Kingdom of Navarre
The Kingdom of Navarre the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France. The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista; the kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula. The city of Pamplona, had been the main city of the indigenous Vasconic population and was located amid a predominantly Basque-speaking area. In an event traditionally dated to 824, Íñigo Arista was elected or declared ruler of the area around Pamplona in opposition to Frankish expansion into the region as vassal to the Córdoba Emirate; this polity evolved into the Kingdom of Pamplona. In the first quarter of the 10th century the Kingdom was able to break its vassalage under Córdoba and expand militarily, but again found itself dominated by Córdoba until the early 11th century.
A series of partitions and dynastic changes led to a diminution of its territory and to periods of rule by the kings of Aragon and France. In the 15th century, another dynastic dispute over control by the king of Aragon led to internal divisions and the eventual conquest of the southern part of the kingdom by the Crown of Castile in 1512, it would become part of the unified Kingdom of Spain. The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined with France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France; the monarchs of this unified state took the title "King of France and Navarre" until its fall in the French Revolution, again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830. Today, significant parts of the ancient Kingdom of Navarre comprise the autonomous communities of Navarre, Basque Country and La Rioja. There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation of Latin navarros appears in Eginhard's chronicle of the feats of Charles the Great.
Other Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name of Navarra/Nafarroa/Naparroa: Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolor", which would be a contrast with the green mountain lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba/Castilian nava + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba as not Basque in origin but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate. The kingdom originated in the southern side of the western Pyrenees, in the flatlands around the city of Pamplona. According to Roman geographers such as Pliny the Elder and Livy, these regions were inhabited by the Vascones and other related Vasconic-Aquitanian tribes, a pre-Indo-European group of peoples who inhabited the southern slopes of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay; these tribes spoke an archaic version of the Basque language known by linguistics as Proto-Basque, as well as some other related languages, such as the Aquitanian language. The Romans took full control of the area by 74 BC, but unlike their northern neighbors, the Aquitanians, other tribes from the Iberian Peninsula, the Vascones negotiated their status within the Roman Empire.
The region first was part of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior of the Hispania Tarraconensis. It would be under the jurisdiction of the conventus iuridicus of Caesaraugusta; the Roman empire influenced the area in urbanization, infrastructure and industry. During the Sertorian War, Pompey would command the foundation of a city in Vasconic territory, giving origin to Pompaelo, modern-day Pamplona, founded on a existent Vasconic town. Romanization of the Vascones led to their eventual adoption of forms of Latin that would evolve into the Navarro-Aragonese language, though the Basque language would remain spoken in rural and mountainous areas. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Vascones were slow to be incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom, in a civil war that provided the opportunity for the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the Basque leadership joined in the appeal that, in the hope of stability, brought the Muslim conquerors. By 718, Pamplona had formed a pact that allowed a wide degree of autonomy in exchange for military and political subjugation, along with the payment of tribute to Córdoba.
Burial ornamentation shows strong contacts with the Merovingian France and the Gascons of Aquitaine, but items with Islamic inscriptions, while a Muslim cemetery in Pamplona, the use of which spanned several generations, suggests the presence of a Muslim garrison in the decades following the Arab invasion. The origin and foundation of the Kingdom of Pamplona is intrinsically related to the southern expansion of the Frankish kingdom under the Merovingians and their successors, the Carolingians. About 601, the Duchy of Vasconia was established by the Merovingians, based around Roman Novempopulania and extending from the southern branch of the river Garonne to the northern side of the Pyrenees; the first documented Duke of Vasconia was Genial, who would hold that position until 627. The Duchy of Vasconia became a frontier territory with varying levels of autonomy granted by the Merovingian monarchs; the suppression of the Duchy of Vasconia as wel
Antipope Clement VIII
Antipope Clement VIII should not be confused with Pope Clement VIII. Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón, was one of the antipopes of the Avignon line, reigning from 10 June 1423 to 26 July 1429 as Clement VIII, he was born in Teruel between 1369–1370 and died on 28 December 1446. He was a friend and advisor of the future Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, member of the Avignon curia. In 1396 he was an envoy to the Bishop of Valencia to get Spanish support. Benedict had appointed four cardinals, on his death, three of them, on 10 June 1423, elected Sanchez Muñoz as Pope; the fourth, Jean Carrier, absent at the time, declared the election invalid, elected his own antipope in turn, who took the name Benedict XIV. Jean Carrier was excommunicated by Clement VIII. Clement VIII's fate was bound up with the ambitions of Alfonso V of Aragon. Alfonso wished to negotiate for Naples, so gave Clement support. In the summer of 1423 Alfonso persuaded the Republic of Siena to acknowledge Clement VIII, thus securing recognition for the pope of the Avignon line in the city, part of the Republic of Siena, where the Roman pope Martin V had convened an ecumenical council of the Church.
