Antiochus II Theos

Antiochus II Theos was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC. He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC, he was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He inherited a state of war with Ptolemaic Egypt, the "Second Syrian War", fought along the coasts of Asia Minor, the constant intrigues of petty despots and restless city-states in Asia Minor. Antiochus made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace. During the war he was given the title Theos, being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. During the time Antiochus was occupied with the war against Egypt, his satrap in Parthia, proclaimed independence. According to Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus, in Bactria, his satrap Diodotus revolted in 255 BC, founded the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, which would further expand in India in 180 BC to form the Indo-Greek Kingdom. In 253 BC, in the aftermath of the Second Syrian War, Antiochus II made peace with the pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

He divorced Laodice and married Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice, with the understanding that any children born from their union would inherit the Seleucid throne. Although no longer queen, Laodice was still a powerful and political influential figure. Antiochus gave Laodice various land grants throughout Anatolia. In a royal record at Sardis mentions her land titles were to be kept as royal land in disposal in grants or sales. During her stay in Ephesus, Laodice continued numerous intrigues to become queen again. By 246 BC Antiochus had left Berenice and their infant son Antiochus, in Antioch to live again with Laodice I in Asia Minor. Laodice took the occasion to poison Antiochus while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and their infant son. Antiochus was buried in the Belevi Mausoleum. Laodice I proclaimed Seleucus II as King. With his cousin-wife Laodice I, Antiochus had two sons: Seleucus II Callinicus, Antiochus Hierax and three daughters: Apama, Stratonice of Cappadocia and Laodice.

An uncertain Antiochus is mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka, as one of the recipients of the Indian Emperor Ashoka's Buddhist proselytism: "And this conquest has been won by the Beloved of the Gods here and in all the borderlands, as far as six hundred yojanas away, where Antiochus, king of the Yavanas rules, beyond this Antiochus four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos and Alexander rule."Ashoka claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine, for men and animals, in the territories of the Hellenistic kings: "Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's domain, among the people beyond the borders, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochus rules, among the kings who are neighbours of Antiochus, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown.

Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals."Alternatively, the Greek king mentioned in the Edict of Ashoka could be Antiochus's father, Antiochus I Soter, who arguably had more proximity with the East. Antiochus II entry in'Seleucid Genealogy'

Activated charcoal cleanse

Activated charcoal cleanses known as charcoal detoxes are a pseudoscientific use of a proven medical intervention. Activated charcoal is available in powder and liquid form, its proponents claim the use of activated charcoal on a regular basis will detoxify and cleanse the body as well as boost one's energy and brighten the skin. Such claims violate basic principles of physiology. There is no medical evidence for any health benefits of cleanses or detoxes via activated charcoal or any other method. Charcoal, when ingested, will adsorb vitamins and nutrients as well as prescription medications present in the gastrointestinal tract which can make it dangerous to use unless directed by a medical doctor. Activated charcoal known as activated carbon is produced from high carbon source materials such as wood or coconut husk, it is made by treating the source material with either a combination of heat and pressure, or with a strong acid or base followed by carbonization to make it porous. This gives it a large surface area for its volume, up to 3000 square metres per gram.

It has a large number of industrial uses including methane and hydrogen storage, air purification, gold purification, metal extraction, water purification, sewage treatment and air filters in gas masks and respirators. Activated charcoal is used to detoxify people, but only in life threatening medical emergencies such as overdoses or poisonings; as it is indigestible it will only work on poisons or medications still present in the stomach and intestines. Once these have been absorbed by the body the charcoal will no longer be able to adsorb them so early intervention is desirable. Charcoal is not an effective treatment for alcohol, metals or elemental poisons such as lithium or arsenic as it will only adsorb certain chemicals and molecules, it is administered by a nasogastric tube into the stomach as the thick slurry required for maximum adsorption is difficult to swallow. Activated charcoal, as used in cleanses or detoxes, became popular around 2014 after it was brought to mainstream attention by Gwyneth Paltrow's Goop company where it was described as "one of the best juice cleanses".

Since it has become a popular additive to many different types of foods and drinks including juices, coffee, ice cream, burgers and pet food. The City of New York has banned activated charcoal in food products unless approval for their use is granted from the FDA. Activated charcoal, excluding products designed for emergency medical interventions, is available in many pharmacies and health food stores in tablet and powder forms. Proponents of charcoal detoxes claim that it will cleanse the body by aiding in the removal of excess toxins that the body is unable to get rid of by itself. Other claims made include that the use of activated charcoal provides anti-ageing benefits, will increase your energy, brighten your skin, decrease wind and bloating and aid weight loss. Scott Gavura of Science Based Medicine was critical of the use of activated charcoal in the wellness industry. In his 2015 article Activated charcoal: The latest detox fad in an obsessive food culture he said "Fake detox, the kind you find in magazines, sold in pharmacies, juice bars, health food stores, is make-believe medicine.

