Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Argentina–Chile relations refers to international relations between the Republic of Chile and the Argentine Republic. Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 km long and runs from north to the south along the Andes mountains. Although gaining their independence during the South American wars of liberation, during much of the 19th and the 20th century relations between the countries were chilled as a result of disputes over the border in Patagonia, although Chile and Argentina have never engaged in a war. In recent years relations have improved dramatically. Despite increased trade between the two countries and Chile have followed quite different economic policies. Chile has signed free trade agreements with countries such as China, the USA, South Korea and the EU and is an active member of the APEC, while Argentina belongs to the Mercosur regional free trade area. In April 2018, both countries suspended membership of the Union of South American Nations.
The relationship between the two countries can be traced back to an alliance during Spanish colonial times. Both colonies were offshoots of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata being broken off in 1776, Chile not being broken off until independence. Argentina and Chile were colonized by different processes. Chile was conquered as a southward extension of the original conquest of Peru, while Argentina was colonized from Peru and from the Atlantic. Argentina and Chile were close allies during the wars of independence from the Spanish Empire. Chile, like most of the revolting colonies, was defeated at a point by Spanish armies, while Argentina remained independent throughout its war of independence. After the Chilean defeat in the Disaster of Rancagua, the remnants of the Chilean Army led by Bernardo O'Higgins took refuge in Mendoza. Argentine General José de San Martín, by that time governor of the region, included the Chilean exiles in the Army of the Andes, in 1817 led the crossing of the Andes, defeated the Spaniards, confirmed the Chilean Independence.
While he was in Santiago, Chile a cabildo abierto offered San Martín the governorship of Chile, which he declined, in order to continue the liberating campaign in Peru. In 1817 Chile began the buildup of its Navy in order to carry the war to the Viceroyalty of Perú. Chile and Argentina signed a treaty, but Argentina, fallen in a Civil war, was unable to contribute. The naval fleet, after being built, launched a sea campaign to fight the Spanish fleet in the Pacific to liberate Peru. After a successful land and sea campaign, San Martín proclaimed the Independence of Peru in 1821. From 1836 to 1839, Chile and Argentina united in a war against the confederation of Peru and Bolivia; the underlying cause was the apprehension of Chile and Argentina against potential power of Peru-Bolivia block. This resulted from concern over the large territory of Peru-Bolivia as well as the perceived threat that such a rich state would represent to their southern neighbors. Chile declared the war on 11 November 1836 and Argentina on 19 May 1837.
In 1837 Felipe Braun, one of Santa Cruz's most capable generals and decorated veteran of the war of independence, defeated an Argentine army sent to topple Santa Cruz. On 12 November 1838 Argentine representatives signed an agreement with the Bolivian troops. However, on 20 January 1839 the Chilean force obtained a decisive victory against Peru-Bolivia at the Battle of Yungay and the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation came to an end. A series of coastal and high-seas naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile occurred between 1864 and 1866; these actions began with Spain's seizure of the guano-rich Chincha Islands, part of a strategy by Isabel II of Spain to reassert her country's lost influence in Spain's former South American empire. These actions prompted an alliance between Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile against Spain; as a result, all Pacific coast ports of South America situated south of Colombia were closed to the Spanish fleet. Argentina, refused to join the alliance and maintained amicable relations with Spain and delivered coal to the Spanish fleet.
On 6 February 1873, Peru and Bolivia signed a secret Treaty of alliance against Chile. On 24 September, Argentine president Domingo Faustino Sarmiento asked the Argentine Chamber of Deputies to join Argentina with the alliance; the Argentine chamber assented by a vote of 48-18. The treaty made available a credit of six million pesos for military expenditures. However, in 1874, after the delivery of the Chilean ironclad Almirante Cochrane and the ironclad Blanco Encalada, the Argentine Senate postponed the matter until late 1874, Sarmiento was prevented signing the treaty. Argentina remained neutral during the war. Border disputes continued between Chile and Argentina, as Patagonia was a unexplored area; the Border Treaty of 1881 established the line of highest mountains dividing the Atlantic and Pacific watersheds as the border between Argentina and Chile. This principle was applied in northern Andean border region; this led to further disputes over whether the Andean peaks would constitute the frontier or the drainage basins.
