Antimilitarism is a doctrine that opposes war, relying on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International. Whereas pacifism is the doctrine that disputes should be settled without recourse to violence, Paul B. Miller defines anti-militarism as "ideology and activities...aimed at reducing the civil power of the military and preventing international war". Cynthia Cockburn defines an anti-militarist movement as one opposed to "military rule, high military expenditure or the imposition of foreign bases in their country". Martin Ceadel points out that anti-militarism is sometimes equated with pacificism—general opposition to war or violence, except in cases where force is deemed necessary to advance the cause of peace. Pacifism is the belief that disputes between nations should be settled peacefully, it is the use of violence as a means of settling disputes. It can include the refusal to participate in military action. Antimilitarism does not reject war in all circumstances, but rejects the belief or desire to maintain a large and strong military organization in aggressive preparedness for war.
Anarcho-syndicalist Georges Sorel advocated the use of violence as a form of direct action, calling it "revolutionary violence", which he opposed in Reflections on Violence to the violence inherent in class struggle. Similarities are seen between Sorel and the International Workingmens' Association theorization of propaganda of the deed. Walter Benjamin, in his Critique of Violence demarcates a difference between "violence that founds the law", "violence that conserves the law", on one hand, on the other hand, a "divine violence" that breaks the "magic circle" between both types of "state violence". What distinguishes these two kinds of violence fundamentally is their mode of operation; the example Benjamin provides in his essay is that of a General Strike, the latter of, a key element of Sorel's Reflections on Violence. The "violence that conserves the law" is equivalent to the state's monopoly of legitimate violence; the "violence that founds the law" is the original violence necessary to the creation of a state.
"Revolutionary violence" removes itself from the sphere of the law by shattering its instrumental logic of violence. Giorgio Agamben showed the theoretical link between the law and violence permitted Nazi-thinker Carl Schmitt to justify the "state of exception" as the characteristic of sovereignty, thus indefinite suspension of the law may only be blocked by breaking this link between violence and right. Henry David Thoreau's 1849 essay "Civil Disobedience" titled "Resistance to Civil Government", can be considered an antimilitarist point of view, his refusal to pay taxes is justified as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican–American War, in accordance to the practice of civil disobedience.. He writes in his essay. Instead the individual should "break the law" if the law is "of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another." Capitalism has been thought by antimilitarist literature to be a major cause of wars, an influence, theorized by Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg under the name of "imperialism".
The military-industrial complex has been accused of "pushing for war" in pursuit of private economic or financial interests. The Second International was opposed to the participation of the working classes in war, analyzed as a competition between different national bourgeois classes and different state imperialisms; the assassination of French socialist leader Jean Jaurès days before the proclamation of World War I resulted in massive participation in the coming war. In Mars. After World War II, US President Eisenhower's 1961 issued a warning on the influence of the "military–industrial complex". American right-wing antimilitarists draw upon the statements of Thomas Jefferson and other Founding Fathers condemning standing armies and foreign entanglements. Jefferson's beliefs on maintaining a standing army are as follows: "There are instruments so dangerous to the rights of the nation and which place them so at the mercy of their governors that those governors, whether legislative or executive, should be restrained from keeping such instruments on foot but in well-defined cases.
Such an instrument is a standing army."Right-wing antimilitarists in the United States believe that "A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the best and most natural defense of a free country", as stated by James Madison. To this end, there is much overlap between the Militia movement and right-wing antimilitarists, although the two groups are not mutually inclusive; the term "well regulated" in the above quote is taken by such antimilitarists not to mean "regulated by the state" but rather "well equipped" and "in good
The Astrologer is a 1975 American horror film directed by James Glickenhaus and starring Bob Byrd, Mark Buntzman, James Glickenhaus. A scientist, investigating reports of the Second Coming of Christ ends up in conflict with a Satan-worshipping suicide cult. Bob Byrd as Alexei Mark Buntzman as Kajerste James Glickenhaus as Spy Alison McCarthy Al Narcisse Monica Tidwell as Kate Abarnel Ivy White as Indian Maiden "I'd inherited some money," Glickenhaus told The New York Times, "and I took all of it and lost it making a movie called'The Astrologer.' I'd been to film school, but film school was oriented more toward the avant-garde in those days, I didn't know what a master was or a cutaway or a closeup. And I had great trouble conveying ideas, except in dialogue. So'The Astrologer,', about 79 minutes long, was 60 minutes of dialogue. I mean, it was interminable. I didn't think. I thought it was great and interesting and fascinating to listen to." The film took him two years to produce from start to finish.
The film's soundtrack was composed in his debut. Glickenhaus convinced some drive-in theaters in the South to show the film, he recalled, "Even though it was a terrible movie, people didn't hate it. But I realized by watching them that the only parts they liked were the parts with action." The Astrologer at AllMovie The Astrologer on IMDb THE ASTROLOGER And The Death Of The Secret Handshake Movie Paul Thomas Anderson & Nicolas Winding Refn Join Forces To Save Fragile 35mm Film Prints Past Magazine article
Hondo is an unincorporated community in Lincoln County, New Mexico, United States. It is located about five miles downstream from Ruidosos Downs, where the Rio Bonito and Rio Ruidoso rivers join together to form the Rio Hondo, it is located at the point where U. S. Route 70 is joined by U. S. Route 380, which conjoined route continues eastward, it has had a post office since 1900. The community was founded by Hispanic settlers from the Rio Grande valley in the 1880s after the U. S. Army had controlled the Apache in the area, it was called La Junta because of the joining of the Rio Bonito and the Rio Ruidoso. It was called Hondo after the river. Prior to settlement, the Apache lived in the area, skirmishes continued to occur after the establishment of Fort Stanton. According to an interview of Frank Coe, settlers arriving before 1861 lived in placitas, or "adobe family compounds enclosed for defensive purposes", which are still visible in the linear layout Hondo continues to maintain today; the earliest settlers farmed, sometimes trading with Fort Stanton.
By the 1930s, U. S. Route 70 was built, passing north of Hondo. By the community consisted of a school, community buildings, several households. "Coe Ranch in Hondo, New Mexico" America's Byways, photograph
The 24 cm Kanone M. 16 was a super-heavy siege gun used by Austria-Hungary during World War I and by Nazi Germany during World War II. Only two were finished during World War I, but the other six were completed in the early twenties and served with the Czechoslovak Army until they were bought by the Germans after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938. During World War I, one gun served on the other on the Italian Front. During World War II, they saw action in the Battle of France, Operation Barbarossa and the Siege of Leningrad; the Austro-Hungarian Army was pleased with its large siege howitzers like the 42 cm Haubitze M. 14/16, but they were all short-ranged. The Army asked Škoda to design a gun able to destroy important targets deep in the enemy's rear in 1916. To save time and resources, it was designed in concert with the 38 cm Belagerungshaubitze M 16 and used the same carriage and firing platform as the larger weapon; the gun used. Some sources claim that the gun was adapted from Škoda's 1901 naval gun of the same calibre and length, but this is wrong because the M. 16 gun weighed 8 tonnes less than the older naval gun.
The 40-caliber barrel was constructed of twelve parts, notably the inner tube and various inner and outer jacket pieces. The hydro-pneumatic recoil system was mounted on the cradle above the gun, it used the same horizontal sliding-block breech as the 38 cm Belagerungshaubitze M 16. The gun carriage rested on a base box or bedding platform which measured 6.5 metres long, 5.2 metres wide and 1.4 metres high. The base box incorporated a turntable resting on a ball race capable of 360° traverse. At the rear of the turntable was a 2 tonnes tilting crane used to move ammunition from the shell cart to the roller race and to help assemble the roller race and to remove the breech; the roller race was mounted directly behind the gun on four tilting arms. When the gun returned to the prescribed loading angle of 6° the roller race was raised so that it met the rear end of the breech, a shell was placed on roller race by the crane and it was hand-rammed with the shell sliding forward on the rollers, it was followed by a cartridge case containing the propellant.