The use of the term “toxin” in this context is meaningless. There are no toxins named, because there’s no evidence that these treatments do anything at all, but it sounds just scientific enough to be plausible."Sophie Medlin, a lecturer in nutrition and dietetics at King's College in London suggests avoiding the use of activated charcoal cleanses for a number of reasons: It will bind with nutrients in food present in the stomach and intestines making the food less nutritious. It will bind with some medications making it dangerous to use if medications have been used. Charcoal will only adsorb particles present in the gastrointestinal tract. So if it's being used to adsorb alcohol or cure a hangover from the night before it won't work. Activated charcoal will slow down the bowel and can cause nausea and dehydration. Jay Rayner of The Guardian contacted a manufacturer of activated charcoal lemonade to ask about its detoxifying properties, he was told. When he asked how the product detoxes the body he was told that he was confusing the term "detox" with the medical term "detoxification".

Carrie Dennett of The Seattle Times said of activated charcoal "unless you have a rare health condition that renders your liver — or its supporting players: your kidneys, digestive system and lymphatic system — unable to perform as designed your body doesn’t need help. Unless you have overdosed or been poisoned, there’s no substantial evidence that activated charcoal will benefit you."Charcoal is used as an alternative to whitening products in toothpastes but was found to not be as effective in whitening the teeth as regular products such as hydrogen peroxide

Sorbus domestica

Sorbus domestica, with the common name service tree or sorb tree, is a species of Sorbus native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, southwest Asia. It may be called true service tree, it is a deciduous tree growing to 15–20 m tall with a trunk up to 1 m diameter, though it can be a shrub 2–3 m tall on exposed sites. The bark is brown, smooth on young trees, becoming flaky on old trees; the winter buds are green, with a sticky resinous coating. The leaves are 15–25 cm long, pinnate with 13-21 leaflets 3–6 cm long and 1 cm broad, with a bluntly acute apex, a serrated margin on the outer half or two thirds of the leaflet; the flowers are 13 -- 18 mm diameter, with 20 creamy-white stamens. The fruit is a pome 2–3 cm long, greenish-brown tinged red on the side exposed to sunlight, it is rare, listed as an endangered species in Switzerland and Austria, uncommon in Spain. In the UK, one old tree that existed in the Wyre Forest before being destroyed in 1862 used to be considered native, but it is now considered to be more of cultivated origin from a mediaeval monastery orchard planting.

More a small population of genuinely wild specimens was found growing as stunted shrubs on cliffs in south Wales and nearby southwest England. It is a rare species in Britain, occurring at only a handful of sites, its largest English population is within the Horseshoe Bend Site of Special Scientific Interest at Shirehampton, near Bristol. A further population has been discovered growing wild in Cornwall on a cliff in the upper Camel Estuary, it is a long-lived tree, with ages of 300–400 years estimated for some in Britain. The largest and one of the oldest known specimens in Europe is on an educational trail near the town of Strážnice in the province of Moravia, Czech Republic, its trunk measures 462 centimetres in circumference, with a crown 11 metres high and 18 metres across. It is estimated to be around 450 years old; the fruit is a component of a cider-like drink, still made in parts of Europe. Picked straight off the tree, it is astringent and gritty. In the Moravian Slovakia region of the Czech Republic, there is a community run museum with an educational trail and festival for this tree, with products like jam and brandy made from its fruit.

The sorb tree is cited in the Babylonian Tractate Ketubot page 79a. The example refers to a purchase of Abba Zardasa, in a translation by Rashi, an early Medieval scholar, as a forest of trees called Zardasa, used for lumber, because the fruit was not commercially important; the Aramaic word'zardasa' may be the origin of the English word'sorb'. In Ancient Greece the fruit was cut in half and pickled, which Plato in the Symposium lets Aristophanes use as a metaphor for the cutting in half of the original spherical humans by Zeus. Service Tree wood was used for manufacturing wooden planes of all types used for working wood, because Service Tree wood is dense and holds a profile well; the English name comes from Middle English serves, plural of serve, from Old English syrfe, borrowed from the Latin name sorbus. Other English names include sorb, sorb tree, whitty pear—"whitty" because the leaves are similar to rowan, "pear" due to the nature of the fruit. Wedig Kausch-Blecken von Schmeling: Der Speierling.

Verlag Kausch, Bovenden 2000, 184 S. Hrdousek V. et al.: "Oskeruše - strom pro novou Evropu". Brazda, Hodonin, 2014, 240 pages. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme