The Inca Empire known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival; the administrative and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century, its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia, its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, they lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor; the Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:... feudal, socialist The Inca empire functioned without money and without markets.
Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects; the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua, tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu whose corners met at the capital; the four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces; the Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family; the Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than the ruling class. As such, the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered; the Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations; the Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku, based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. Chuño, which can be stored for long periods, is made of potato dried at the freezing temperatures that are common at nighttime in the southern Peruvian highlands.
Such link between the Inca state and chuño may be questioned as potatoes and other crops such as maize can be dried with only sunlight. Troll did argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this same region, it is worth considering the maximum extent of the Inca Empire coincided with the greatest distribution of llamas and alpacas in Pre-Hispanic America. The link between the Andean biomes of puna and páramo and the Inca state is a matter of research; as a third point Troll pointed out irrigation technology as advantageous to the Inca state-building. While Troll theorized environmental influences on the Inca Empire he opposed environmental determinism arguing that culture lay at the core of the Inca civilization; the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves; the center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu. The other
The Changos known as Camanchacos or Camanchangos, were an indigenous people who inhabited a long stretch of the Pacific coast from the Atacama desert to the Coquimbo Region in what is now southern Peru and northern Chile. The culture originated in the 8,000-year-old Chinchorro tradition. Due to a combination of conquest and integration into other cultures and ethnicities, the Chango culture is now considered extinct; the Changos were not ethnic group. The term "chango" was first documented in the 17th century by Spanish conquistadors who perceived little in the way of cultural difference between the local native communities. Therefore, "chango" describes a loose grouping of maritime peoples who shared a similar way of life rather than a common history or ethnicity. In general, Chango culture is considered more primitive than neighbouring cultures such as the Atacameños. Chango culture is part of the Chinchorro tradition; the Chinchorro were hunter-fisher-gatherers with a particular reliance on the sea, who lived along the Atacama coast from at least the 8th century BC.
They are of special interest to modern anthropologists due to their practice of mummifying the dead. Changos around Paposo appear by 1870 to have spoken a dialect of Mapudungun, the language of the Mapuche's of south-central Chile. Chango communities were organised into either nomadic or sedentary groups based on nuclear family units; each group was independent of the others. The Changos were experts at exploiting the resources of the sea; each group specialised in a particular type of fish, including tuna, conger eels, dart fish and octopus. Rafts used for fishing developed from primitive reed constructions to craft made from three wooden planks, to seal skins fastened to wooden frames. Fish were caught using nets and harpoons; the capture of seals was of crucial importance to the Chango way of life, with every part of the animal having its uses. The meat and bones were used for food and tools, the skins were used to make rafts and the intestines to make fishing equipment; as well as seal skins, the Changos used vicuña wool, bird skins and the bones and teeth of sea creatures as materials to make practical and decorative items such as clothing, tools and jewellery.
They made and painted ceramic utensils. Despite their geographical isolation, the Changos traded with inland tribes, exchanging shellfish, dried fish, animal hide, guano and shells for wool, fruit and coca. Chango cave paintings include images of men hunting and fishing and sea creatures such as seals and whales. Indigenous peoples in Chile Atacama desert Chinchorro culture
Salt pan (geology)
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals shining white under the sun. They are found in deserts, are natural formations. A salt pond; this happens in climates where the rate of water evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation, that is, in a desert. If the water cannot drain into the ground, it remains on the surface until it evaporates, leaving behind minerals precipitated from the salt ions dissolved in the water. Over thousands of years, the minerals accumulate on the surface; these minerals reflect the sun's rays and appear as white areas. Salt pans can be dangerous; the crust of salt can conceal a quagmire of mud. The Qattara Depression in the eastern Sahara Desert contains many such traps which served as strategic barriers during World War II; the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, where many land speed records have been set, are a well-known salt pan in the arid regions of the western United States. The Etosha pan, in the Etosha National Park in Namibia, is another prominent example of a salt pan.