While the gun was being elevated to its firing angles between +10° and +41° 30' the roller race was lowered out of the recoil path of the gun. The gun was transported in four loads, the barrel and one for each half of the base box; each load was carried by an eight-wheeled electric-powered trailer with the electricity provided by an Austro-Daimler Artillery Generator truck M. 16, designed by Ferdinand Porsche. The 6-cylinder, 20.32 litres gasoline engine powered two electric generators which fed electric motors in each wheel of the trailer and the rear wheels of the truck. Top speed was 14 kilometres per hour; the solid rubber tires could be removed and the trucks could tow their trailers on the rails. For longer distances they could be towed by ordinary locomotives. One additional truck towed the ammunition trailer, which carried 28 rounds with their cartridge case as well as the loading crane, it took eight to twenty hours in soft soil or gravel to excavate the large firing pit required to hold the halves of the base box.
Six to eight hours were required to assemble the gun itself. Each half of the base box was maneuvered into position on rails that ran along each side of the pit and it was jacked up off the wagon and the wagon was removed; each base box half was jacked down onto wheels that ran on the guide rails and they were bolted together. The complete base box was pulled over the pit, the wheels removed and it was jacked down into the pit. Three rails were placed on top of the base box to guide the carriage wagon into position and the carriage was jacked up while the wagon was removed and it was jacked down and bolted to the base box; the barrel wagon was guided into place using the same rails and two block and tackles were attached to the barrel clamp. The crew slid the barrel into the cradle; the last steps were to connect the recoil brakes' pistons to the barrel and test the recoil brake and recuperator, install the roller race. Disassembly took around six hours, it appears that only two guns were delivered during the war, although nine guns and two spare barrels had been ordered.
In the Spring of 1918, they equipped the Third and Fourth Companies, each with one gun, of the 1st Heavy Artillery Regiment. Photographic evidence shows one gun near Dornbirn, Austria on the Italian Front and the other was near Reifenberg, Germany. Only four more guns were under construction. Škoda completed all of these by the end of 1921. When the Czechs mobilized during the Munich Crisis, the guns formed the Fifth and Sixth Batteries of the Third Battalion of Artillery Regiment 301, each battery with 2 guns, the two remaining guns being held in reserve. Nazi Germany bought all six of these weapons, the spare barrel and all their electric trucks, after the Munich Agreement in January 1939 for a price of over 55 million crowns; the M. 16 was known as the schwere 24 cm Kanone in German service. They were assigned to the Second Battalion of Artillery Regiment 84, where they formed three two-gun batteries; the battalion did not participate in the Invasion of Poland, but fought on the Somme during the Battle of France.
A second reserve barrel was ordered on 31 July 1940 for delivery on 28 February 1942. For the rest of 1940, until May 1941, the battalion was emplaced on Cap-Gris-Nez in the Pas de Calais to interdict British coas
The State Line Generating Plant was a coal-fired electrical generating station that operated from 1929 until 2012. It was located on the coast of Lake Michigan, bordering the state line separating Indiana from Illinois but within the corporate limits of Hammond, Indiana; as of 2008–09, it had a year-round capacity of 515 megawatts. Most of the plant's exterior and some of its interior infrastructure dated back to its original operation in 1929, making this plant one of the oldest large-scale urban electrical generating stations in the United States at the time it ceased operations; the plant's age meant that it generated more toxic waste, such as airborne mercury and nitrogen oxides, than most other U. S. generating plants. Owned and operated by Commonwealth Edison, the State Line Generating Plant was owned and operated by Dominion Resources, it was a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark. The plant reached the end of its operating lifespan and was permanently shut down on March 31, 2012.