Argentina argued that previous documents referring to the boundary always mentioned the Snowy Cordillera as the frontier and not the continental divide. The Argentine explorer Francisco Perito Moreno suggested that many Patagonian lakes draining to the Pacific were in fact part of the Atlantic basin but had been moraine-dammed dur
Eduardo Oscar Camaño is an Argentine Justicialist Party politician. He was in charge of the executive branch in a caretaker capacity acting as president, for two days between December 31, 2001 and January 1, 2002. Camaño was Mayor of Quilmes Partido from 1987-1991; until 2007 he sat in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies for Buenos Aires Province. He served as majority leader of the lower house of the Argentine Congress from 2001, hence bringing him to the position of acting President, he became head of the executive branch because of the resignations of interim President Adolfo Rodríguez Saá and provisional Senate president Ramón Puerta. In recent years he sat in the Federal Peronist block allied to Eduardo Duhalde in opposition to President Néstor Kirchner. In 2007, Camaño stood again for deputy, this time heading a list of anti-Kirchner Peronists in support of the presidential bid of dissident Peronist Roberto Lavagna; the list did badly and he faced a recount for the final place in the Chamber for the Province with Ricardo Cuccovillo of the Civic Coalition.
Cuccovillo was sworn in as deputy and Camaño lost his seat. Camaño chaired the national council of the Justicialist Party, making him de facto party leader, alongside supporters of both Duhalde and Kirchner. In 2008, when Kirchner assumed the leadership of the Justicialist Party, Camaño was offered an executive position, the only ally of Lavagna to do so, in what had been seen as a chance to reconcile the different wings of Peronism
Isabel Martínez de Perón
María Estela Martínez Cartas de Perón, better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón or Isabel Perón, served as the 42nd President of Argentina from 1974 to 1976. She was the third wife of President Juan Perón. During her husband's third term as president from 1973 to 1974, Isabel served as both vice president and First Lady. Following her husband's death in office in 1974, Isabel served as president of Argentina from 1 July 1974 to 24 March 1976, when the military took over the government and placed her under house arrest for five years, before exiling her to Spain in 1981, she holds the distinction of having been the first woman to have had the title of "President", as opposed to a queen or prime minister. In 2007 an Argentine judge ordered her arrest over the forced disappearance of an activist in February 1976, on the grounds that the disappearance was authorized by her signing of decrees allowing Argentina's armed forces to take action against "subversives", she was arrested near her home in Spain on 12 January 2007.
Spanish courts subsequently refused her extradition to Argentina. María Estela Martínez Cartas was born in La Rioja, into a lower-middle-class family, daughter of María Josefa Cartas Olguín and Carmelo Martínez, she dropped out of school after the fifth grade. In the early 1950s she became a nightclub dancer, adopting the name Isabel, the saint's name that she had chosen as a confirmation name, she met her future husband during his exile in Panama. Juan Perón, 35 years her senior, was attracted by her beauty and believed she could provide him with the female companionship he had been lacking since the death of his second wife Eva Perón in 1952. Perón brought Isabel with him when he moved to Madrid, Spain, in 1960. Authorities in the conservative Roman Catholic nation did not approve of Perón's cohabitation with a young woman to whom he was not married, so on 15 November 1961 the former president reluctantly married for a third time; as Perón resumed an active role in Argentine politics from exile, Isabel acted as a go-between from Spain to South America.
Having been deposed in a coup in 1955, Perón was forbidden from returning to Argentina, so his new wife was appointed to travel in his stead. The CGT leader José Alonso became one of her main advisers in Perón's dispute against Steelworkers' leader Augusto Vandor's Popular Union faction during mid-term elections in 1965. Isabel met José López Rega, a former policeman with an interest in occultism and fortune-telling, during a visit to Argentina in 1964, she was interested in occult matters, so the two became friends. Under pressure from Isabel, Perón appointed López as her personal secretary. Dr. Héctor Cámpora was nominated by Perón's Justicialist Party to run in the March 1973 presidential elections on the FREJULI ticket. Cámpora won, but it was understood that Juan Perón held the real power; that year, Perón returned to Argentina, Cámpora resigned to allow Perón to run for president. He chose Isabel as his nominee for the Vice Presidency to mollify feuding Peronist factions, as these could agree on no other running mate.
His return from exile was marked by a growing rift between the right and left wings of the Peronist movement. The latter was, supported by the CGT labor federation leadership and Isabel herself, this faction became known by the left as the entorno due to the inner circle status Perón afforded them. Juan Perón cultivated their support while he was in exile, his sympathies ended, after the assassination of CGT leader José Ignacio Rucci by the leftist Montoneros in September. Perón's victory in a snap election called by Congress in September 1973 was always considered and he won with 62% of the vote, he began his third term on 12 October, with Isabel as Vice President. Perón was by in precarious health, however. Isabel had to take over as Acting President on several occasions during his tenure. Juan Perón suffered a series of heart attacks on 28 June 1974. Juan Perón died on 1 July 1974, less than a year after his third election to office; as vice-president his widow formally ascended to the presidency, thus becoming the first female in the world to hold the title of "President", although she was not the first female to lead a country.