The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is the largest salt pan in the world. It contains 50%-70% of the world's lithium reserves. Dry lake – A basin or depression that contained a standing surface water body Sabkha Salt evaporation pond Salt lake Sink – Depression within an endorheic basin where water collects with no visible outlet Solonchak Briere, Peter R.. "Playa, playa lake, sabkha: Proposed definitions for old terms". Journal of Arid Environments. Elsevier. 45: 1–7. Bibcode:2000JArEn..45....1B. Doi:10.1006/jare.2000.0633. Lowenstein, Tim K.. "Criteria for the recognition of salt-pan evaporites". Sedimentation. 32: 627–644. Bibcode:1985Sedim..32..627L. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1985.tb00478.x
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
The Tarapacá Region is one of Chile's 16 first-order administrative divisions. It borders the Chilean Arica and Parinacota Region to the north, Bolivia's Oruro Department on the east, the Antofagasta Region on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west; the port city of Iquique is the region's capital. Much of the region was once the Tarapacá Province of Peru, annexed by Chile under the 1883 Treaty of Ancón at the close of the War of the Pacific; the region was important economically as a site of intense saltpeter mining, before synthetic nitrate manufacturing became possible. A number of abandoned mining towns can still be found in the region; the present day Tarapacá Region was created in 2007 by subdividing the former Tarapacá Region under Law No. 20,175, signed by President Michelle Bachelet in Arica. The government of the region resides in the intendant, assigned by the president; each of the region's two provinces are further subdivided into communes. A desert climate dominates the region.
Near the coast, cloudiness can limit the temperature swing throughout the day, but in other drier areas, temperatures can vary as is typical in deserts. A marginal desert region can be found over 3,000 m above sea level, which sees milder temperatures and summer rains. Isluga River Cariquima Concosa Fishing Tourism Mining Cerro Colorado Collahuasi 2007 Tocopilla earthquake Coastal Cliff of northern Chile Pulpería Gobierno Regional de Tarapacá Official website
Coquimbo is a port city and capital of the Elqui Province, located on the Pan-American Highway, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. Coquimbo is situated in a valley 10 km south of La Serena, with which it forms Greater La Serena with more than 400,000 inhabitants; the commune spans an area around the harbor of 1,429.3 km2. The average temperature in the city lies around 14 °C, precipitation is low; the natural harbour in Coquimbo was taken over by Pedro de Valdivia from Spain in 1550. The gold and copper industry in the region led to the city's importance as a port around 1840 and many Europeans from England settled in Coquimbo. In 1879 it was recognised as a town. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Coquimbo had 163,036 inhabitants. Of these, 154,316 lived in 8,720 in rural areas; the population grew by 32.8 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Coquimbo is a fourth-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years.
The 2012-2016 alcalde is Cristian Galleguillos Vega. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Coquimbo is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Pedro Velásquez and Matías Walker as part of the 8th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Gonzalo Uriarte and Jorge Pizarro Soto as part of the 4th senatorial constituency. The city is shipping center, it is growing registering a 32.8% growth rate from 1992 to 2002. Tourism has started to develop, it is an access point for beach towns such as Guanaqueros and Tongoy. The port is still important for shipping fruit and copper from mines in the region. Wine is produced in the area; the city has a football team called Coquimbo Unido which plays in the Chilean Primera División B. Their home games are played at the Francisco Sánchez Rumoroso Municipal Stadium, which has a capacity of 17,750 seats, they are nicknamed "Los Piratas", because of the tradition of pirates that arrived to the coasts of Coquimbo. Their biggest rival is Club de Deportes La Serena.