However, through the exertions of Cardinal Pierre de Foix, an able diplomat and relation of the king’s, an agreement was reached between Alfonso and the Pope. Alfonso sent a delegation in 1428, to persuade Clement to recognise Martin. Clement declared his abdication on 26 July 1429 and had his cardinals elect Oddo di Colonna his successor, a formal act precluding future doubts concerning apostolic succession, his abdication was confirmed in mid-August. Clement had to make a penitential submission in forma to Martin V, when this was done Martin granted Sanchez Muñoz the Bishopric of Mallorca. Sanchez Muñoz died on 28 December 1446. Papal selection before 1059 Papal conclave
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its membership is 222, as of 14 March 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy account for the increases in the size of the College. Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, the College itself; the total number of cardinals from 1099 to 1986 has been about 2,900, nearly half of whom were created after 1655. See also: External cardinal § HistoryThe word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge"; the office of cardinal as it is known today evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts".
At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, councils, etc. as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere and Missus Specialis. During the pontificate of Stephen V, the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday; the first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, the cardinal-bishops. The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX. In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed.
In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections. From the 13th to 15th centuries, the size of the College of Cardinals never exceeded thirty, although there were more than thirty parishes and diaconal districts which could have a titular holder. In the ensuing century, increasing the size of the College became a method for the pope to raise funds for construction or war, cultivate European alliances, dilute the strength of the College as a spiritual and political counterweight to papal supremacy; the conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the College to twenty, decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the College had dropped to 16. By the end of the 14th century, the practice of Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes; the most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him.
Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. The Council of Basel limited the size of the College to twenty-four, as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464; the capitulations of the 1484 and 1513 conclaves contained the same restriction. The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals; the Fifth Council of the Lateran, despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not speak to the size of the College. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. Paul IV brought the total to seventy, his immediate successor, Pope Pius IV, raised the limit to seventy-six. Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the College to his legates to the Council of Trent, some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the College.
By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1586, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, six cardinal-bishops. Popes respected that limit until Pope John XXIII increased the number of cardinals several times to a high of 88 in January 1961 and Pope Paul VI continued this expansion, reaching 134 at his third consistory in April 1969; the size of the College lost its significance when Paul decided to allow only cardinals under the age of 80 to vote in a conclave from 1971 onward. In 1975, Paul set the maximum number of those under 80, the cardinal electors, at 120, his next consistory in 1976 brought the number of cardinal electors to its full complement of 120. All three of Paul's successors have at times exceeded the 120 maximum. Pope John Paul II reiterated the 120 maximum in 1996, yet his appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 cardinal electors on 4 of his
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify. Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. Buddhābhiseka is a Sanskrit term referring to these consecration rituals. "Consecration" is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n. 76 states, Both the ceremonies and texts of the ordination rites are to be revised.
The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, 1997, under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders", uses "episcopal consecration" as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably. The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.
The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.
Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy. The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. Church buildings and altars are consecrated to the purpose of religious worship, baptismal fonts and vessels are consecrated for the purpose of containing the Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine/the body and blood of Christ. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion.
In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home contains a liturgies for "The Order for the Consecration of Bishops", "An Office for the Consecration of Deaconesses", "An Office for the Consecration of Directors of Christian Education and Directors of Music", as well as "An Office for the Opening or Consecrating of a Church Building" among others. Among some religious groups there is a service of "deconsecration", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England, an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam, or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years.
It is done to purify the temple after a renovation or done to renew the purity of th
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
His Eminence is a style of reference for high nobility, still in use in various religious contexts. The style remains in use as the official style or standard of address in reference to a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, reflecting his status as a Prince of the Church. A longer, more formal, title is "His Most Reverend Eminence". Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches who are cardinals may be addressed as "His Eminence" or by the style particular to Eastern Catholic patriarchs, His Beatitude; when the Grand Master of the Military Order of the Knights of Malta, the head of state of their sovereign territorial state comprising the island of Malta until 1797, made a Reichsfürst in 1607, became the most senior official after the most junior member of the cardinals in 1630, he was awarded the hybrid style His Most Eminent Highness to recognize his status as a type of prince of the Church. The Prince and Grand Master of the contemporary Sovereign Military Order of Malta is still styled His Most Eminent Highness.
