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Antibes

Antibes is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice. The town of Juan-les-Pins is in the commune of Antibes and the Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it. Traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found in the areas of the castle and cathedral. Remains beneath the Holy Spirit Chapel show there was an indigenous community with ties with Mediterranean populations, including the Etruscans, as evidenced by the presence of numerous underwater amphorae and wrecks off Antibes. However, most trade was via the Phocaeans of Marseille. Antibes was founded by Phocaeans from Massilia; as a Greek colony settlement, it was named Antipolis from its position close to Nice. Current research suggests that Antipolis was founded late, to benefit from the protection of Marseille with its trade routes along the coast and strongholds like Olbia at Hyères, trading posts such as Antipolis itself and Nikaia.

The exact location of the Greek city is not well known. Given Greek colonial practices, it is that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes, in today's old city. Traces of occupation in the Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle and the church; the goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics. Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia and Antipolis; the Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens and took Aegythna from the Décéates. Rome increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was incorporated in the propraetorial province of Narbonesian Gaul, in which it remained for the next 500 years. Antipolis grew into the largest town in the region and a main entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such as aqueducts, fortified walls, amphoræ can still be seen today.

The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts. The Fontvieille aqueduct rises in Biot, joins the coast below the RN7 and the railway track at the Fort Carré, it was rediscovered and restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier d'Aguillon to supply the modern city. The aqueduct called the Clausonnes rises near the town of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque and near the town of Vallauris. Like most Roman towns, Antipolis possessed buildings for shows and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the child "Septentrion"; the inscription says "he danced and was popular on the stage of the theatre". The theatre was located, like the amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near the Porte Royale; the back wall is positioned next to Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the right side of the bus station. A plan of the theatre made in the 16th century is in the Marciana National Library of Venice.

The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the 17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the city. A concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the seventeenth century and in a map of Antibes from the early nineteenth century; these remains are now covered by the Fersen middle school. Excavations in the old town have discovered well-preserved houses showing some luxury. Among them, the most monumental are those in the rectory garden of rue Clemenceau; these show a comparable level to that of the Gallo-Roman domus such as those of Saint-Romain-en-Gal. Large parts of the floor mosaic are organised around a courtyard with a marble fountain; the building dates from the late third century, although parts date from the end of the Hellenistic era or the end of the Roman Republic. Another house paved with porphyry and green stone was excavated between rue des Palmiers and the rue de la Blancherie; the finds at the Antibes Museum of Archaeology suggests the main occupation between the 2nd and 4th century.

Finds from the end of the Hellenistic era and the end of the Roman Republic is present on both sites. Antipolis became the seat of a bishopric in the 5th century. After the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, various barbarian tribes seized Antibes; this resulted in a long period of instability. In the 10th century Antibes found a protector in Seigneur Rodoart, who built extensive fortified walls around the town and a castle in which to live. For the next 200 years, the town experienced a period of renewal. Prosperity was short-lived; the inhabitants of Antibes stayed behind their strong city walls as a succession of wars and epidemics ravaged the countryside. In 1244, Antibes's bishop moved. By the end of the 15th century, the region was under the protection and control of King Louis XI of France. Relative stability returned. From around the middle of the 19th century the Antibes area regained its popularity, as wealthy people from around Europe discovered its natural environment and built luxurious homes there.

It was transferred from its former department of Var to the new one of Alpes Maritimes in 1860. The harbor was again used for a "considerable" fishing industry and the area exported dried fruit

Otophryne

Otophryne is a small genus of microhylid frogs from northern South America. They are sometimes known as the pancake frogs. Adult Otophryne are diurnally active, they tend to walk rather than jump. Tadpoles burrow into the sandy bottom of shallow streams, they are specialized with minute, dagger-like, keratinized teeth, a long spiracular tube on the left hand side of its body. It is suggested that the tadpole is a suspension feeder, using the spiracular tube extending to the bottom surface to create a current through its oral cavity, using its teeth to prevent sand from entering its mouth. Genus Otophryne has three species: Otophryne pyburni Campbell & Clarke, 1998 Otophryne robusta Boulenger, 1900 Otophryne steyermarki Rivero, 1968

Battle of Kusseri

The Battle of Kusseri between German and French forces took place from late August to 25 September 1914 in Kusseri, northeastern Kamerun during the Kamerun Campaign of World War I. The action resulted in the French capture of the Kusseri fort and the German garrison's retreat to Mora. Upon the outbreak of World War I, French forces under the command of Colonel Largeau, across the border from German Kamerun in French Equatorial Africa stationed at Fort Lamy, invaded the colony, their goal was to capture the German fort at Kusseri, near Lake Chad which would allow French forces to assist British ones in their attacks on German forces in western Kamerun. The German garrison, under Lieutenant Kallmeyer consisted of 31 men. Five more were recruited from the town of Kusseri when it became known that the French were invading. Kallmeyer surrounded the fort with thick thorny bushes in preparation for the oncoming attack; the French had sent one artillery piece to capture the German fort in late August.

The initial French assaults on the fort were repelled by German machine guns and resulted in heavy casualties. Additionally, the lone French artillery piece was destroyed by the Germans. After these failures, the French withdrew to Fort Lamy, but returned with reinforcements on 20 September 1914. Considering the size of his force in comparison to the French one, the fatigue that had come about after continual attacks, Kallmeyer decided that staying to fight was futile and that retreat was the only option. Shortly after midnight on 25 September, following a strong French attack on the fort, German soldiers made a fighting retreat from Kusseri. In the chaos and thick bush, the force got separated, they made their way to the German stronghold at Mora 150 kilometers to the southwest and arrived there from 28 September to 9 October. 25 soldiers remained of the 37 that had made up the German garrison at Kusseri. The rest had been captured during the retreat, or deserted; the remaining members of the detachment would participate in the Siege of Mora.

The French renamed the fort at Fort Foureau following its capture on 25 September. Damis, Fritz. Auf Dem Moraberge – Erinnerungen an Die Kämpfe Der 3. Kompagnie Der Ehemaligen Kaiserlichen Schutztruppe Für Kamerun. 1929. Berlin. Fecitte, Harry. Lake Chad Area: 1914. Harry's Africa – The Soldier's Burden. Web.. Strachan, Hew; the First World War in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2004 ISBN 0-199-25728-0