Coquimbo is twinned with: Elbląg, Poland Asteroid 55737 Coquimbo Julio Alberto Mercado Illanes Municipality of Coquimbo Travel Coquimbo Photo of Coquimbo Arriendo a Turistas Arriendos en Coquimbo Official website
San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama is a Chilean town and commune in El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region. It is located east of Antofagasta, some 106 km southeast of Calama and the Chuquicamata copper mine, overlooking the Licancabur volcano, it features a significant archeological museum, the R. P. Gustavo Le Paige Archaeological Museum, with a large collection of relics and artifacts from the region. Native ruins nearby now attract increasing numbers of tourists interested in learning about pre-Columbian cultures. San Pedro de Atacama grew, over centuries, around an oasis in the Puna de Atacama, an arid high plateau, its first inhabitants were the Atacameños, who developed basketworks and ceramic pottery crafts that can be now be appreciated by tourists in the several souvenir shops as typical products of San Pedro de Atacama. It was part of Bolivia since independence until Chile claimed ownership during the War of the Pacific. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, San Pedro de Atacama had 4,969 inhabitants.
Of these, 1,938 lived in 3,031 in rural areas. The population grew by 75.6 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, San Pedro de Atacama is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Sandra Berna Martínez. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, San Pedro de Atacama is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Marcos Espinosa and Felipe Ward as part of the third electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Guillier Álvarez and Pedro Araya Guerrero as part of the second senatorial constituency. The town lies at an average of 7,000 feet, visitors experience mild altitude sickness such as dizziness and headaches; the local climate is dry and mild, with daytime temperatures between 25–30 degrees Celsius in the summer and 18–25 °C in the winter. Nighttime temperatures drop below 0 °C and can reach as low as −10 °C in the winter. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as cold desert for an isotherm of the mean yearly temperature of lower than 18 °C.
San Pedro lies on the main paved road from Argentina over 160 km from the town. The road is paved throughout. There are frequent bus services to Calama, several buses daily to Santiago and buses on 6 days a week to Salta across the Andes in Argentina. Nearby airports are San Pedro de Atacama Airport and Salar de Atacama Airport for private aircraft, the larger El Loa Airport/Calama 100 km away for scheduled aircraft. San Pedro de Atacama is a popular tourist destination. There are various activities for adventurers in the San Pedro de Atacama area: trekking, archaeological sightings, amateur astronomy, exploration tours in natural landscapes and sand boarding in the desert; because of its altitude, a brief period of acclimatization may be required. In the town are some cultural sites: R. P. Gustavo Le Paige Archaeological Museum, displaying ceramics and pottery crafts from the first inhabitants of the area. Church of San Pedro de Atacama a National Monument, built with adobe, a building material used in the colonial times.
Chaxas Lagoon, part of Los Flamencos National Reserve in the Salar de Atacama, inhabited by pink flamingos. El Tatio, a geyser field with over 80 active geysers. Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, a radio-telescope site, home of "ALMA", the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. Laguna Miscanti and Laguna Miñiques, two neighbouring altiplanic lagoons at the altitude of 4,200 m. Licancabur, a notable volcano near San Pedro de Atacama. Pukará de Quitor. A fortification built by the Atacameño people in the 12th century. Puritama Hot Springs Salar de Atacama, a giant salt area in the middle of the Atacama Desert. Valle de la Luna, a moon-like landscape with ruins of old Chilean salt mines, worker huts. Valle de la Muerte: a valley where gigantic dunes and rocks abound; the festivals includes typical dances, masses in the street and a little parade through the main street of San Pedro de Atacama. June 28 - Saint Peter June 29 - Saint Paul Atacama Desert Puna de Atacama Eduardo Abaroa List of towns in Chile Monturaqui crater Best things to do in San Pedro de AtacamaSan Pedro de Atacama Tours and ActivitiesSan Pedro de Atacama Tours and ActivitiesPictures and Wallpapers of Atacama Region Tourism: Tours in San Pedro de Atacama San Pedro de Atacama's Travel Assistance San Pedro de Atacama's Facebook Page San Pedro de Atacama's commune R. P. Gustavo Le Paige Archeological Museum San Pedro de Atacama Tourism Tradiciones de Atacama San Pedro de Atacama weather forecasts, compared