Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements and attitudes that oppose capitalism. Anti-capitalists, in the strict sense of the word, are those who wish to replace capitalism with another type of economic system. Socialism advocates public or direct worker ownership and administration of the means of production and allocation of resources, a society characterized by equal access to resources for all individuals, with an egalitarian method of compensation. A theory or policy of social organisation which aims at or advocates the ownership and democratic control of the means of production, by workers or the community as a whole, their administration or distribution in the interests of all. Socialists argue for a cooperative/community economy, or the commanding heights of the economy, with democratic control by the people over the state, although there have been some undemocratic philosophies. "State" or "worker cooperative" ownership is in fundamental opposition to "private" ownership of means of production, a defining feature of capitalism.

Most socialists argue that capitalism unfairly concentrates power and profit, among a small segment of society that controls capital and derives its wealth through exploitation. Socialists argue that the accumulation of capital generates waste through externalizations that require costly corrective regulatory measures, they point out that this process generates wasteful industries and practices that exist only to generate sufficient demand for products to be sold at a profit. Socialists argue that capitalism consists of irrational activity, such as the purchasing of commodities only to sell at a time when their price appreciates, rather than for consumption if the commodity cannot be sold at a profit to individuals in need. Private ownership imposes constraints on planning, leading to inaccessible economic decisions that result in immoral production, unemployment and a tremendous waste of material resources during crisis of overproduction. According to socialists, private property in the means of production becomes obsolete when it concentrates into centralized, socialized institutions based on private appropriation of revenue until the role of the capitalist becomes redundant.

With no need for capital accumulation and a class of owners, private property in the means of production is perceived as being an outdated form of economic organization that should be replaced by a free association of individuals based on public or common ownership of these socialized assets. Socialists view private property relations as limiting the potential of productive forces in the economy. Early socialists criticized capitalism for concentrating power and wealth within a small segment of society, does not utilise available technology and resources to their maximum potential in the interests of the public. For the influential German individualist anarchist philosopher Max Stirner, "private property is a spook which "lives by the grace of law" and it "becomes'mine' only by effect of the law". In other words, private property exists purely "through the protection of the State, through the State's grace." Recognising its need for state protection, Stirner argued that "t need not make any difference to the'good citizens' who protects them and their principles, whether an absolute King or a constitutional one, a republic, if only they are protected.

And what is their principle, whose protector they always'love'? Not that of labour", rather it is "interest-bearing possession... labouring capital, therefore... labour yet little or none at all of one's own, but labour of capital and of the—subject labourers"." French anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon opposed government privilege that protects capitalist and land interests, the accumulation or acquisition of property which he believed hampers competition and keeps wealth in the hands of the few. The Spanish individualist anarchist Miguel Gimenez Igualada saw "capitalism an effect of government; that which we call capitalism is not something else but a product of the State, within which the only thing, being pushed forward is profit, good or badly acquired. And so to fight against capitalism is a pointless task, since be it State capitalism or Enterprise capitalism, as long as Government exists, exploiting capital will exist; the fight, but of consciousness, is against the State.". Within anarchism there emerged a critique of wage slavery which refers to a situation perceived as quasi-voluntary slavery, where a person's livelihood depends on wages when the dependence is total and immediate.

It is a negatively connoted term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person. The term wage slavery has been used to criticize economic exploitation and social stratification, with the former seen as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital, the latter as a lack of workers' self-management, fulfilling job choices and leisure in an economy. Libertarian socialists believe if freedom is valued society must work towards a system in which individuals have the power to decide economic issues along with political issues. Libertarian socialists seek to replace unjustified authority with direct democracy, volun

Archibald Macallum

Archibald Byron Macallum was a Canadian biochemist and founder of the National Research Council of Canada. He was an influential figure in the development of Medical School of Toronto from a provincial school to a major institution, his scientific work centered of blood. Macallum was born in Belmont, Canada West, the son of a Scottish immigrant and one of twelve children, he grew up learning English at school. He attended high school in London and became a teacher after graduation. After saving money for several years he entered the University of Toronto. There he was influenced by biology professor Ramsay Wright. A. and was awarded the medal in natural science. Over the next several years, he taught high school in Cornwall and continued scientific work under Wright's direction. In 1883, he became a lecturer in biology at the University of Toronto and started work on a medical degree, studying both with Wright and with H. Newell Martin of Johns Hopkins University. In 1888 he earned a Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins, two years completed a medical degree from the University of Toronto.