She was popularly known as La Presidente. Although she lacked Evita Perón's charisma, the grieving widow at first attracted support from the nation, she pledged to uphold the social market economy policies embodied in the 1973 "Social Pact" as well her husband's long-held economic nationalism. Extremist groups, having fallen out with Juan Perón in previous months, publicly offered support to her; however she cancelled meetings with various constituent and political groups, the sympathy re
2015 Argentine general election
General elections were held in Argentina on 25 October 2015 to elect the President and National Congress, followed primary elections which were held on 9 August 2015. A second round of voting between the two leading candidates took place on 22 November, after close results forced a runoff. On the first runoff voting held for an Argentine Presidential Election, opposition leader and Buenos Aires Mayor Mauricio Macri narrowly defeated FPV candidate and Buenos Aires Province Governor Daniel Scioli. President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was re-elected in 2011; as the Constitution of Argentina does not allow more than two consecutive terms, several politicians from the Front for Victory speculated about a constitutional amendment to allow unlimited re-elections. This idea was resisted by the opposition parties, the FPV could not reach the required two-thirds majority in Congress; the mid-term elections in 2013 ended the FPV's hope for a constitutional amendment after they failed to win the necessary supermajority.
The election of the president was carried out using the ballotage system, a modified version of the two-round system in which a candidate would win if they received 45% of the vote, or if they received 40% of the vote and were 10 percentage points ahead of the second-place candidate. Voting is 70 years old. Suffrage was extended to 16- and 17-year-olds, though without compulsory voting. There are a total of 257 seats of the Chamber of Deputies. There are a total of 24 electoral districts; the number of seats are distributed in relation to the population of the province. In order to be in concordance with the "one-third female" law enforces that one-third of the overall seats in the Chamber of Deputies are female; the 130 seats of the Chamber of Deputies up for election were elected from 24 multi-member constituencies based on the 23 provinces and Buenos Aires. Seats were allocated using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of 3%; the 24 seats in the Senate up for election were elected in three-seat constituencies using the closed list system.
Each district is represented by three senatorial seats. Each party is allowed to register up to two candidates; the party receiving the most votes wins two seats, the second-placed party won one. The third senatorial seat was established in the Constitution of 1994 in order to better represent the largest minority in each district. Parties and coalitions provided their own ballot papers. However, voters were able to cut ballot papers up and place different sections from different parties inside the envelope if they wanted to vote for different candidates or lists for different posts. Being under a Federal system, it is possible for different provinces to use different systems. In Buenos Aires and Salta electronic voting machines were used to print out a single unified ballot, with voters able to select different candidates and parties on a touch screen. Other municipalities such as Bariloche opted for a non-electronic single unified ballot. Opposition candidates, including Sergio Massa, Mauricio Macri and Margarita Stolbizer called for the nationwide implementation of a unified ballot and/or electronic voting, though Massa in particular was more cautious, saying it was more realistic for such a system to be implemented by 2017.
The authority in charge of regulating elections rejected changing the system within 2015 since they claimed it would be too short term to implement the changes and explain to the public how the new system works. These candidates passed to the general election. Mauricio Macri, from the Republican Proposal, was the mayor of Buenos Aires city. Many smaller parties had created a coalition the previous year, the Broad Front UNEN. Elisa Carrió of the Civic Coalition left it to join Macri. An internal congress of the Radical Civic Union decided to do so as well, proposing Ernesto Sanz as their precandidate. UNEN was thus disbanded, the three candidates ran for the coalition Cambiemos. Margarita Stolbizer refused to join the coalition with Macri, ran in a separate party instead; the FPV had several pre-candidates to the presidency, but only Daniel Scioli and Florencio Randazzo had a good reception in the opinion polls. Scioli was resisted by factions of the party that did not consider him loyal to Kirchner.