Demolition was ongoing as of November 2014. The State Line Generating Plant was designed in Art Deco style by Graham, Probst & White and built in 1926–1929 under the orders of industrial magnate Samuel Insull. Insull, who led a holding company that controlled Chicago's Commonwealth Edison electric utility, dedicated his working life to the implementation of economies of scale in the generation and supply of electricity. During the 1920s, many residents of Chicago metropolitan area had signed up to receive electrical service for the first time. Generating plants throughout the metropolitan area had developed the capacity to produce 1,310 megawatts of power to serve 1,300,000 customer households. At the same time, however, it was expected. In particular, inhabitants of many rural areas throughout the United States, including rural areas adjacent to Chicago, did not yet have electrical service in 1929. In addition to increased demand for electricity from households for purposes such as lighting and appliances, Insull expected substantial increases in demand for electricity from industrial-scale purchasers.
In particular, Insull's holding companies controlled the Chicago South Shore and South Bend, an electric railroad that ran near the site of the State Line Power Plant. In order to fulfill the increased demand for electricity that Insull's engineers told him was expected and which he concurred was going to occur, the Insull holding companies constructed the State Line Power Plant and the Unit 1 generator within the plant. With a capacity of 208 megawatts, Unit 1 upon its operational date in 1929 was the largest turbine generator constructed up to that time; the turbine plant was built by General Electric at their plant in Schenectady, New York, carried to Hammond for assembly. Its operation increased total Chicago-area electrical generation capacity by more than 15%, to 1,518 megawatts. Insull's optimism was sufficient that he ordered that the State Line Power plant be constructed on a scale sufficient to allow for the insertion of further turbines in the building. Commonwealth Edison's goal was to insert enough capacity into State Line to generate more than 1,000 megawatts of power – which would have made the State Line Power Plant the world's first one-gigawatt plant.
The 1929 infrastructure projects of Insull's holding companies were financed with leveraged junk bonds. The Insull firms could not survive the shock of the Great Depression, Insull and his investors suffered devastating financial losses. However, the State Line Power Plant had been professionally engineered and constructed, continued to operate through the Depression, World War II, into the postwar years. Commonwealth Edison expanded the State Line Power Plant according to plan, with Unit 2 going into operation in 1938, Unit 3 in 1955, Unit 4 in 1963; as a result of various factors, including the advent of nuclear power and the passage of the Clean Air Act, by the late 20th and early 21st centuries the State Line Power Plant was entering the latter phase of its useful life. The historic Unit 1 turbine was taken out of service in 1978, followed by Unit 2 in 1979; as of 2011, the State Line Power Plant's two newer coal-fired units Units 3 and 4 continued to operate with a maximum capacity of 515 megawatts.
The plant employed 120 full-time employees in 2011, with employment dropping to 100 in January 2012 as the end of the plant's lifespan approached. The State Line Power Plant's age meant that it was not fitted with many of the pollution control equipment, mandated on more modern generating plants. Instead, State Line's operations were grandfathered, giving the plant the right to vent nitrogen oxides, airborne mercury, sulphur dioxide into the air. According to a September 2010 article in the Chicago Tribune, the State Line Power Plant was described as one of the greatest single point-source contributors to the Chicago area's ongoing noncompliant status under the Clean Air Act. In early May 2011, Dominion Resources informed Wall Street financial analysts that the firm did not plan to retrofit State Line with Clean Air Act pollution controls, would instead shut the plant down in the three-year 2012–2014 period; the firm further announced in January 2012 that the planned shutdown of the 100-employee plant would take place on March 31, 2012.