In his first years as physiology chair at the University of Toronto and several other biologists trained by Wright fought to replace the Toronto medical school's traditional medical education with a curriculum based on biological science. They had succeeded in this by 1908, when Macallum became Chair of Biochemistry, a newly created position. In 1917, he left academia to organize the National Research Council. In 1920 he returned to chair the new Department of Biochemistry at McGill University, where he stayed until retirement in 1928. Most of Macallum's scientific work involved measurements of small concentrations of salts and ions in biological fluids. In 1901, he showed that the chromatin in cell nuclei contains iron, in his early years at the University of Toronto he adapted measurement methods for a number of ions for use with tissue and cell samples. Using these methods, he found that some chemicals are localized within cells, e.g. being present in the cytoplasm but not the nucleus. In 1906, he was recognized for this work by election to the Royal Society.

Building on his ion measurement work, Macallum's subsequent long-term research focused on the ionic content of blood and other biological fluids. He found that in many animals, ions of sodium, potassium and magnesium occur in close proportion to the ionic content of seawater, providing a strong argument for the marine origins of land vertebrates. Macallum argued that the vertebrate blood, with a total ion concentration of about one-third of sea water, indicates that vertebrates left the sea in the Silurian period or before, when the ion concentration of the sea was much lower. Macallum's series of experiments and arguments became a central part of the broader field of biochemical evolution in the first half of the 20th century, which attempted to apply biochemical work to problems in evolution and general biology. Macallum trained many biochemists during his time at the University of Toronto, including the university's first PhD candidate, F. H. Scott. J. B. L.. "Archibald Byron Macallum. 1858-1934".

Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 287–291. Doi:10.1098/rsbm.1934.0011. ISSN 1479-571X. Johstone, Rose. "A Sixty-Year Evolution of Biochemistry at McGill University". Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science and Medicine. 27: 27–84. Doi:10.7202/800458ar. ISSN 0829-2507. Wald, George. "Biochemical Evolution". In Barron, E. S. Guzman. Modern Trends in Physiology and Biochemistry: Woods Hole Lectures Dedicated to the Memory of Leonor Michaelis. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 337–376. OCLC 422664408. Macallum, Archibald Byron - The Canadian Encyclopedia

Anne Young (academic)

Anne M. Young is a Professor of Biomaterials at University College London, where she works on the development and characterisation of new materials for the repair of tooth and bone. Young studied chemistry at Imperial College London, where she earned her bachelor's degree in 1986, she remained there for her doctoral studies in polymer physics. She moved to the petroleum industry, joined BP as a colloid scientist in 1990. In 1992 she joined the UCL School of Pharmacy as a postdoctoral researcher. Young was appointed to Brunel University London as a lecturer in Chemistry. Young noticed a decline in the petroleum industry, She moved to the Schottlander Dental Company as a research scientist in 1998, before joining University College London as a lecturer in 2000. At University College London, Young was a member of the Eastman Dental Hospital, her work considers degradable and non-degradable composite bone cements, as well as dental restorative materials. She works with polymers and metals. In restorative dentistry, one of biggest hazards is leakage of bacteria.

Young creates fluid pastes that can be set with light. Once set, these pastes form permanent materials with similar properties to the nearby teeth. By designing the pastes such that they swell when they absorb water, Young can overcome shrinkage, by incorporating antibacterial agents she can overcome the dangers of bacterial leakage, she works with material scientists and microbiologists. Alongside the design of materials for dentistry, Young is developing degradable materials for bone repair. Similar to the dental materials, injectable materials for bone repair or drug delivery can mimic nearby bone; these bone repair materials can be used for gene therapy. To analysis the materials during set and degradation, Young uses vibrational spectroscopy such as FTIR and Raman mapping. Young was promoted to Professor in 2015, she delivered her inaugural lecture at University College London in 2016. She spoke about new materials to repair tooth decay and damage from osteoporosis