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1. Madrid – Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo. With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of CastileMadrid – From upper left: view of business districts of AZCA and CTBA, Gran Vía street and Metropolis Building, the Palace of Communication, view of Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral.
2. Francisco Goya – Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his career was a commentator. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns and he was also one of the great portraitists of modern times. He was born to a modest family in 1746 in the village of Fuendetodos in Aragon and he studied painting from age 14 under José Luzán y Martinez and moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773, the couples life together was characterised by an almost constant series of pregnancies and miscarriages, Goya was a guarded man and although letters and writings survive, little is known about his thoughts. He suffered a severe and undiagnosed illness in 1793 which left him completely deaf, after 1793 his work became progressively darker and more pessimistic. His later easel and mural paintings, prints and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal, social and political levels and he was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France. In 1799 Goya became Primer Pintor de Cámara, the then-highest rank for a Spanish court painter, in the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family, in 1807 Napoleon led the French army into Spain. Goya remained in Madrid during the Peninsular War, which seems to have affected him deeply. Although he did not vocalise his thoughts in public, they can be inferred from his Disasters of War series of prints and his 1814 paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808. Goya eventually abandoned Spain in 1824 to retire to the French city of Bordeaux, accompanied by his much younger maid and companion, Leocadia Weiss, there he completed his La Tauromaquia series and a number of other, major, canvases. Following a stroke left him paralyzed on his right side. His body was later re-interred in Spain, Francisco Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on 30 March 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador. The family had moved that year from the city of Zaragoza, José was the son of a notary and of Basque origin, his ancestors being from Zerain, earning his living as a gilder, specialising in religious and decorative craftwork. He oversaw the gilding and most of the ornamentation during the rebuilding of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, Francisco was their fourth child, following his sister Rita, brother Tomás and second sister Jacinta. There were two sons, Mariano and Camilo. His mothers family had pretensions of nobility and the house, a modest brick cottage, was owned by her family and, perhaps fancifully, about 1749 José and Gracia bought a home in Zaragoza and were able to return to live in the cityFrancisco Goya – Portrait of Francisco Goya by Vicente López y Portaña (1826). Oil on canvas, 93 × 75 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain
3. Cataloging – In library and information science, cataloging is the process of creating metadata representing information resources, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc. Cataloging provides information such as names, titles, and subject terms that describe resources. The records serve as surrogates for the stored information resources, since the 1970s these metadata are in machine-readable form and are indexed by information retrieval tools, such as bibliographic databases or search engines. While typically the process results in the production of library catalogs, it also produces other types of discovery tools for documents. A cataloger is a responsible for the processes of description, subject analysis, classification. Catalogers serve as the foundation of all service, as they are the ones who organize information in such a way as to make it easily accessible. Ronald Hagler identified six functions of bibliographic control, identifying the existence of all types of information resources as they are made available. The existence and identity of a resource must be known before it can be found. Identifying the works contained within those information resources or as parts of them, depending on the level of granularity required, multiple works may be contained in a single package, or one work may span multiple packages. For example, is a single photo considered an information resource, or can a collection of photos be considered an information resource. Systematically pulling together these resources into collections in libraries, archives, museums, and Internet communication files. Essentially, acquiring these items into collections so that they can be of use to the user, producing lists of these information resources prepared according to standard rules for citation. Examples of such aids include library catalogue, indexes, archival finding aids. Providing name, title, subject, and other access to these information resources. Ideally, there should be ways to find an item so there should be multiple access points. There must be enough metadata in the record so users can successfully find the information resource they are looking for. These access points should be consistent, which can be achieved through authority control, providing the means of locating each information resource or a copy of it. In libraries, the public access catalogue can give the user location informationCataloging – A handwritten subject card from the National Library of Medicine’s old card catalog recalls the precomputer days when information had to be created, classified, and sorted by hand. HMD Prints & Photos, PP059772.7.
4. Black paintings – The Black Paintings is the name given to a group of fourteen paintings by Francisco Goya from the later years of his life, likely between 1819 and 1823. They portray intense, haunting themes, reflective of both his fear of insanity and his outlook on humanity. In 1819, at the age of 72, Goya moved into a house outside Madrid that was called Quinta del Sordo. Although the house had been named after the owner, who was deaf. The paintings originally were painted as murals on the walls of the house, later being hacked off the walls, currently they are held in the Museo del Prado in Madrid. After the Napoleonic Wars and the turmoil of the changing Spanish government. He had a first-hand and acute awareness of panic, terror, fear and he had survived two near-fatal illnesses, and grew increasingly anxious and impatient in fear of relapse. The combination of factors is thought to have led to his production of the fourteen works known collectively as the Black Paintings. Using oil paints and working directly on the walls of his dining and sitting rooms, Goya created works with dark, the paintings were not commissioned and were not meant to leave his home. Goya did not give titles to the paintings, or if he did, most names used for them are designations employed by art historians. Initially, they were catalogued in 1828 by Goya’s friend, Antonio Brugada, the paintings were little known for half a century. Only certain art critics, such as Charles Yriarte, wrote about them, the slow process of transferring the murals onto canvas began in 1874. However, in 1881 the baron donated the paintings to the Spanish state, Goya acquired the villa on the banks of the River Manzanares, near the Segovia bridge and with views over the plains of San Isidro, in February 1819. It has been suggested that he bought the house to public attention, he lived there with Leocadia Weiss. It is thought that Goya had a relationship with her and possibly a daughter and it is not known exactly when Goya began painting the Black Paintings. It is possible that he started work on the murals between February and November 1819 when he fell ill as testified by the disturbing Self-portrait with Dr Arrieta. What is known is that the murals were painted over rural scenes containing small figures as Goya made use of the landscapes in some of his murals such as Fight with Cudgels. If the light-toned bucolic paintings are also the works of Goya, it may be that his illness, Bozal has suggested that those paintings also were painted by Goya as this is the only way to understand why he reused themBlack paintings – Saturn Devouring His Son (detail), possibly the most famous of the Black Paintings