Upon completion of the March 31 shutdown, Dominion withdrew its remaining movable assets from the cold plant and handed it over to a demolition firm, BTU Solutions, on June 26, 2012. BTU Solutions pledged to demolish the plant over a two-year period, demolition began in late 2012. List of power stations in Indiana
The Story of William Tell is an unfinished film about William Tell. It was produced by Errol Flynn, it was meant to be the directorial debut of Jack Cardiff. It was filmed in CinemaScope. A £10,000 model town set was built near Mont Blanc. Errol Flynn as William Tell Guido Turfidi as Jimmy Tell Bruce Cabot as Captain Jost Antonella Lualdi as Anna Walden Massimo Serato as Hermann Gessler Waltraut Haas as Mary Franco Interlenghi as Hans Emma Baron as Max's Wife Aldo Fabrizi Milly Vitale Flynn said after a fight with Jack Warner he decided "The hell with them all. I will make my own pictures. I will make a mint and show these guys I don’t need them or their studio... I had in mind a certain story on which I figured I might make between ten and twenty millions."Flynn decided to make a version of the William Tell story which he would produce with Barry Mahon. He went into partnership with a group of Italians and budgeted the film at $860,000 - each side would contribute half the cost. In February 1953 it was announced that Jack Cardiff, cinematographer on Crossed Swords with Flynn, would make his directorial debut on the movie and it would be shot in Italy with location footage in Switzerland.
He put up $430,000 of his own money towards the $860,000 budgeted production which started in June 1953. Had the film been completed on time it would have been the first independent movie filmed in CinemaScope. A distribution deal was signed with United Artists. "I was going to show the motion picture industry how to do it," Flynn wrote. Actress Vira Silenti was cast as "Mary" but replaced by Waltraut Haas. Filming started in June and took place on the slopes among Mont Blanc above Courmayeur in the Acosta Valley. In Cardiff's assistant was Giorgio Pastina who had directed an Italian version of William Tell starring Gino Cervi a number of years previously. Production ceased in September when the project ran out of funds and creditors seized sets and camera equipment, he said "when it was one third finished the backers pulled out. The property included materials including the negatives of the picture, they took possession of Errol Flynn's car and furniture. Creditors included local hotel keepers in the village of Courmayeur, a local lumber company which built a Swiss village and other local furnishers.
Flynn said. "They were to put up the necessary lire and we put up the dollars. We have done that, they ran short of money. But we are clear on that." Flynn claimed an agreement had been made between the Italian producers and an Italian syndicate and that the film would start again. Creditors agreed to allow the producers to finish the film. Flynn sought financing to resume production, estimated at around £150,000, but failed; the situation was complicated by the death of his business manager and the revelations that he owed the US government one million dollars. In March 1954 Flynn ended his relationship with Warner Bros, he said. In July 1954 when Flynn signed to do The Black Prince he was still intending to make the film. In May 1955 Bruce Cabot sued Flynn in a London court for unpaid salary of £17,357 saying he had been promised four weeks' work on the film but did not get it. In March 1956, Flyn claimed the film "folded because the Italians failed to get their money in", he said he had $340,000 of his own money in the film and still hoped to finish it in autumn of that year when there was snow in the Alps.
"It'll be a hell of a picture," he said. In May he said "I'm going to finish it. I have the film in New York; the film was never completed. The film's collapse ruined Flynn financially, he estimated. In August 1953 Hedda Hopper reported that Patrice Wymore told her Flynn wanted to follow William Tell with another movie directed by Cardiff called Josephine and Poiphar, it was never made. Filmink wrote that: The great “what if” for Flynn fans: how good a movie would William Tell have been? Based on the quality of his other European period action films like Captain Fabian, Crossed Swords and The Dark Avenger, I’m not overly optimistic, but the William Tell story is a decent one and with Jack Cardiff at the helm it would have at least looked stunning and no doubt had some decent action. I’m surprised some enterprising producer did not sweep in to rescue things because there would have been a market for the film – but the idea of Errol Flynn as a producing partner did not inspire confidence. A little more than a minute of footage was shown on Turner Classic Movies in the early 1990s as part of a feature on Flynn, but that short clip itself is now lost as well.
Flynn's estate have chosen to remain silent about it. The model ski resort was turned into a real ski resort that uses the film's production to lure tourists in every year, is still active today.'The Story of William Tell at IMDb William Tell at BFI