All the minor candidates resigned. Randazzo resigned as well some weeks before the primary elections, leaving Scioli as the sole precandidate of the FPV. Randazzo did not accept to run for governor of the Buenos Aires province, which had primary elections between minister Aníbal Fernández and Julián Domínguez. Fernández won the local primary elections. In alphabetical order These candidates didn't receive at least of the 1.5% of valid votes to pass to the general election. With Kirchner unable to run, three candidates led the opinion polls. Several controversies took place during the time of the elections, or related to the elections themselves; the primary elections and some local elections had scandals of Electoral fraud. There was a frequent theft of ballot papers from the polling places. State-owned Correo Argentino collects the results of each school and sends them to a centralized location for their global count. Tucumán had a case of people burning ballot boxes, which l
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, to the west with the republic of Chile, its capital city is the homonymous city of Mendoza. Covering an area of 148.827 km², it is the seventh biggest province of Argentina with 5.35% of the country's total area. The population for 2010 is 1,741,610 inhabitants, which makes it the fourth most populated province of the country, or 4.35% of the total national population. Archeological studies have determined that the first inhabitants in the area date from the Holocene, but there are few remains of those people to know their habits; the earliest sites of human occupation in Mendoza Province, Agua de la Cueva and Gruta del Indio, are 12-13,000 years old. In the basins of the Atuel River, in 300 BC lived a group of people that lived via hunting and the cultivation of maize and beans.
Those valleys saw the rise of ancestor of the Huarpes. They were influenced by the Inca empire during the 15th century. Oral tradition sets the arrival of the Inca Túpac Yupanqui to Coquimbo in 1470. Puelches and other groups received a strong influence of the Mapuches; the first Spanish conquerors came around 1550 from the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1561 Mendoza was founded by the conquistador Pedro del Castillo; until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, the area of what is now Mendoza Province belonged to the Captaincy General of Chile. With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, its 30,000 inhabitants became part of the intendency of Cuyo de Córdoba del Tucumán, but in 1813 the intendency was separated and the Province of Cuyo created, with José de San Martín as its first Governor, he received important support from Mendoza when he led his Army of the Andes from Plumerillo to the 1817 crossing of the Andes, in his campaign to end Spanish rule in Chile.
The Province of Cuyo was divided in 1820, Mendoza parted ways with San Luis and San Juan Provinces. The 1861 earthquake nearly destroyed the city of Mendoza, which had to be entirely reconstructed. In 1885 railways were built to the province, allowing for easy transport of the region's wines to the country's trade hub of Buenos Aires. Following the development of the wine industry in the province around 1900, Mendoza began to grow attracting tens of thousands of European immigrants Spaniards. In 1939 the National University of Cuyo, one of the more important universities of the country, was founded in the province. In reaction to President Juan Perón's populist policies, some of which taxed agriculture to finance urban development and public works, Mendoza landowners formed the conservative Democratic Party, which secured the Vice Governor's post in 1958. Increasing their presence in the Mendoza Legislature, the Democrats became an obstacle to progressive Governor Ernesto Ueltschi, an ally of president Arturo Frondizi's.
With majorities in both houses by 1961, they had Gov. Ueltschi removed and Democrat Vice-governor Francisco Gabrielli appointed in his stead. Elected governor in his own right in 1963, Gov. Gabrielli was deposed following the June 1966 coup against President Arturo Illia. In contrast to the pragmatism that had distinguished his 1963–66 term, Gabrielli governed with a hard line, freezing state salaries and ordering large utility rate increases, used the Mendoza police to repress dissent and took foreign policy prerogatives like collaborating with Chilean saboteurs opposed to their country's new Marxist president, Salvador Allende; these events came to a head in April, 1972, when violent protests forced the newly unpopular Gabrielli to resign. Upon the return to democracy in March 1973, Mendoza voters turned to a left-leaning Peronist, Alberto Martínez Baca. Enacting needed labor and land reforms, Martínez Baca, made the mistake of appointing affiliates of the extreme-left Montoneros movement, an organization whose armed wing had perpetrated a string of violent crimes since 1970.
Alarmed by this move from the otherwise pragmatic Martínez Baca, President Perón had him removed in June 1974. Becoming more politically independent-minded following these two disappointments, Mendoza voters elected centrist Radical Civic Union as well as populist Justicialist Party lawmakers since Argentina's return to democracy in 1983. Though Mendoza has prospered since its critical wine industry was left reeling from the 1983 collapse of state-owned vintner Bodegas GIOL, whose dictatorship-era receivers had run the wine conglomerate, accumulated over US$6 billion of debt. Elected in 2003, Radical Civic Union Governor Julio Cobos highlighted this independent sentiment by parting ways with many in his party and endorsing newly elected Peronist President Néstor Kirchner's policies in 2004. Over the opposition of his party, Julio Cobos accepted the post of running mate to first lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the ruling Front for Victory, in the presidential elections of October 2007.
Fernández and Cobos won in the first round, Cobos became Vice President of Argentina. The province is represented by three senators in the Argentine Senate María Perceval, Ernesto Sanz and Mónica Troadello. Mendoza is represented by 10 deputies in the Argentine