

The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Anseriformes |

- Agnolin, F (2007). "
*Brontornis burmeisteri*Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes (Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina".*Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales*.**9**: 15–25. doi:10.22179/revmacn.9.361. - Clarke, J. A.; Tambussi, C. P.; Noriega, J. I.; Erickson, G. M.; Ketcham, R. A. (2005). "Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous".
*Nature*.**433**: 305–308. doi:10.1038/nature03150. - Livezey, B. C.; Zusi, R. L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion".
*Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society*.**149**: 1–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. PMC 2517308. - Murray, P. F. & Vickers-Rich, P. (2004) Magnificent Mihirungs: The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime.
*Indiana University Press*.