Styles such as "His Grand Eminence" or "His Eminent Grace" amongst others were used as well, some formalized by the pope or other powers, such as monarchs. However, many others were the personal preference of the cardinal and by the merit of other earthly offices. While the term is shunned by many individuals of other faiths or denominations of Christianity, the title is maintained in international diplomacy without regard for its doctrinal and theological origins. Archbishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church are addressed with the styles of "Beatitude" or "Eminence"; the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is styled "His All-Holiness", so is, the Metropolitan Bishop of Thessaloniki. The patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem, as well as the Georgian, Serbian and Russian patriarchs are referred to as "His Holiness", while Romanian Patriarchs are referred to as "His Beatitude". In Oriental Orthodoxy bishops holding the rank of metropolitan are referred to as "His Eminence"; the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia is addressed as "His Beatitude".
It is used, informally, in Islam for honorable religious leaders. For example, an Imam of the Sunni Barelwi school of thought, Moulana Syed Madani Mia, is addressed with this title, along with individuals such as Moulana Khushtar Siddiqi of Mauritius, although these titles are, in essence, unofficial. Beyond this, the traditional rulers of the sub-national states of the Fulani, Hausa and Kanuri peoples of Nigeria use the style as an alternative to the HRH style, used by the country's royal monarchs, highlighting by so doing their positions as spiritual as well as temporal leaders. Ecclesiastical address "Eminence". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England, it suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful War of Independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. Following the annexation of the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1472 and final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest.
The Crown was the most important element of government. The Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a itinerant institution, before Edinburgh developed as a capital city in the second half of the 15th century; the Crown remained at the centre of political life and in the 16th century emerged as a major centre of display and artistic patronage, until it was dissolved with the Union of Crowns in 1603. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European monarchical states of the time and developed a Privy Council and great offices of state. Parliament emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy, but was never as central to the national life. In the early period, the kings of the Scots depended on the great lords—the mormaers and toísechs—but from the reign of David I, sheriffdoms were introduced, which allowed more direct control and limited the power of the major lordships. In the 17th century, the creation of Justices of Peace and Commissioners of Supply helped to increase the effectiveness of local government.
The continued existence of courts baron and the introduction of kirk sessions helped consolidate the power of local lairds. Scots law was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, with Court of Session meeting daily in Edinburgh. In 1532, the College of Justice was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of lawyers. David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage. At the union of the Crowns in 1603 the Pound Scots was fixed at only one-twelfth the value of the English pound; the Bank of Scotland issued pound notes from 1704. Scottish currency was abolished by the Act of Union, however to the present day, Scotland retains unique banknotes. Geographically, Scotland is divided between the Lowlands; the Highlands had a short growing season, further shortened during the Little Ice Age. From Scotland's foundation to the inception of the Black Death, the population had grown to a million.
It expanded in the first half of the 16th century, reaching 1.2 million by the 1690s. Significant languages in the medieval kingdom included Gaelic, Old English and French. Christianity was introduced into Scotland from the 6th century. In the Norman period the Scottish church underwent a series of changes that led to new monastic orders and organisation. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk. There were a series of religious controversies that resulted in persecutions; the Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, but relied on privateers and fought a guerre de course. Land forces centred around the large common army, but adopted European innovations from the 16th century. From the 5th century AD, north Britain was divided into a series of petty kingdoms. Of these, the four most important were those of the Picts in the north-east, the Scots of Dál Riata in the west, the Britons of Strathclyde in the south-west and the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia in the south-east, stretching into modern northern England.
In AD 793, ferocious Viking raids began on monasteries such as those at Iona and Lindisfarne, creating fear and confusion across the kingdoms of north Britain. Orkney and the Western Isles fell to the Norsemen; these threats may have speeded up a long-term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs. There was a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish kingdoms, although historians debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way round; this culminated in the rise of Cínaed mac Ailpín as "king of the Picts" in the 840s, which brought to power the House of Alpin. When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900 one of his successors, Domnall II, was the first man to be called rí Alban; the term Scotia would be used to describe the heartland of these kings, north of the River Forth, the entire area controlled by its kings would be referred to as Scotland. The long reign of Donald's successor Causantín is regarded as the key to formation of the Kingdom of Alba/Scotland, he was la